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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 

Case Shelf 

1_. M. R. 



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i THE 

Electric Railway 

Journal 




January to June, 1913 



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McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
239 West 39th Street 
New York 




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f 



INDEX TO VOLUME XLI 



PAGES BY WEEKS. 



Jan. 4 pages i to 54 

Jan. 11 " 55 to 94 

Jan. 18 " 95 to 138 

Jan. 25 " 139 to 178 

Feb. 1 " 179 to 238 

Feb. 8 " 239 to 278 

Feb. 15 " 279 to 316 

Feb. 22 " 317 to 352 

Mar. 1 '■ 353 to 404 

Mar. 8 " 405 to 448 

Mar. 15 " 449 to 530 

Mar. 22 " 53i to 570 

Mar. 29 " 571 to 612 

April 5 " 613 to 664 

April 12 " 665 to 704 

April 19 " 705 to 746 

April 26 " 747 to 786 

May 3. " 787 to 836 

May 10 " 837 to 876 

May 17 " 877 to 918 

May 24 " 919 to 954 

May 31 " 955 to 992 

June 7 " 993 to 1046 

June 14 '■ 1047 to 1098 

June 21 " 1099 to 1132 

June 28 " 1 133 to 1 188 



A 

Aberdeen Corporation Tramways, Double-deck 

prepayment cars, *385 
Acceleration of trains, Berlin, Germany, 707 
Accident claim department: 

Forestalling suits by photographs, 919 

Graphical record of car accidents, Portland 

Railway, Light & Power Co., 885 
— ■ — Prevention of accidents: 

Atlanta, Ga., 397 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 273, 
740 

Baltimore, Safety talks to children, 

871 

Boston Elevated Ry., Campaign 
[Dana], *58 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Campaign 
in schools, 442, 564 

Chicago Rys., Moving-picture him 
used, 898 

East Liverpool, Ohio, 526 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion Co., 432, 588 

Importance of safetv [Shonts], 985 

Toliet, 111., 948 

Michigan United Traction Co., 398 
Middle West Utilities to,, Bureau of 

safety, 368, 419, 665 
New York school campaign, 526 
Oklahoma Ry. [Knox], 885 
Pennsylvania R. K., Book of instruc- 
tions, 1C47 
Philadelphia, 1091 

Principal measures taken by railway 

companies [Knox], 884 
Rockford, 111., 739 

Seattle, Wash., Safety work in, 216 

Successful methods [Rippey], 760; Dis- 
cussion, 812 

Toledo Railways & Light Co., 658 

York, Pa„ 740 

Publicity in, 56 

Accidents : 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R., 88 

253 

Comparison of elevated roads in New York 

City with steam roads of the coun- 
try, 183 

Human fallibility in railway operation, 182 

Interstate electric railways, Statistics, 47, 

1180 

Lockport, N. Y., International Ry., 698 

New York City, 48, 172 

New York Elevated Ry., Comment, 182 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R., 

Stamford wreck, 1099 

San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga Ry., * 1 1 62 

Shop accidents, 139 

Steam railway, Analvsis of causes, 1908- 

1913, 551 
Accountants' Association: 
Committees : 

Collecting and accounting for variable 
rates of fare. Meeting, 200 



JANUARY TO JUNE, 1913 



Accountants' Association: 
Committees: (Continued) 

Education, Meeting, 200 

Engineering accounting, Meeting, 200 

Executive, Meeting, 204 

Express and freight accounting, Meet- 
ing, 201 

Interline accounting, Meeting, 200 
Life of railway physical property, 

Meeting, 200 
Statistical unit for car operation, 

Meeting, 201 

Accounting : 

Bond coupons, Handling of [Kebl], 1015; 

Discussion, 1059 

Costs of electric railway operation 

[Sparks], 1061 

— —Depreciation [Birch], 1015; Discussion, 
1015; [Rifenberick] 1163 

Freight bill handling [Scott], 1015; Dis- 
cussion, 1059 

Lighting accounts, Report of National 

Electric Light Association committee, 
1058 

Power station accounts [Ayers], 803; 

[Wilson], c859 

Prepaid and accrued accounts [Heydeckc], 

1015; Discussion, 1059 

Questions and answers under uniform sys- 
tem of accounts, 907, 1036 

Small and medium-sized public utilities 

[Gordon], 964 

Standard classification, Questions and 

answers, 907, 1036 

Tabulating shop accounts by machinery, 

*853 

Voucher indexing simplified [Ford], 1167 

Work order system, Milwaukee Electric 

Railway & Light Co. [Kalweit], 113 
Accounting school for employees. New York 

Edison Co. [Holme], 1015, 1059 
Accumulator cars. (See Storage battery cars) 
Advertising : 

Courtesy card for street cars, Federal 

Light S: Traction Co., *596 

Hand-strap with advertising feature [New- 
ton], *259 

London Underground Rys., * 105 

Agriculture, Electricity in. (See Rural com- 
munities) 

Air brakes. (See Brakes, Air) 

Akron, Ohio, Northern Ohio Traction & Light 
Co.: 

Annual report, 269 

Express car for automobile shipments, *721 

Extensions, 223, 823, 1117 

Franchise extension, 518 

— ■ — Franchise suit, 691 

Improvements, 1117 

Tower wagon, "1080 

Wage increase, 698, 871 

Albany, N. V., United Traction Co., Power 
distribution problems [Childs], 421 

Alexandria Bay, N. Y., St. Lawrence Interna- 
tional Electric R. R. & Land Co., 
Winter service suspended, 8S 

Alexandria (La.) Electric Ry., Acquisition, 439 

Allentown, Pa., Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Earnings for 1911 and 1912, 343 

Improvements, 398 

- — — Purchase of stock of Easton Consolidated 

Electric Co., 696, 73S 
Wage increase, 273 

Altoona, Pa., Penn Central Light & Power Co., 
Bond sale, 345 

Amalgamated Association of Street and Elec- 
tric Railway Employees, Annual re- 
port, 279 

American Cities Co. (See New York) 
American Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation. (See Accountants' Association) 
American Electric Railway Association: 

Activities increased. Larger number of 

committees, 665 

Committees : 

Company membership, Meeting, 200 
Company sections, Meeting, 201 
Determining the proper basis of rates 
and fares, Report, 184; Discus- 
sion [Stearns], 189; [Clark], 192 
Education, Meeting, 199 
Electrolysis, Meeting, 198 
Executive, Meetings, 201, 892 
Federal relations. Meeting, 201 
Insurance, Meeting, 201 
Joint use of poles, Meeting, 200 
Mail transportation, Report, 380 
Public policy, Meeting with National 
Electric Light Association, 325; 
Comment, 317 
Public relations, Meeting, 201 
Relations with sectional associations, 

Meeting, 198 
Subjects, Meeting, 858 
Uniform definitions, Meeting, 201 
Welfare of employees, Meeting, 201 



American Electric Railway Association: (Con- 
tinued ) 

Convention of 1913: 

Applications for space, 1018 
Atlantic City selected, 787 
Location committee at Washington, 496 
Program, 1077 

Convention of 1915: 

Location committee at San Francisco, 
582 

Request for reservations, 384 
— — Membership campaign and results, 353, 
1047 

Membership in territorial associations, 616 

Midyear meeting: 

Banquet at Hotel Astor, 116, 206 
Notes, 95, 116, 179, 180 
Proceedings, 184 

Railroad Securities Commission, Report, 

Discussions [Warren], 185; [Crosby], 
[Brady], [Henry],' 187; iRicheyJ, 
189; IStraussj, 190 

American Electric Railway Claim Agents' As- 
sociation, (bee Claims Association) 

American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation : 

Committees : 

Block signal, Meetings, 204, 550, 1111 
Buildings and structures, Meeting, 197 
Electrolysis, Meeting, 198 
Equipment, Meetings, 258, 1076 
Heavy electric traction, Meeting, 203 
Interurban train operation, Meeting, 
199 

Life of railway physical property, 

Meeting, 200 
Power distribution, Meeting, 1060 
Power generation, Meeting, 202 
Standards, Meeting, 203 
Train operation tor city service, Meet- 
ing, 197 
Way matters, Meeting, 203 
American Electric Railway Manufacturers' As- 
sociation : 

Committee, Executive, Meetings, 205, 802 

American Electric Railway transportation & 
Traffic Association: 

Committees : 

Block signal, Meetings, 204, 550, 1111 
Collecting and accounting for variable 

rates of fare, Meeting, 200 
Construction of schedules and time- 
tables, Meeting, 199 
Executive, Meeting, 203 
Express and freight accounting, Meet- 
ing, 201 

Express and freight traffic, Meetings, 
204, 892 

Fares and transfers, Meeting, 199 
Interurban train operation, Meeting, 

199 

Passenger traffic, Meetings, 197, 892 
Rules for citv and interurban lines, 

Meetings, 198, 858 
Schedules and timetables, Meeting, 975 
Statistical unit for car operation, 

Meeting, 201 
Train operation for city service, Meet- 
ing, 197 

Training of employees, Meeting, 200 
United States mail, Meeting, 199 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Annual meeting, Papers, 932 

Midwinter convention, 431 

American Railway Association, Committee on 
electrical working, Report, *935 

American Railway Engineering Association: 

Annual convention: 

Exhibits, 553 
Proceedings, 547 
Reports of committees, 

Committee on electricity, 933 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation : 

Convention proceedings, 1065 

—Exhibit, 1065 

American Rys. (See Philadelphia) 
American Water Works & Guarantee Co. (See 
Pittsburgh) 

American Wood Preservers' Association, An- 
nual convention, 150, 220; Comment, 

182 

Anderson, Ind.. Indiana Union Traction Co.; 

Annual report, 522 

Block signals, 496, 843 

Rail inspection at mill, Plan for, 253 

— —Repair shop notes, 510 

Appraisal of railway property. 

Cleveland Ry., Arbitration with city: 

Members of Board, 863, 901 
Proceedings before Board, 925, 971, 
1070, 1112, 1159; Comment, 957, 
1134 

Depreciation [Rifenberick], 1163 

Detroit United Ry., City lines, *897 

Going value. Proper recognition of, 533 

-Interstate Commerce Commission, Work 

of, 391, 449; [Clark], 558; 667, 936, 

955, 977 

Kansas Citv, Metropolitan Street Ry., Re- 
port [Arnold], 389, 716 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



IV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLI. 



Appraisal of railway property: (Continued) 

Minnesota rate case, 1064; Comment, 1049, 

1101 

New Jersey, Public Service Gas Co., Pas- 
saic district, 35; Comment, 55 

Physical and intangible valuation as cov- 
ered by recent legislation [Rifenber- 
ickj, 1163 

St. Louis, Mo. Report of Public Service 

Commission [Allisonj, 248: Comment, 
239 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry., 304 

Toronto, Unified management recommend- 
ed. Estimates of future traffic. Sub- 
way and motor buses considered 
[Arnoldl, 968 

Value of valuation, 667 

Westchester Street R. R., 381 

Apprentices, Education, Plans for. 179. 199 
Arbitration. (See Employees; Cleveland Ry.) 
Arcbbald, Robert W., Impeachment case, 165 
Ardmore (Okla.) Traction Co., Sale, 695 
Arkansas Association of Public Utility Opera- 
tors, Convention papers, 888 
Arkansas Valley Railway, Light & Power' Co. 

(See Pueblo, Col.) 
Asheville, N. C, Strikes, 863, 1084 
Asphalt cars. (See Work cars) 
Associated Manufacturers of Tramway and 

Railway Material, England, 651 
Association efficiency. Higher, 1134 
Atchison (Kan.) Railway, Light & Power Co., 
Experience with one-man prepayment 
cars, 578 
Athol, Mass.: 

■ Athol & Orange Street Ry. : 

Change of name, 869 

Consolidation, 270 

Northern Massachusetts Street Ry., 869 

Atlanta, Ga., Georgia Railway & Power Co.: 

Accident prevention campaign, 397 

Annual report, 654 

Wage increase, 48 

Auburn, N. Y., New York, Auburn & Lansing 

R. R., Reorganization, 696 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. K. (See Chicago) 
Australia : 

Melbourne electrification : 

Approved by the government, 71 
Contract awarded to General Electric 
Co., 255 

Queensland Government Rys., Narrow-gage 

gasoline cars, * 1 58 

Austria: 

Electric railway statistics, 414 

Heavy electric traction conditions, 33; 

Comment, 9 
Automatic stop an J train speed control [Home 

& Crane], 1115 
Automobiles. (See Commercial vehicles; Motor 

buses) 



B 



Baggage: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., Checking 

plans, 697 

Regulations restricting dimensions, Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 564 

Baggage cars. (See Cars, Baggage and ex- 
press) 

Baked enamel. (See Paints and painting) 
Ballast, Depth, Test for determination of 

proper, 545 
Baltimore : 

United Railways & Electric Co.: 

Annual report, 776 

Carhouses. Distinctive stvle. 970 

Fare rates, Low, versus efficiency of 

service, 779 
Maintenance notes, *293 
Paying suit decision, 692 
Safety talks to children. 871 
Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec- 
tric Ry.: 

Acquires stock of Annapolis Gas & 

Electric Co.. 345 
Annual report, 828 

Decision of Interstate Commerce 
Commission, 697 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R., Electrification prog- 
ress, 1006 

Bangor (Me.) Railway & Electric Co., Fran- 
chise renewal, 771 
Beaumont (Tex.) Traction Co.: 

Merger, 983, 1 178 

Strike, 1033 

Belvidere (111.) City Ry., Experience with 

one-man prepayment cars, 581 
Benefit plans. (See Employees) 
Berlin, Germany: 

Electrification of the Stadtbahn, 965 

Locomotive and motor car accelerations. 

707 

Rapid transit line proposed between 

Gesundbrunnen and Rixdorf, 887 

Bernese Alps Ry., Opening. 1112 

Binghamton (N. Y.) Ry., Insurance and wage 
increase for employees, 272 

Birmingham, Ala.: 

Birmingham, Ensley & Bessemer Ry. : 

Car for white and colored passengers, 
*766 

Financial .conditions, 908 



Birmingham, Ala.: (Continued) 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Concrete paving between car tracks, 
*514 

Owl service unprofitable, 606 

■ Strikes, 1174 

Bitumen cars. (See Work cars) 
Blanks and forms. (See Record forms) 
Block Signal and Train Control Board, Re- 
port to Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, 303 

Block signals. (See Signals, American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association, 
Committee on block signals) 

Boiler-feed water, Scale troubles [Scott], 963 

Boiler plant of Washington & Old Dominion 
Ry. [Smith], 537. 

Boise, Idaho, Idaho-Oregon Power & Light Co., 
Refinancing, 946 

Bolt, Split, for inaccessible places (Kling), 
*300 

Bonner Springs, Kan., Kansas City & Bon- 
ner Springs Street Ry., Extensions, 
604 

Boone, la., Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & South- 
ern R. R. : 

Cross pit truck transfer table, *61 

Locomotives with insulated roof, *512 

Oiling record, 40 

Boston, Mass.: 

Boston & Albany R. R., Electrification 

problem, 390 
Boston & Eastern Electric R. R., Charter 

granted, 264 
Boston Elevated Ry. : 

Accident prevention campaign [Dana], 
58 

Articulated car, Improved design. 
Data on operation, *583; Com- 
ment, 613 

Car delavs. Causes and remedies, 763 

"Car full" signs, 443 

East Boston tunnel toll reduction, 346 

East Cambridge viaduct, track and 
drawbridge, *362 

Executive organization. Changes in, 
43; Comment. 240 

Express service, 870 

Extensions of ranid transit routes 
and benefits of, 358 

Hand-strap with advertising feature 
(Newton). *259 

Improvements. *358, *408; Com- 
ment, 357 

Mail transportation costs, 292 

Nine-hour day, 49 

Service improvements, 607 

Service recommendations for Cam- 
bridge, 740 

Situation discussed by Mavor Fitz- 
gerald, 770: Comment, 878 

Subway referendum. *856 

Sullivan Souare terminal and sta- 
tion. *361 

Traffic diversion in Back Bay, 606 

Traffic statistics [Sergeant], 287 

Wage increase, 49 

Work-car locomotive, *295 
Boston Transit Commission, Annual re- 
port. 72. 287 
Bovlston Street subway extension. Report, 

901 

Terminal electrification, Bill reported to 

Legislature, 264, 941 
Bowling Green (Ky. ) Ry., Receivership, 440 
Brackets : 

— Cable (Barnes & Hobert), *976 

Fire extinguisher (Pyrene), *938 

•3rake hanger, Light weight, Rochester, N. Y., 

*752 

3rake nVging pins. Syracuse, Lake Shore & 

Northern Rv., *593 
Brake-shoe costs, Brooklyn, Graphical record, 
102 

Brakes, Air: 

Failures as excuses, Stamford wreck of 

New Haven Road, 1099 

Freight car equipment, 1113 

Wose specifications, M. C. B., 1113 

Massachusetts Railroad Commission hear- 
ings, 819 

San Francisco. Report on equipment 

r Arnold), 257 
Standard triple valves recommended by 

Master Car Builders' Association, 

1113 

Swinging brackets for train pipe, 1113 

Brazil, Railway enterprises in, 118 
Bridges: 

East Cambridge extension, *362 

Inspection of. 706 

Oregon Electric Rv.. * 1 52 

Brill Co., J. G., Annual report, 307 
British Columbia Electric Ry. (See Van- 
couver, B. C.) 
Brooklyn : 

Marginal railway plans, 1118 

Subway construction, 1175 

Brooklvn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Brake order, 1119. 

Capital stock increase, 85 

Center-entrance, low-step cars, Construc- 
tion and equipment, *708; Comment, 
707 

Educating the office employee, 355 

Improvements in motors, trucks and 

brakeshoes, *98 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: (Continued) 
Maintenance of electrical equipment of 

cars, *480; Comment. 450 
Purchase of Coney Island & Brooklyn 

R. R. proposed, 656 
Safety campaign in public schools, 442, 

564 

Sound to ocean line. Vote on, 163 

Transfers, Hearing on, 1181 

Wage increase, 1040 

Bucks County Interurban Ry. (See Philadel- 
phia). 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

■ Buffalo & Fort Erie Ferry Ry., Stock 

increase, 1118 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., Agree- 
ment with employees, 979 

International Ry.: 

Accident near Lockport, N. Y. , 698 
Commutation ticket, What it implies, 
397 

Interlocking plant, 226 

One-man near-side cars, Experience 
with, *504, *580 

Rolling stock maintenance. Com- 
plete system of records, *922 

Snow scraper for limited clearance 
space, 1171 

Strike. 665. *674. 730, 771, 825, 941, 
978. 994, 1030 

Strike damages claimed. 994, 1030 

Substations, Design and construction 
of new. Arrangement of equip- 
ment, *840 

International Traction Co., Financial re- 
organization, 46. 84 

Terminal electrification, 225, 864 

Through cars to Rochester, 948 

Buildings. Decorative treatment of. 96 
Bureau of safety. (See Chicago, Middle West 

Utilities Co.) 
Butte, Anaconda & Pacific R. R. : 

Electrification progress. 1010 

Locomotives, Electric, 20. * 1 10 

c 

Cab, Motorman's, Brooklvn center-entrance 
car, *713 

Cab window cleaner. Brooklyn center-entrance 
_ car, *712 

Cable line of Puget Sound Traction, Light & 
Power Co.. Improvements, * 1 108 

Cables : 

Aluminum underground, in Europe, 924, 

Aluminum vs. co"per, 1115 

Current rating of electric. Discussion by 

American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers. 431 

High-tension underground. Report of 

National Electric Light Association, 
1013 

California Railroad Commission : 
Clearance rules, 103 

Hearing on T'nited Railroads, application 

to refund issues of subsidiaries, 45, 

344 

Order effecting, evidences of indebtedness, 

1037 

Policy in regard to rates, 740 

Reports of joint committee on inductive 

disturbances. 512, 531 
California Railwav S: Power Co. (See San 

Franc'sco) 

Callinsr the streets. Portland, Ore., 1125 
Cambridge, Ohio, New Midland Power & Trac- 
tion Co.. Sa'e, 231 
Canadian electric railwavs, Statistics, 224 
Canadian Northern Pacific Rv.. Electrification 

of branch lines, 733, 825 
Cape Girardeau-Tackson (Mo.) Interurban Ry., 
Experience with one-man prepayment 
cars. 579 

Capital Traction Co. (See Washington, D. C.) 
Car delays, Boston Elevated Ry., Causes and 

remedies, 763 
Car design: 

[Birney], 964: Discussion. 1019 

Center-entrance car. Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit. *709 
Center-entrance interurban car, Kansas 

Citv, Clav Countv & St. Toseph Ry., 

*121 

r enter-sill. steel. 1113 

Changes to effect economy, 407 

Doorwavs of prenavment cars, 139 

[Doyle, Gove and McWhirter], 1148 

Progress during 1912, 4 

San Francisco, Report [Arnold!. 256 

Steps. Height of. New York City, 414; 

Comment, 405 
Car replacer (Columbia). *596 
Car steps, Height of: 

Discussion in Report of Chicago Board 

of Supervising Engineers, 893 

New Jersey hearing, 780 

New York, Opinion and order of Public 

Service Commission, 414; Comment, 
405 

(See also Tread) 

Car straps. (See Straps) 
Car trust certificates: 

Philadelphia Equipment Securities Co., 

229. 293 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 266, 389, 

435 

Car weights, Reduction, to increase efficiency, 
407 



January — June, 1913.] 



INDEX. 



V 



Carhouses : 

Baltimore, Distinctive style, 970 

Car-washing facilities, Milwaukee Electric 

Railway & Light Co., *499 
Costs, Virginia Railway & Power Co. 

[Neff and Thompson], 495 
Derby, Conn., *320 

Design, Scientific [Neff and Thompson], 

*490 

Hamburg Elevated & Underground Ry., 

*468 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Eight Co., 

Fond du Lac Avenue, *497 

Omaha, Neb., Double-deck reinforced con- 
crete, *242 

■ Philadelphia Rapid Transit . Co., at Lu- 
zerne street, Reinforced concrete, 
* 1 136; Comment, 1133 

Tit construction: 

Hamburg Elevated & Underground 
Ry.. *469 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Co., *499 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., *1139 

Pit lighting, El Paso, Texas, *426 

Trainmen's quarters. (See Employees) 

Virginia Railway & P'ower Co. [Neff and 

Thompson], *490 

(See also Yards) 

Cars: 

Accumulator. (See Storage battery cars) 

Articulated, Boston Elevated Ry. Im- 
proved design. Stepless. Data on 
operation, *583; Comment, 613 

Baggage and express for automobiles, 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 
*721 

California type, San Francisco, *896 

Center-entrance: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit, *708; Com- 
ment, 707 
South Fork-Portage Ry., *768 

Center entrance, Interurban. Kansas 

City, Clay County & St. Toseph Ry., 
*120 

Double-deck : 

Aberdeen Corporation Tramways. 

*385, *722 
Liverpool, Eng., *591 
Pittsburgh Rys., *958; Comment, 996 
Washington Railway & Electric Co.. 
*430; Comment. 405 

Emergency. (See Work cars; Tower 

cars) 

Fire engine, Chicago elevated railways, 

757 

■ Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 

«386 

Narow-gage combination, Pacific Coast 

Ry., *899 

Oil delivery, Chicago Rys., *548 

One-man prepayment: 

International Ry.. Buffalo. 504 
Letters from railway officials describ- 
ing results of use. 578; Comment. 
572 

Pay-within, Michigan United Traction Co., 

*122 

Rochester, New York State Rys.. *644 

Sleeping, Oregon Electric Ry., * 1 1 9 

Storage battery. (See Storage battery 

cars) 
Trail: 

Center-entrance, Memphis, Tenn., 
♦299 

Operation, in connection with peak 
load city service [Radcliffe], 422 
Two compartment, for white and colored 

passengers, Birmingham, Ala., *766 

Washington & Old Dominion Ry., *539 

Cars ordered in 1912, 11; Comment, 1, 57 
Catenary construction : 

Leyden-Katwvk-Noordwyk Rv., Holland, 

*142 

Midi Ry., France. *793 _ 

Oregon Electric Ry., 1055 

Pacific Electric Rv., * 7 5 5 

Verona-Caldiero Ry.. Italy, *1001 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa: 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Ry.: 

Selection and instruction of train- 
men [Bell], 815; Discussion, 812 
Vestibule trains on sharp curves, 623 

Cedar Rapids & Marion City Ry., Safety 

tread for car steps. *548 

Census of electric railways. Schedules for 
1912, 384 [Steuart], c818 

Central Arkansas Railway & Light Corporation. 
(See Hot Springs, Ark.) 

Central Electric Railway Accountants' Associa- 
tion, Questions and answers [Elkins, 
Young and Pantel], 1169 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

Annual meeting. Papers, reports and dis- 
cussions. 370 

Committees for 1913, 594 

lune convention on the Great Lakes, 993 

Papers at June convention, 1163 

President's address [Whitney], 377 

Secretary-Treasurer's annual report [Nee- 
reamer], 377 

Central Electric Traffic Association: 

Annual report of the chairman [Nee- 
reamer], 37 

Committees for 1913, 594 

Centra] Park, North & East River R. R. (See 
New York City) 



Central Electric Traffic Association (Continued) 
Champaign, III., Western Railways & Light 

Co., Annual report, 906 
Charleston (S. C.) Consolidated Railway & 
Lighting Co., Sale of Seashore Divi- 
sion, 395, 695 

Chicago : 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.: 

Accident prevention campaign, 273, 
740 

Baggage checking, 697 

Board of Supervising Engineers, Report: 

Financial statistics, welding of rail 

joints, location of carhouses and 

fire insurance, 809 
Height of car steps, schedule speed, 

time of loading, street occupation 

and motor testing, 893 

Chicago City Ry.: 

Arbitration with employees, 615, 732, 

749 

Income account for 1912, 655 
Venner suit, Decision, 908 

Chicago City & Connecting Rys., Income 

account, 308 

Chicago Information Bureau, 163 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Ry. (See Toliet, 

in.) 

— — Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. 
(See Michigan City. Ind.) 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Rv., Sale 

and resale, 83, 130, 1088 

Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Ry. : 

Contract for electric power, 290; Com- 
ment, 280 
Electrification of mountain division, 

57, 70, 225, 280, 290. 919, 1009 
Gas-electric motor cars, *295 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R., Ac- 
cident in loop, 88, 253 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. (See Ot- 
tawa. 111.) 

Chicago Rys. : 

Accident campaign. Use of moving- 
picture film. 898 
Annual report. 775, 829 
Answer to Chicago Railways Pro- 
tective Association, 1088 
Oil house and oil delivery car, *548 
Safety committee organized, 892 
Transfer suit. 398 

Chicago Railways Protective Association, 

Ouestions of. answered by the Chica- 
go Rys., 1088 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indi- 
ana Ry. (See South Bend, Ind.) 

County Traction Co., Transfer suit, 398 

Electrolysis ordinance, 771 

Elevated lines attacked by State's Attor- 
ney Hoyne, 1122 

Elevated relief plan, 1173 

Fire-engine cars on elevated railways, *757 

Loop platform extension. 10.85 

Loop removal proposed, 942 

Merger of traction interests: 

Abandonment of plan, 877 
Advocated by railway officials [Busby], 

[Gurley], 157 
Estimates, 1032 

Inadequacy of 1907 ordinances [Ar- 
nold]; Comment, 354 

Negotiations, 868, 979 

Preliminary draft of ordinance, 338 

Progress in preparation of ordinance, 
390. 395 

Report of City Council, 32, 85 

Results to city and companies under 
1907 ordinances [Arnold], 515 

Value of railways discussed, 168 
Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry., 

Income statements, 521 
Middle West Canities Co., Bureau of 

safety, 368, 419, 665 
Northwestern Elevated R. R.: 

Derrick car, *115 

Income statements, 521 

Operating agreements, 877, 947 

Partnership receipts from surface railway 

operation, 734 
— ■ — Passenger handling records. Comparison 

with San Francisco, 257 
Public Service Company of Northern 

Illinois, Purchases, 396 
South Side Elevated R. R., Income state- 
ments, 521 

Terminal Electrification of steam roads: 

Investigation and report by Associa- 
tion of Commerce, 254, 883 

Letter of Chicago Association of 
Commerce, 1117 

Ordinance recommended, 1030 

Suggested conversion of Illinois & 
Michigan canal to subway, 904 

Union station plans, 1116 
Through-routing of surface and elevated 

trains, 871, 911 

Transfer case, 311 

Chico, Cal., Northern Electric Ry. : 

Extensions proposed, *623 

Purchase of Vallejo & Northern R. R., 

396, 656 

Choctaw Railway & Lighting Co. (See Mc- 

Alester, Okla.) 
Choke coils (E. S. S. Co.), *552 



Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Bigelow Bill discussed, 301 

— Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Co.: 

Flood damage, 725 

Receivership, 778 
Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Street 

R.R., Receivership, 1178 
Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Address to trainmen, 272 

Indeterminate grant suggested, 225 
263 

Negotiations, 434, 516, 600, 648 
Strike of platform men. Efforts at 

arbitration, '890, 921, 939, 979 
Transfer ordinance, 1182 
— i — Ohio Electric Ry. : 

Block signals, 843 
Bond issue, 869 
Flood damage, *724 
Insurance of employees, 525 
Light signal system. Suggested 
(Thompson), * 1 1 7 
— Snyder bill passed by the Legislature, 862 

Terminal question: 

Controversy over use of canal land, 
164 

Report on possibilities [Arnold], 330 
I ircuit-breakers [Mahoney], 1014; Discussion, 
1059 

Cities Service Co. (See New York City) 
City planning [McAneny], 390; Comment, 353 

Relation between city development and 

transportation facilities [Maltbie], 
1106; Comment, 1100 
City planning conference in Chicago, 902 
Claim agent. Successful [Hvland], 420 
Claim department (See Accident claim depart- 
ment ) 

Claims Association, Executive committee meet- 
ing, 198 
Clamps, Guy: 

Boltless, Peoria Ry., *860 

— Singlebolt (Barnes & Robert), *976 

(lamps. Line crossing (Clark), * 1079 
Clearances. 

California rules, 103 

Illinois Railroad & Warehouse Commis- 
sion hearing, 1060 
Report of American Railway Association, 

Cleveland, Ohio: 

Cleveland, Alliance & Mahoning Valley 

R. R., Opened between Ravenna and 
Alliance, Ohio, 81 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R R 

(See Willoughby, Ohio) 

Cleveland, Ry. : 

Alternate-stop plan, 141 
Annual report, 438 
Arbitration with city: 
, • Decision of Board, 1159, 1172; 
Comment, 1134 
Members of Board. 863, 901 
Operating and maintenance funds 
162, 302 

Proceedings before Board, 925, 
971, 1070. 1112, 1159; Com- 
ment. 957. 1134 
Request for increase in ordinance 
allowances, 731, 769 
Electric power supply, *618 
Euclid Avenue question, 264 
Fare reduction opposed, 822 
Fares, Percentage of 5-cent, collected 

in Cleveland, 762 
Smoking. P'rotest against dead cigars, 
525 

Subway question, 124 
Surplus and deficit, 531 
Tickets, Folding of, *258 
Track construction, *104, *886 
Trailer operation, 652 
Trailer operation in connection with 
peak load service I" Radcliffe], 422 
Wages of trainmen, 927 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 

Bond issue, 983 
Cleveland & Younestown Electric R. R., 

Work begun. 978 
Lake Shore Electric Ry., Annual report, 

342 

Public utilities department suggested, 978 

Re-routing plan, 79 

Transportation problem [Witt] [Hopkins], 

Coal: 

Inspection of government purchases, 116 

Losses from moisture in. 255 

Coasting rules, Denver City Tramways, 501 
Coffin, C. A. Retirement as president of Gen- 
eral Electric Co. Becomes chairman 
of Board, 1099, 1110 
Colon (Panama) Electric Tramway, 1174 
Colorado, Legislation. 226, 692 
Colorado Snrinps (Col.) &• Interurban Ry.: 

Cars with fiftv-seven volt tungsten lamps. 

678 

Strike. 903 

Columbus, Ohio: 

Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus R. R. (See 

Marion, Ohio) 

Columbus, New Albany & Johnstown Trac- 
tion Co., Order of Public Service 

Commission, 233 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



VI 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLI. 



Columbus & 
Block signals, 



Columbus, Ohio: (Continued) 
Columbus Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 394 

Consolidation plans, 440, 830, 1178 

Finances, 945 

Reorganization, 230 
Columbus Railway, Power & Light Co., 

Financing plans, 1121 
Columbus, Ind., Indianapolis, 

Southern Traction Co., 

843 

Commerce Court: 

Disposition of, 1084, 1175 

Utility of, 525 

Commercial vehicles, Discussion by New Eng- 
land Street Railway Club, 37 
Commutator slotting [Rushton], 1024 
Compensation laws. (See Workmen's com- 
pensation laws) 
Concrete, Electrolytic action on reinforced, 593 
Concrete handling in wagon loads, Detroit 

United Ry., *898 
Concrete mixer, Hand-operated (Smith), *729 
Connecticut, Legislation. 304, 734, 826, 1085 
Connecticut Co. (See New Haven, Conn.) 
Connecticut Public Utilities Commission: 

Annual report, 125 

Statistics of railways, 982 

Work of [Hale and Olmsted], 555; Com- 
ment, 532 

Contracts, Power. (See Purchased power) 
Controller handles, Padlocking, Lincoln, Neb., 

*66 

Controllers: 

Crane motor, Double-drum (Westing- 
house), 387 

Multiple-unit circuits, Changes in. Brook- 
lyn, 488 

Storage battery cars, 748 

Wiring diagram for Midi Railway locomo- 
tives, 795 

Convention success, Responsibility for, 995 
Converters: 

— —Cleveland Ry., 60-cycle, 1500-kw., 622; 
Comment, 615 

Non-commutating-pole, 1,000-kw., 60-cycle, 

Waterbury, Conn.. *221 

Rotary converter operation from single- 
phase power station, Stamford, Conn., 
*298 _ 

Co-operative stores. (See Employees, Co- 
operative stores) 

Corporation tax. (See Taxation) 

Corporations, Creditors not parties to reor- 
ganization, 825 

(See also Public service corporations) 

Cost of living. (See Employees) 

County Traction Co. (See Chicago) 

^""Mounting of radial [Price], 372; Discus- 
sion, 380 

Strength of, 1114 . 

Courtesy, card for street cars, Federal Light & 

" Traction Co., *596 . . 

Crane trolley with inclosed gearing (Whiting), 
*64'5 

Creosoting. (See Timber preservation) 

Cross-ties. (See Ties) 

Crossing signals. (See Signals) 



Dallas, Tex.: 

—Dallas Electric Corporation: 

Checking crews reporting for duty, 

1076 . . AO 

Franchise and terminal questions, 4<i 

Fare case, 1173 . 

Paris Transit Co., Experience with one- 
man prepayment cars, 579 

Terminal station, 1033 . 

Danburv (Conn.) & Bethel Street Ry. Peti- 
tion for fare reduction denied, 910 

Davenport, la., Tri-City Ry. : 

Near-side stops, 398 

Service restored in Rock Island, 1090 

Wage increase, 986, 1040 

Dayton, Ohio, Wage increase, 1040 

Delaware, Legislation, 601 

Delaware & Hudson Co., Annual report, 737 
Delta Electric Light, Power & Manufacturing 

Co. (See Greenville, Miss.) 
Denver, Colo. : 

Bus ordinance vetoed, 691 

Denver City Tramways: 

Coasting rules, 501 

Express service all day, 658 

Fare collection, Ohmer system, 374 

Heating of car vestibules vetoed, 233 

High School boys as conductors, 975 

Skip-stop plan, 837 

Trail car, *118 

Denver & Northwestern Ry., Change in 

control, 563 

Denver, Rio Grande & Western Ry., Elec- 
trification progress, 1010 

Derrick cars. (See Work cars) 

Des Moines (la.) City Ry., Franchise case, 
650, 941, 978 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., Transmission cables, Ex- 
perience with 60,000-volt, 369 

Detectives, Free transportation, Indiana, 1126 

Detroit, Mich.: 

Charter commission, 769 

Commission, Street railway, proposed, 822 

Motor bus line, 557 



Detroit, Mich.: (Continued) 

Municipal ownership ordinance, 339, 557, 

690, 731, 903, 940, 977, 1082, 1116, 
1172 

United Ry. : 

Annual report, 307 
Appraisal of city lines, *897 
Concrete aggregate handled in wagon 

loads, *898 
Fort Street case, Decision, 1030 
Franchise case, 434, 651 
Multiple-unit train operation, 442 
Paint shop, Construction and equip- 
ment, *668 
Willing to sell to city, 265 

Verdier act constitutional, 977 

Dipping vat for trucks, Hamburg Elevated & 
Underground Ry., *473 

Dispatching of cars^ 

Committee appointed by Wisconsin Elec- 
trical Association, 435 
[Hammett], 108 

District of Columbia public utility law, 518 
Dixon, 111., Illinois Northern Utilities Co., Ex- 
perience with one-man prepayment car, 
581 

Dominion Power & Transmission Co. (See 

Hamilton, Ont.) 
Doors, End, for freight cars, 1113 
Double-deck cars. (See Cars, Double-deck) 
Drafting room, Efficiency in, 790 
Dubuque, la.. Near-side stops, 1181 
Duluth, Minn.: 

Duluth Street Ry., Forfeiture suit pro- 
posed, 127 

Duluth-Superior Traction Co.: 

Annual report, 655; Comment, 877 

Dividend, 1178 

Strike losses, Effect of, 877 

Dump cars: 

— — Motor-operated, Cleveland, *887 
Santa Barbara, Cal., *85/ 



Earnings of railways. (See Financial) 

East Liverpool, Ohio, Tri-State Electric Cb., 
Safetv compaign, 526 

East St. Louis (111.) & Suburban Co., Annual 
statement, 269 

Eastern Power & Light Corporation, Organiza- 
tion, 522 

Economies. (See Financial) 

Edmonton, Alberta, Municipal line unprofitable, 
266 

Education. (See Employees) 

Efficiency Society in New York, Annual meet- 
ing, 205 

Electric arc welding. (See Welding) 
Electric Railway Journal : 

First published in 1884, 1 

Maintenance issue, 449 

Statistical issue, 1 

Table of contents on front cover, 1 

Electric railway situation in 1912," 8, 57 
Electric vehicles. (See Commercial vehicles; 

Motor buses; Tower wagons; Service 

wagons) 

Electrical apparatus, Report of National Elec- 
trical Light Association, 1012; Discus- 
sion, 1059 

Electrified steam railroads. (See Heavy electric 
traction) 

Electrolysis, National committee on, 934; Meet- 
ing, 1025 

EI Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway, Lighting of 

carhouse pit, *426 
Emergency cars. (See Tower cars; Work cars) 
Emergency wagons. (See Service wagons) 
Empire United Rys. (See Syracuse) 
Employees: 

Apprentices, Primers for, 179, 199 

Arbitration : 

Chicago City Ry., 615, 732, 749 
Cincinnati strike conditions, *890 
Compulsory. Report and discussion 
before the Societe d'Etudes Leg- 
islatives of Paris, 791 
Erdman law and a needed amendment, 
318 

Government mediation in labor dis- 
putes [Low], 212, [Marks], 214 

Benefit Association of Milwaukee Electric 

Railway & Light Co., Annual report, 
739 

Benefit plan of Amalgamated Association 

of Street and Electric Railway Em- 
ployees, Annual report, 279 

Bonuses and merit marks [Hammett], 109 

Changing relations between employer and 

employee [Shonts], 125 

Checking crews reporting for duty, Dallas, 

Tex., 1076 

Co-operative stores: 

Advantages of the Berlin and the 

Philadelphia scheme, 838 
Comment, 279 
Milwaukee, Wis., 730 
New York City, 219, 517, 653 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 254, 
855; Comment, 838 

Cost of living, Inquiry by Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit Co., 510 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Employees: (Continued) 
Education : 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 355 

Electrical correspondence school, 435; 
Comment, 405 

National Association of Corporation 
Schools, 165, 205; Comment, 183 

New York State Railways, Co-opera- 
tion with Mechanics' Institute, 
461 

(See also below, Training,; 
— ■ — Grievance committees in Providence, R. I., 

87 

Handling of trainmen [Hammett], 108 

High School boys as conductors, Denver, 

975 

Honesty and courtesy as essentials to suc- 
cess [Lee], 272 

Hours of labor [Bancroft], 986 

Boston, Nine-hour day, 49 
Illinois bill, Hearing on, 854 
Massachusetts nine - hours - in - eleven 
bills, Testimony of C. S. Ser- 
geant, R. S. Goff, A. S. Richey, 
640, 687 

Instruction of workmen in inspection and 

maintenance of equipment, Brooklyn, 
425 

Insurance: 

Binghamton, N. Y., 272 

Liability insurance [Ellis], 884 

Ohio Electric Railway, 525 

Pittsburgh, 48 

Merit system, Washington, D. C, 88 

New York Railways Association, Annual 

report, 164 
Pensions : 

New Haven Road, 287 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys., 
47 

Primers for apprentices, 179, 199 

Profit sharing, Washington Railway & Elec- 
tric Co., 87 

-Relations that should exist with the su- 
pervisory force [Bolen], 1153; Dis- 
cussion, 1144 

Safety committee, Chicago Rys., 892 

Selection and instruction of trainmen 

[Bell], 815: Discussion, 812 

Selection and retention of transportation 

employees [Hitchcock], 1022 

Seniority rights in the choice of runs, 747 

Stock purchase plan, Public Service Cor- 

_ poration of New Jersey, 441, 449 

Strikes. (See Strikes) 

Tornado damage fund, Omaha, Neb., 903 

Training of transportation employees, 200; 

Comment, 179; [Bell], 815; Discus- 
sion, 812; [Irwin], 973 

Trainmen's quarters: 

Boston Elevated Ry., Division No. 7, 
*409 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 

Co., *501 
Omaha, Neb., *246 
Wages. (See Wages) 

Welfare work, Serving coffee, Portland, 

Ore., 317 

Workmen's compensation laws [McMillin], 

210; [Belmont], 214 

Employers' liability act constitutional in Indi- 
ana, 903 

Engineers. Graduates and their problems, 955 
English, Good, in rules and announcements, 
837 

Equipment troubles with long trains, 616 
Equipment trust securities, List of, 541 
Erdman law, Needed amendment to, 318, 1084 
Erie R. R.: 

Electrification progress, 1009 

Electrified section, Maintenance of. Out- 
line of present condition. Repair shop 
practice, *998; Comment, 993 

Train detentions, 1000 

Europe, Heavy electric traction in, 788 

Evansville, (Ind.) Ry. : 

Flood damages, 758 

Purchase, 983 

Exhauster systems, Planing mill, 617 

Exit from cars, Use of front, 317 

Express. (See Freight and express) 

Express cars. (See Cars, Baggage and express) 



Fairmont, W. Va., Monongahela Traction Co., 

Four-car train, 565 
Fare collection: 

Helena, Mont., Rooke system, 698 

Human factor in collection service 

[Ohmer], 373; Discussion, 379 

Providence, R. I., Rooke system, *643 

Fares : 

Cleveland Ry., Reduction opposed, 822 

Dallas case, 1173 

Determining proper basis of, Report of 

American Electric Railway Association, 
184; Discussion [Stearns], 189; 
[Clark], 192 

Great Britain, Comparison with American 

[Clark], 193 

Hull Electric Ry., Increase, 304 

Low rates versus efficiency of service 

[House], 779 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. 

[Mackl, 110; Comment, 181: Supreme 
Court decision, 1081; Comment, 1101. 

Multi-class fare service, Losses in, 239 



January — June, 1913.] 



INDEX. 



VII 



Pares: (Continued) 

— - — New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co., 
Increase between Trenton and Prince- 
ton, 172, 324; Comment, 318 

New York suburban fares reduced, 309, 

398, 443, 571; Comment, 319 

Omaha, Neb., Pare reduction ordinance, 

273; Supreme Court decision, 1083 

Pennsylvania, Change from zone to mile- 
age basis recommended, 132 

Penny fare, Distance at which passengers 

paying, cease to be renumerative, 
Great Britain, 195 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co.'s 

case betore United States Supreme 
Court, 986, 1124 

Puget Sound Electric Ry., Legal difficulties, 

310 

Reduced rate, When it should not be made, 

532 

Three-cent, in Toledo, 127 

Zone system and the prepayment car, 

Leicester Corporation Tramways, Eng- 
land, *720; Comment, 747 

(See also Tickets) 

Farm, Electricity on (See Rural communities) 
Federal Light & Traction Co. (See New York 
City) 

Feeders (See Power distribution) 
Fence posts: 

Concrete, Design and manufacture, 544 

Wood, Average life and costs, 544 

Fence wire, Non-corrosive, Means for obtaining, 
545 

Fenders: 

Disappearing (Fonger), *77 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co., 525 

Field control (See Motors) 
Financial : 

Comparative earnings of public utilities, 118 

Cost of operation of electrified steam roads 

[Sparks], 1061 
Cost of passenger service, Effect of load 

factor [Duffy], 195 

Cost of power, Worcester, Mass., 1078 

Cost of self-propelled cars [Dodd and 

Arnold], 934, 965 
Decapitalization of intangible values in San 

Francisco, 845 

Dividends, New York state railways, 229 

Equipment trust securities, List of, 531 

Going value, Proper recognition for, 533 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., Refinancing, 

241 

London tramways, 365 

Mail transportation, Boston Elevated Ry., 

292 

Merger of Chicago interests, 32 

— — Operating economies [Doyle, Gore and 

McWhirter], 1148; Discussion, 1143 
Operating expense charges in Cleveland, 

925 

■ Operating expenses, Tendency of [Bur- 

leighl, 187 

Operating records, Boston articulated car, 

585 

Operating records, San Francisco, Arnold 

reports, 847 

Profit sharing plans for San Francisco, 

844 

Receipts with prepayment and ordinary 

cars compared, 1150 
Revenues and expenses of steam railways, 

Summary of, 426 
St. Louis, United Rys., Report of Public 

Service Commission [Allison], 248 
San Francisco, Plans for distribution of 

receipts, 844 

Wage cost part of cost of operation, 878 

Fire engine cars (See Cars) 

Fire extinguisher bracket (Pyrene) *938 

Fire protection and insurance. Carhouses and 

shops [Neff and Thompson], 494 
■ Chicago, Report of Board of Supervising 

Engineers, 811 

Cleveland Rv., Insurance reserve, 928 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 

500 

Philadelphia, Luzerne Street station, 1140 

Sprinkling svstem, Omaha, Neb., *245 

Flood damage, Capitalization of. in Ohio, 732 
Flood service, Cars for, Fort Wayne & 
Northern Indiana Traction Co., *461 
Floods in Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania and 
New York, 597, *624, *679. *724, 
725, 758; Comment, 614, 705 

Floors: 

Car, relative merits of concrete and com- 
position, 425 
Freight house, 546 

Fort Dod<*e, Ties Moines ■ & Southern R. R. 
(See Boone, la.) 

Fort Wavne (Ind.) & Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion Co.: 

Block signals. 496, _ 843 

Cars for flood service, *461 

Safetv campaign, 432, 588 

Schedule boards, *72 

Wage increase, 606 

France : 

Heavv electric traction conditions, 33: 

Comment, 9 

Midi Ry.: 

D. c. a"d a. c. electrifications, *792; 

[JulljanT. 1067 
Locomotive. Tenmont 1500-hp, single- 
phase, *288 
Locomotive competition results, 157 



France: (Continued) 

Western State Ry., Paris surburban system 

[Mazenl, 1068 
Frederick (Md.) R. R., Consolidation plans, 

230, 270 

Freeport (111.) Railway & Light Co., Ex- 
perience with one-man prepayment 
cars, 589 

Freight and express: 

Boston Elevated Ry., 870 

Denver City Tramway, All-day service, 

658 

Illinois Traction System :. 

Freight house at Springfield, 111., *930 
St. Louis terminal, *282 

Interline business [Sullivan], 374; Dis- 
cussion, 379 

Louisville-Indianapolis case, 173 

Methods of different roads [Walsh], 1154; 

Discussion, 1143 

■ Oklahoma City, 1091 

Providence, R. I., Rhode Island Co., *574 

Relation of interurban service to the high 

cost of living [Spring], 171 
Salt Lake City, Proposed transportation, 

780 

Worcester, Mass., 347 

Freight and express stations: 

Design, 748 

Floors, 546 

Illinois Traction Svstem, Springfield, 111., 

*930 

Lighting of stations, 748 

Oregon Electric Ry., "* 1 05 5 

Providence, R. I., *574 

Freight rates: . 

Minnesota rate case. 1064; Comment, 1049 

Rhode Island Co., 576 



Gardner (Mass.), Westminster & Fitchburg 
Street Ry., Consolidation, 440 

Gary (Ind.) & Interurban Ry., Incorporation, 
230 

Gas rate decision in New Tersev, Passaic Di- 
vision, 35. 80: Comment, 55 
Gasoline cars: 

Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Rv.. 

India, in Karachi. *427 

Narrow-gage, Oueensland Government 

Rys, *158 

Operating records [Dodd and Arnold], 934, 

965 

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, R. R., *387 

Gears, Influence of, on power consumption, 
955 

Geary Street Municipal R. R. (See San Fran- 
cisco) 

General Electric Co. : 
Annual report, 82S 

Changes in personnel, 1110; Comment, 

1099 

Generator. (See Turbo-generators) 
Geneva & Auburn Rv. (See Seneca Falls. 
N. Y.) 

Georgia electric railways. Earnings of 1912, 
778 

Georgia Railway & Power Co. (See Atlanta, 

Ga.) 
Germany: 
Berlin : 

Electrification of the Stadtbahn pro- 
posed. 707, 965 

Rapid transit line proposed between 
Gesundbrunnen and Rixdorf. 887 

Fare service. Losses in multi class, 239 

Hamburg Subway & Elevated Ry., *415, 

♦468 

Heavv electric traction conditions, 33; 

Comment, 9 

Narrow-gage railway in the Prussian 

Riesengebirge, 805 

New interurban railway from Mercer- 
burg to Miichlen, 758 

Glass, Car window, Replacement costs during 
a vear's test, 78 

Glens Falls, N. Y.. Hudson Valley Ry., In- 
terurban railway versus city railway 
[M'Phillips], 423 

Going value, Proper recognition for, 533 

Gong ringer, Pneumatic. Kansas City, * 596 

Governor's messages. (See Legislation) 

Governors of New England, Conference of, 
165, 224, 391 

Grade crossing elimination, Long Island R. 
R.. 1119 

Grand Rapids. Mich., Michigan & Chicago 

Ry., Finances. 867, 946 
Great Britain: 

Electrification of railways, Past and pres- 
ent work on lines in and out of 
London, with data on 18-mile freight 
line between ShiMon and Newport, 
*797; Comment 787 

Prepayment zone svstem at Leicester, 

*720 

Rates and fares [Clark], 193 

Statistics of tramways and light railways, 

258 

Stockport trackless trolley service, *805 

Wages, Lower [Clarkl, 193 

(See also Liverpool; London) 

Great Northern Ry.: 

Chelan River power site. 652 

Electrification in Montana, [Burch], 117 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Great Northern Ry.: (Continued) 

Electrification progress, 1009 

Greenfield, Mass.. Massachusetts Consolidated 
Kys., 869 

Greenville, Miss., Delta Electric Light, Power 
& Manufacturing Co., Experience 
with one-man prepayment cars, 582 

Greenville (Tex.) Railway & Light Co., Ex- 
perience with one-man prepayment 
cars, 582 

Grinders (See Rail grinders) 

Guard rails for woode,. bridges and trestles, 
544 

H 

Hagerstown (Md.) & Frederick Ry., Consoli- 
dation, 1037 

Halifax (N. S.) Electric Tramway: 

Directors, 344 

Strike. 941, 1083 

Hamburg Subway & Elevated Ry.: 

History of project, way construction and 

stations *415 

Shops and carhouses, '468 

Hamilton, Ont., Dominion Power & Trans- 
mission Co., Annual report, 520 

Harrisburg (Pa.) Rys., Organization 131 

Hartford & Springfield Street Ry, (See 
Warehouse Point, Conn.) 

Headlight, Fog-penetrating, with parabolic 
glass reflector (Esterline), *552 

Heating cars, Report of Chicago Board of 
Supervising Engineers. 894 

Heating vestibules, Massachusetts Railroad 
Commission on hearings, 819 

Heavy electric traction: 

Austria, 33; Comment, 9 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R., Progress, 1006 

Berlin, Germany, Locomotive and motor 

car accelerations, 707, 965 

Roston & Albany R. R., 390 

British railways, Past and present elec- 
trification in and out of London, with 
data on 1.8-mile freight line between 
Shildon and Newport, *797; Com- 
ment, 787 

Butte. Anaconda & Pacific R. R., Pro- 
gress. 1010 

Canadian Northern Pacific Ry., Branch 

lines. 733, 825 

Chicago, Milwaukee &• Puget Sound R. R., 

57, 70, 225, 280, 290, 919, 1009 
Contract for purchased power, 290; 
Comment, 280 

Chicago terminals: 

Investigation and report of Associa- 
tion of Commerce, 254, 883 
Letter of Chicago Association of Com- 
merce. 1117 
Ordinance recommended. 1030 
Suggested conversion of Illinois & 

Michigan canal to subway, 904 
LTnion station plans, 1116 

Choice of electric systems, 993 

Commission for steam railroad electrifi- 
cation proposed by F. J. Sprague 586; 
Comment, 573 

Comparison of American and European 

conditions [Parodi], 1068 

Denver, Rio Grande & Western Ry , 

Progress. 1010 

Discussion by British and French electric- 
al engineers in Paris, 1067; Comment, 
1048 

Discussion by New York Railroad Club, 

586 

Economies of electrification under con- 
ditions of liVht traffic [Kahlerl, 
THobartl, 932; Comment, 956: 
[Sparks], 1061 

Erie R. R.. Maintenance of electrified 

section. Outline of present conditions 
*998; Comment. 993: 1009 

European conditions. 33, 788, 1147- Com- 
ment, 9; c383: [Parodil. 1068 ' 

Great Northern Ry., [Burch], 117; 1009 

India, Considered for. 551 

Leyden-Katwyk-Noorwvk Rv., Holland 

1200-volt D. C. line. *142 

Long Island and Pennsylvania Railroads, 

Progress, 1008 

Maintenance of electric locomotives 

[Ouereau], 1065 

Melbourne, Australia. 71, 255 

• Midi Ry., France. D. c. and a. c. elec- 
trifications, *792: [.Tullian], 1067 

Mountain-grade service. Locomotive per- 
formance [Armstrong], 17; Com- 
ment. 2. 

New York Central &• Hudson River R R 

Progress. 1008 

New York. New Haven & Hartford R. 

R.. Electrification progress, 1006 

Norfolk & Western Ry., Electrification of 

mountain division, 772, 800; Com- 
ment. 787: 1010 

Norway, Christiania to Drammen, 1107 

Pennsylvania R. R., between Philadelphia 

and Paoli. 515, 642. 1116 

Power consumption, Spiez-Frutigen Rv., 

509 

Progress in the United States, M006: 

Comment, 993. 996; Correction, 1060 

Southern Pacific R. R., Progress, 1009 

Sweden. 34, 818: Comment, 9 



VIII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLI. 



Heavy electric traction: (Continued) 

Troubles with long trains, 616 

Washington & Old Dominion Ry., Elec- 
trical equipment and the reasons for its 
selection [Smith], *S34 

Helena, Mont., Interurban Ry., Fare collect- 
ing system, 698 

High-tension direct-current railways: 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., 1010 

Cost of operation, Estimated IHobart], 

932 

Cost of power in different systems 

[Sparks], 1062 

Discussion [ Gratzmuller ] , 1067 

■ Europe, 1147 

Leyden-Katawyk-Noordwyk Ry., Holland, 

System, *142 
Midi Ry., France, *792 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry.. Califor- 
nia, *726 

Oregon Electric Ry., Change from 600 

volts to 1200 volts., 1052 

■ Verona-Caldiero Ry., Italy, *1001 

High tension direct current transmission: 

Discussion at National Electric Light 

Association, 1059 

Thury system [Highfield], 1069 

Highland Park & Lake Bunen Ry. (See 

Seattle, Wash.) 

Leyden-Katwyk-Noordwyk Ry., 1200-volt 

d.c. line, *142 

■ Statistics, 1169 

Hose, Air-brake, Specifications, 1113 

Hot Springs, Ark., Central Arkansas Railway 

& Light Corporation, Incorporation. 

395 523 

Hours of labor. (See Employees, Hours) 
Houston, Tex., T-rails discarded, 1118 
Hudson Vallev Ry. See Glens Falls, N. Y. 
Hull (Que.) Electric Ry., Fare increase, 304 
Hungary, Statistics, 860 



Idaho, Legislation, 560, 826 

Idaho Cedarmen's Association. (See Western 

Red Cedar Association) 
Idaho-Oregon Power & Light Co. (See Boise, 

Idaho.) 

Idaho public utilities act, 940 
Illinois : 

^Hours of labor, Bill limiting, 854 

Legislation, 267, 341, 436, 560, 601, 692, 

734, 773, 826', 864, 904, 942, 979, 

1034, 1085, 1119, 1176 
Statistics of electric railways for 1912, 

690 

Illinois Electric Railways Association, Annual 

meeting, 508 
Illinois Northern Utilities Co. (See Dixon, 

HI-) . . 

Illinois Railroad & Warehouse Commission, 
Hearing on clearances, 1060 

Illinois Traction System. (See Peoria, 111.) 

Incandescent lamps. (See Lamps, Electric.) 

Independence. Kan., United Traction Co., 
Through service between Coffeyville 
and Parsons, 346 

India: 

Gasoline cars in Karachi, *427 

Suburban electrification for Bombay and 

Calcutta, 551 
Indiana Legislation, 128, 166, 226, 267, 304, 

391, 601 

Indiana Public Service Commission, 515, 617, 

772. 1126 
Indiana Railroad Commission: 
Signal installation order, 127, 304, 380, 

496, 343, 877, i079 
Stop signal order, 88 

Indiana Railways & Light Co. (See Kokomo, 

Indiana Union Traction Co. (See Anderson, 
Ind.) 

Indianapolis, Ind.: . 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Block signals, 843 
Purchase, 868 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Trac- 
tion Co. (See Columbus, Ind.) 

Indianapolis, New Castle & Eastern 

Traction Co., Terms of lease, 131 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co.. 

Oxy-acetylene welding, *3S 

Inductive disturbances. (See Transmission 
lines.) 

Inspection of bridges and culverts, 706 
Inspection of cars, Providence, R. I., 831 
Institution of Electrical Engineers. Meeting 

with French Engineers in Paris, 1067; 

Comment, 1048 
Instruction of trainmen. (See Employees) 
Instruments. Portable electrical (Weston), 

*728 
Insulation : 
Progress in, 788 

Temperature and electrical insulations: 

Report of American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, 431 
Insulators. Design of suspension [Austin], 

1014: Discussion, 1059 
Insurance. (See Fire protection and insur- 
ance; Liability insurance) 
Interlocking plants. (See Signals) 
International Railway. (See Buffalo) 
International Traction Co. (See Buffalo) 



Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Accidents on interstate railways, 47, 1180 

-\ppraisal of railway property, 391, 449; 

[Clark], 558; 667, 823, 936, 955, 977 

Baggage, Regulations restricting dimen- 
sions, 564 

Casualties, Report on, 47 

Decision affecting Washington, Baltimore 

& Annapolis Electric Ry., 697 
— Decision in favor of Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, 442, 531 

Interurban railways: 

Construction in the Far West, 156, 

572, 599 

Development of community, Indiana, 565 

Elevated terminals in cities, 705 

Indiana, classed as public utilities by new 

law, 565, 617 

Terminals [Hanlon], 814; Discussion, 813 

Versus the city railway [ M'Phillips], 423 

Iowa, Legislation, 734 

Iowa Electric Railway Association, Conven- 
tion, 759, 812 

Italy : 

Heavy electric traction conditions, 34; 

Comment, 9; c. 383 
Verona-Caldiero Ry., 1300-voIt d. c. line, 

•1001 



Jack, Pit (Watson-Stillman), *646 

Jack-shaft^ bearings, Pennsylvania R. R. 

Electric locomotives, *455 
Jackson,_ Mich., Michigan United Traction Co.: 

Accident prevention, 398 

Pay-within car, *122 

Standardization in track and roadwav, 

*475 

Trip from Kalamazoo to Indianapolis, 831 

Trip from Michigan to St. Louis, 740 

Jackson (Miss.) Railway & Light Co., Ex- 
perience with one-man prepayment 
cars, 582 

Jamestown (N. Y.) Street Ry. : 

Fare reduction, 698 

Strike, 825, 901, 1081 

Wage increase, 740 

Japan : 

• Railway statistics, 196 

Yokohama-Tokio Line, Material for, 863 

Johnstown, Pa., South Fork-Portage Ry., 

Center-entrance combination cars, 

*768 

Toliet, 111., Chicago & Joliet Electric Ry.,. 
Safety campaign, 948, 1181 

Journals, Maintenance improvenments, Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit, 101 



Kankakee (111.) & Urbana Traction Co., Open- 
ing^ 165 
Kansas, Legislation, 227 
Kansas City, Mo.: 

Kansas City & Bonner Springs Street 

Ry. (See Bonner Springs, Kan.) 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Toseph 

Ry.: 

Center-entrance interurban cars, *120 

Service on Excelsior Springs line, 166 
Kansas City Railway & Light Co., Gong 

ringer, Pneumatic, *596 
Metropolitan Street Ry.: 

Asphalt car, *479 _ 

Franchise negotiations. 127, 264, 517, 
555, 648, 861, 1031, 1119 

Report on valuation [Arnold], 389, 
716 

Smoking on cars not allowed, 870 

Viaduct, Sale proposed, 1173 

Kendallville. Ind., Toledo & Chicago Interur- 
ban Ry., Sale, 441, 738 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. (See 
Lexington, N. Y.) 

Kewanee, 111., Galesburg & Kewanee Electric 
Ry.: 

Near-side stop, 1181 

Wage increase, 985 

Keystone Railway Club, Meetings, 504, 1022 
Kokomo, Ind.: 

Indiana Railways & Light Co., Bond 

issue, 230, 396 
■ Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Co., 

Block signals, 496, 843 



Labeling equipment, 790 
Labor. (See Employees, Hours of labor) 
Labor disputes. (See Employees, Arbitration) 
Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Rapid Transit 

Co. (See Scranton, Pa.) 
La Crosse (Wis.) City Ry., Merger, 230 
Ladder shoe, Non-slipping (Mason), *514 
Lake Shore Electric Ry. (See Cleveland, 

Ohio) 

Lake View Traction Co. (See Memphis, Tenn.) 
Lamps, Electric: 

Breakage due to feather duster, 196 

Selective cut-out for damaged incandes- 
cent lamps (Nichols-Lintern), *899 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Lawrence (Kan.) Railway & Light Co., Ex- 
perience with one-man prepayment 
cars, 581 

Lebanon (Pa.) & Campbellstown Street Ry., 

Opening, 304 
Legal notes: 

Charters, ordinances, franchises, 261, 1027 

Corporation tax, Minehill case, 878 

Gas rate decision in New Jersey, Passaic 

Division, 35, 80; Comment, 55 

Milwaukee fare case, 1081, 1101 

Milwaukee paving case, 124 

Minnesota rate cases, 1064; Comment, 

1049, 1101 

Negligence, Liability for, 262, 1027 

Omaha bridge case, 1083 

Strike losses, Municipal responsibility for, 

Decision of ' U. S. District Court, 

Newark, N. J., 879 
Legislation affecting public utilities: 

Basic principles [Bozell], 884 

Conditions in various states [Griffith], 888 

Governor's messages, 74, 160; Comment, 

139 

New York, "Seven sisters" bill signed by 

Governor Wilson, 340 
Notes, 128, 166, 226, 267, 304, 341, 391 

436, 519, 560, 601, 653, 692, 734, 773, 

826, 864, 904, 942, 979, 1034, 1085, 

1119, 1176 

— (See also National Civic Federation) 
Lelngh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, 
Lexington, Ky. : 

History f traction companies 391 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co., 

rVj T c °, nstr "9 tlon in paved streets 
[MacLeod], c.*335 

Liability insurance [Ellis], 884 

Wisconsin Electrical Association Com- 
mittee report, 111 

Lighting cars: 

Indirect systems, 706 

Selective cut-out for damaged lamps, *899 

Tungsten lamps of 57-volt, Colorado 

Springs & Interurban Ry., 678 
Lighting freight and express stations, 748 
Lightning arresters [Clayton], 884; [Creigh- 
ton], 1013; [Mahoney], 1014, Discus- 
sion, 1059 

Lightning protection. Methods of insulating 
and arranging high tension apparatus 
in power house and on transmission 
lines [Nelson], 963 

Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Co., Sand-drying 
plant, *159 

Line cars. (See Tower cars; Work cars) 

Little Rock (Ark.) Railway & Electric Co., 
Axle straightener, 1158 

Liverpool (Eng.) Corporation Tramways: 

Annual report, 737 

Double-deck, drop platform and center- 
entrance cars with separate stair- 
ways for entrance and exit, *591 

Loading time. (See Passenger handling 
records) 

Loads for central stations [Dillon], 1015 
Load curve during rush hour. Electrified 

section of Erie R. R., *1000 
Load factor, Effect of, on cost of passenger 

service [Duffy], 195 
Locomotives, Electric: 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., Qualifica- 
tions for mountain-grade service 
[Armstrong], 20, *1010 

Comparison with steam locomotives for 

mountain-grade service [Armstrong], 
17; Comment, 2 

Curves showing drawbar pull, 1068 

Division points for, 919 

Freight, Rhode Island Co., *576 

Gasoline freight and switching [McKeen], 

1171 

Industrial, 40-ton, Timber Butte Milling 

Co., Butte, Mont., *937 

Maintenance cost, Pennsylvania R. R., 461 

Midi Ry., France: 

Comparison of Thompson-Houston, 
Westinghouse & Jeumont loco- 
motives, *794 

Jeumont, 1500-h.p. single-phase, *288 

Result of competition, 157, *288 
New York Central R. R.: 

Novel form, *684 

Operating records, 587 

Ratings [Burch], c818; Comment, 789 

Obsolescence and depreciation, 997 

Pennsylvania R. R. Inspection and repair 

of side-rod type. Jack-shaft bearings. 

Operating results. Maintenance cost, 

*452; Comment, 450 
Repair shops of N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., 

at Van Nest, 976 
Roof, Insulated, Fort Dodge, Des Moines 

& Southern R. R., *512 
Type designations used by foreign builders, 

95 

London, England: 

Electrification of London, Brighton & 

South Coast Ry., London & North 
Western Ry., London & South West- 
ern Ry., *797; Comment, 787 

Financial condition of tramways, 365 



January — June, 1913.] 



London, England: (Continued) 

.Motor buses, Competition with street cars, 

920 

Underground Electric Railways: 

Advertising Cliristmas traffic, * 105 
Annual report, 562 

London letters, 41, 222, 388, 647, 820, 1029 

London (Ont.) & Port Stanley Ry., Electrifi- 
cation, 225, 698, 940 

Long Island Ry. (See New York City) 

Los Angeles, Cal.: 

Charter conference, 734 

1. os Angeles & San Diego Beach Ry. (See 

San Diego, Cal.) 

Los Angeles Ry., Additional cars recom- 
mended, 48, 79, 164 

Ordinance concerning condition of cars 

and standing vehicles, *765 

Pacific Electric Ry.: 

Bond issue, 229 

Cars, -Additional, recommended, 48, 79 
Catenary construction, *755 
Klevated railway plans, 903 
Elevated terminals proposed, 705 
Passenger stations, Mission style, *966 
Rail section, New-grooved, *938 
Weed burner, * 1 1 69 

Skip-stop idea suggested, 346 

Louisville, Ky. : 

Louisville & Nashville R. R., Replacing 

overturned track, *729 
Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting 

Co. (See New Albany, Ind.) 
— Louisville Ry. : 

Annual report, 1 70. 394 

Parades, Recommendation covering, 
346 

Report in depreciation and mainten- 
ance charges, 982 
Wage increase, 978 
Lubrication. Oiling card of Fort Dodge, Des 
Moines & Southern R. R. 40 

M 

McAlester, Okla., Choctaw Railway & Light- 
ing Co., Control passed to other inter- 
ests, 45 

McKeesport, Pa., Pittsburg, McKeesport & 

Westmoreland Ry., Sale, 308, 524 
Mail transportation: 

Congressional hearing of railway represen- 
tatives, 291; Comment, 279 

Cost to Government, 1125 

Maine, Legislation, 601 

Maine public utility commission proposed, 209, 

652, 688 
Maintenance records: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 480 

Car maintenance costs in San Francisco, 

849 

Car remodeling, International Ry., Buffalo, 

*922 

Costs of electric welding in San Francisco 

shops, 881 

Xew York Central, Electric locomotives 

[Quereau], 1065 

New York State Rys., Mileage mainten- 
ance system, 542 

Mansfield (Ohio) Rail way, Light & Power Co., 
Receivership, 86 

Manufacturing, Requirements upon modern 
[Bope], 207 

Maps: 

Boston Elevated Ry., 358 

Boston & Maine, "Electrified lines, 1006 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Rv., Electrified 

section, 1010 
Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Rv., 

Electrified lines, 1009 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 330 

Cleveland, Ohio. 618 

Denver & Rio Grande & Western Rv., 

Electrified division, 1009 

Erie R. R., in Central New Y'ork, 1007 

Hamburg Subway & Elevated Ry., 415 

Indiana Electric Ry., Block signal protec- 
tion, 843 

Leyden-Katwyk-Noordwvk Ry., Holland, 

142 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., 797 

London & North Western Ry., 798 

London & South Western Ry., 799 

Long Island and Pennsylvania R. R. ter- 
minals, 1007 

Melbourne suburban system, 255 

New York Central, Electrified lines, 1006 

New York, New Haven & Hartford, Elec- 
trified lines, 1006 
Norfolk & Western Rv., Electrified Sec- 
tion, 1010 

North Eastern Ry., England, 799 

Northern Electric Ry., Cal., 623 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry., 728 

Oregon Electric Ry., 1051 

Pennsylvania R. R. 

Paoli suburban line, 1007 

West Jersey & Seashore division, 1007 

Seattle, Wash., 753 

Southern Pacific Ry., Suburban lines at 

Berkeley, Oakland and Alameda, Cal., 

1008 

Washington & Old Dominion Ry., 535 

Waterbury-New Britain system, 367 

West Shore R. R., in Central New York, 

1007 



INDEX. 

Maps: (Continued) 

Williamette Valley, Oregon, 156 

Marion, Ohio, Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus 

R. R., Sale and reorganization, 908, 

983 

Maryland Public Service Commission, Train 

schedule held to be a contract, 698 
Massachusetts : 

Development of railways stifled by legis- 
lation, 266 

Investigation of electric railway service 

in rural communities, by the Legis- 
lature, 406 

Legislation, 128, 227, 304, 436, 601, 653, 

734, 773, 904, 942, 980, 1034, 1085, 
1119 

Nine-hours-in-eleven bills, Testimony of 

C. S. Sergeant, R. S. Goff, A. S. 
Richey, 640, 687 

Massachusetts Consolidated Rys. (See Green- 
field, Mass.) 

Massachusetts Railroad Commission: 

Annual report, 162 

Hearings on heating vestibules and air- 
brake equipment, 819 

Service recommendation for Worcester, 870 

Massachusetts Utilities Commission, 340, 1172 
Master Car Builders' Association, Convention, 
1113 

Mediation laws., (See Employees, Arbitration) 
Melbourne. Australia. Electrification of sub- 
urban railways: 

Approved by the Government, 71 

Contract awarded to General Electric Co., 

255 

Membership in territorial associations, 616 
Memphis, Tenn.: 

Lake View Traction Co., Sale. 604, 8o9 

Memphis Street Ry., Center-entrance trail 

cars, *299 

Merrill, Wis., Trackless trolley, bus, *1080 
.Metropolitan Street Ry. (See Kansas City) 
Mexico, Hydroelectric development on the 

Coiichos River, 218 
Mexico City, Mexico Tramways, Annual re- 
Mexico (Mo'.'), Santa Fe & Perry Traction Co., 

Sale, 984 
Michigan, Legislation, 436, 519, 601 
Michigan & Chicago Ry. (See Grand Rapids, 

Michigan' and Ohio merger proposed, 830 
Michigan City, Ind. Chicago Lake Shore & 

South Bend Ry., Block signals, 843 
Michigan United Traction Co. (See Jackson, 

Mich.) „ . „ 

Middle West Utilities Co. (See Chicago) 
Middletown. N. Y.. Wallkill Transit Co.. M.Ik 

service, 133 
Midi Rv. (See France) 

Mileage maintenance system on Syracuse lines, 

New Y'ork State Railways, 542 
Mileage statistics for 1912, 15; Comment, 57 
Milk service, Wallkill Transit Co., 133 
Milwaukee (Wis.) Electric Railway & Light 
Co.: 

Broom filling machine, * 5 1 3 

Carhouse, Fond du Lac Avenue, 497 

Cars, *386 

Destination signs, 526 

Emergency line car ,*642 

Employees' Mutual Benefit Association, 

Annual report, 739 

Employees' stores, 730 

Fare case [Mack], 110; Comment, 181 

Decision, 1081; Comment, 1101 
Recommendation of Wisconsin com- 
mission, 272 

Monthly report forms, 1021 

Paving case decision, 124 

Publication bv employees, 1090 

Service, Investigation by Wisconsin Rail- 
road Commission, 232 

Work-order svstem [Kalweit], 113 

Minneapolis, Minn., Twin City Rapid Transit 
Co.: 

Annual report, 231, 268 

Extension agreement, 1174 

Progress program, 824 

Minnesota. Legislation, 166, 436, 519, 734, 
826 

Minnesota rate case, 1064; Comment, 1049, 
1101 

Missoula (Mont.) Street Ry., Experience with 

one-man prepayment cars, 580 
Missouri. Legislation, 128, 436, 601 
Missouri Public Service Commission, 556, 
770, 902 

Monmouth County Electric Co. (See Redbank, 
N. J.) 

Monongahela Traction Co. (See Fairmont, 

W. Va.) 
Montreal : 

Autobus line, 941 

City planning, 653 

Investigation of transit problems, 435, 

560, 771, 901, 1175 

Montreal Tramways, Wage increase, 985 

Morristown, N. J., Morris County Traction Co., 

Bond issue, 396 
Motor buses: 

Detroit municipal line, 557 

-London, Competition with street cars, 920 

Montreal 941 

New York City, Proposed competition 

with street lines, 614, 864 



IX 



Motor buses: (Continued; 

Philadelphia, Proposed, 1033 

Toronto, Proposed in Arnold report, 970 

Motors: 

Cnanges in design to effect economy. 407 

Commutating-pole, Full value trom, 837 

Connections tor electric braking LCraneJ, 

* 1114 

Crane motor, Double-drum controller 

for (Westinghouse), 387 

Development of motors, Methods for se- 
curing higher efficiency [Storer], 21; 
Comment, 2 

Economies in maintenance [ThirlwallJ, 

370; Discussion, 378 

Field control LStorer], 23 

Gear ratio and power consumption, 955 

Latour single-phase type in Spain, 801 

Maintenance costs, Baltimore, 293, 294 

Rehabilitation of old, 482 

■ Rejuvenation, by means of electric weld- 
ing, Third Avenue R. R., '1104 

Series and repulsion I Latour], 1067 

— Single-phase railway [Bell J. *1003; Com- 
ment, 993 

Testing polarity of fields, 1114 

Tests, Report of Chicago Board of Su- 
pervising Engineers, 895 

Multiple-unit train operation: 
— Detroit United Railway, 442 

New type under Thury patents, 973 

Municipal ownership: 

Detroit ordinance, 339, 557, 690, 731, 903, 

940, 977, 1082 
Toledo, Ohio, 389 

Muskogee ( Okla J Electric Traction Co., Rooke 
system of fare collection, 780 

Myriawatt recommended as a power unit by 
A. I. E. E. and A. S. M. E„ 105; 
Comment, 96 



N 



Nashville-Gallatin (Tenn.) Interurban Ry.» 
Opening, 652 

Nashville Railway & Light Co.: 

Exhauster for commutator slotter to save 

copper dust, 1169 

Painting illuminated signs, 1158 

National Association of Corporation Schools, 
Organization, 165, 205; Comment, 183 

National Association of Railway Commission- 
ers, Committee appointments for 1913, 
39 

National Civic Federation: 

Annual meeting, 210; Comment, 179 

Model utilities law, 571 

Report of department on regulation of 

interstate and municipal utilities [Mc- 
Millin], 210 

Sub-committees on model public utility bill, 

155 

National Electric Light Association: 

Convention papers and reports, 1012, 1057; 

Comment, 1048 

Public policy committee, Meeting with 

National Electric Light Association, 
325; Comment, 317 

National Railway Appliances Association, 
Annual meeting, 548 

New Albany, Ind. Louisville, &; Northern Rail- 
way & Lighting Co., Block Signals, 
843 

New Bedford, Mass., Union Street Ry., Sale 

of metal tickets, 877 
New England Railroad Conference, Work of, 

1034 

New England railroad situation, Report of 
Boston Chamber of Commerce, 650, 
691 

New England Street Railway Club: 

Annual banquet, 590 

Meetings, 37, 369, 973 

New Haven, Conn., Connecticut Co.: 

Accident at Cheshire, Conn., Report to 

Public Utilities Commission, 607 

Carhouse at Derby, *320 

Carhouse employees, Statement of com- 
pany, 942 

Lease of railways from New London to 

East Thompson, 396 
Turbo-generators witli reduction gear, 

*328 
New Jersey: 

Bill in Legislature concerning the surprise 

test on railwavs, 613 
Legislation, 692, 773 

New Tersev & Pennsylvania Traction Co. 

(See Trenton. N. j.) 
New- Tersev Public Utilities Commission: 
Annual report. 82 

Fare increase ordered. New Jersey & 

Pennsylvania Traction Co., 172, 324; 
Comment, 318 

Gas rate decision. Passaic Division, 35, 80; 

Comment, 55 

Reorganization, 863 

New Midland Power & Traction Co. (See 

Cambridge. O.) 
New Orleans. La.: 

Assessment increase, 824 

\sses c ment reduction, 942 

New Orleans Railwav Light Co.: 

Annual renprt, 737, 944 

^»<-S. to build its own, 82 

Wage scale, 1091 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



X 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLI. 



New York, Auburn & Lansing R. R. (See 
Auburn, N. Y. 

New York Central & Hudson River R. R. : 

Electrification, Maintenance costs [Quere- 

au], 1065 

Electrification progress, 1008 

Fare reductions, New York suburban, 309, 

398, 443, 571; Comment, 319 

Grand Central terminal opening, An ex- 
ample of private efficiency, 241 

Locomotive ratings [Burch], c818; Com- 
ment, 789 

Locomotives, Electric, Novel form, *684 

Train-minute detention due to electrical 

operation for 1912, 587 
Waterfront line along Hudson River in 

New York City, 941 
New York City: 
Accidents : 

Elevated railway; Comment, 182 

November, 1912, 48 

December, 1912, 172 

American Cities Co., Directors, 439 

Bond limit case, 266 

Car steps, Opinion and order of Public 

Service Commission, 414; Comment, 
405 

Central Park, North & East River R. R., 

Foreclosure matters, 45 
Cities Service Co., Acquisition of property 

and exchange of securities, 440 
Fare concession to Staten Island residents, 

443, 613 

Federal Light & Traction Co.: 

Annual report, 736 

Courtesy card for street cars, *596 

Horse car lines, Conversion of, 941 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. : 

Annual report, 736 

Bond issue proposed, 909, 1122 

Changes in personnel and scheme of 
organization, 265 

Painting of cars, Use of baking 
enamel, *146; Comment, 141 

Refinancing plans, 129, 241, 396 

Tunnel system, Refinancing, 241 
Interborough Rapid Transit: 

Bond issue proposed, 85 

Co-operative stores for employees, 219, 
517 

Financing of new subway construction, 
868 

Pickpockets arrested, 740 
Piece work, Increased earnings due to, 
1143 

Subway, Service order modified, 133 
Long Island R. R. : 

Annual report, 562 

Electrification progress, 1008 

Grade crossing elimination, 1119 
Manhattan & Queens Traction Corp., 

Opening, 225 
Motor buses, Proposed competition with 

street lines, 614, 864 
New York Municipal Railway Corporation: 

Organization, 732 

Stock issue, 271 
New York Rys. : 

Co-operative stores for employees, 219, 
517 

Difficulties of surface operation, and 
value of newspaper publicity, 281 

Employees association, Annual report, 
164 

Heating order, 116 
Piece work. Increased earnings due to, 
1143 

Protest against order concerning de- 
preciation, 777 

Storage battery cars, 825, 863 
North American Co.: 

Annual report, 694 

Report forms, 1021 
Population and subwavs. Estimates by D. 

F. Wilcox of Public Service Commis- 
sion, 920 
Public Service Commission: 

Amendment to law proposed, 44 

Annual report. 124 

Car step, Opinion and order, 414; 

Comment, 405 

Changes in personnel. 266 

Depreciation order, 777 

Hearing n smoking in cars, 1111; 
Comment. 1099 

Hearings on subway contracts, 16, 163, 
223, 339 

Heating order to New York Rys., 116 
Photographic practice and the fore- 
stalling of damaee suits, 919 
Safety aopliance order, 821 
Storage battery cars in New York, 863 
Subwav contracts annroved, 433 

"Ranid transit progress, 596, 732 

Safetv campaign in schools, 526 

Smokies on cars, Hearing. Ill; Comment, 

1099 

Steinwav tunnel, Temporary operation, 651 

— — Stores. "Employees' co-operative. 219, 517, 
653 

Subwavs. New: 

Annlicatinn to issue bonds, 130 
Boarrl of Estimate acts on contracts, 
c 16 

Construction pavments. 823 
Constriction under dual contracts, 

First. 692 
Contracts and political influences, 140 



New York City — Subways, New: (Continued) 
Contracts approved by Public Service 

Commission, 433 
Contracts executed, 558 
Delay. Public and private efficiency, 

241 

Estimates concerning population by D. 

F. Wilcox, 920 
Financing of Interborough Rapid 

Transit Co., 868 
Hearings on contracts, 16, 163, 223, 

339 

Injunction to prevent execution of con- 
tracts, 265, 302 

Photographs in damage suits, 919 
Taxation, Whitridge letter to State Board 

of Tax Commissioners, 42 
Third Avenue Ry. : 

Annual report, 86, 168, 405 

Motor rejuvenation by means of elec- 
tric welding process, * 1 1 04 

Stock and bond purchase, Belt Line 
Ry., 170 

Wage increase, 171 

Welding, Electric, *1 102 
Thirty-fourth Street rapid transit plan 

abandoned, 904 
Tunnels to New Jersey suggested instead 

of bridge, 772 
New York Edison Co., Accounting school for 

employees [Holme], 1015, 1059 
New York Electric Railway Association: 

Executive committee meeting, 325 

March meeting, 420 

June convention: 

Papers, 1148; Comment, 1133 

Picture of delegates, * 1 146 

Proceedings and banquet, 1142' 

Program, 1077 
New York, -New Haven & Hartford R. R.: 

Accident at Stamford, 1'099 

Automatic train stop and speed control 

(Home & Crane), 1115 

Automatic train stops, Tests, 560 

Changes in personnel, 772 

Cost of electric properties, 778 

Electrification [McHenry], 272; 558, 1006 

■ Fare reduction, New York suburban,, 309, 

398, 443, 571; Comment, 319 
Lighting on limited trains, Indirect system, 

706 

Pension plan, 287 

Purchase of New York, Westchester & 

Boston Ry., Mr. Mellen's opinion, 861 
Repair shops for electric locomotives at 

Van Nest, 976 

Rules and regulations for employees, 831 

New York Public Service Commission, First 

District (See New York City) 
New York Public Service Commission, Second 

District (See New York State Public 

Service Commission) 
New York Railroad Club, Annual electrical 

night, 586 
New York State: 

Full-crew measure signed by Governor 

Sulzer, 613 

Legislation, 166, 227, 392, 436, 519, 601, 

692, 734, 773, 826, 864, 942, 980, 1034, 
1086, 1176 

Power bills vetoed by Governor Sulzer, 

1032 

Purchased power, Extracts from reports of 

railway companies. Prices paid for 

power, 1016 
New York State Public Service Commission: 

Annual report, 125 

Changes in personnel, 266 

Continuous ride order for New York State 

Railways, 526 
Fare reductions: 

New York suburban lines, 309, 398, 
443; Comment, 319 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern R. 
R., 49 

Milk service order for Wallkill Transit Co., 

133 

Westchester Street R. R., Value of prop- 
erty, 381 

New York State Rys. (See Rochester, N. Y.) 
Newark, N. J., Public Service Corporation: 

Annual report, 603 

Fare complaint dismissed, 740 

"Newarker" and the transportation prob- 
lem, 560 

Publicity work, Methods and results of a 

4-year experiment, 806 
'Stock purchase plan for employees, 441, 

449 

Terminal building, *246 

Terminal improvements, 223, 771, 904, 

1173 

Traffic congestion, Report on, 658 

Norfolk & Western Ry.'s Electrification oi 

branch line, 772, 800; Comment, 787; 

1010, 1079 

North American Co. (See New York City) 
Northern Electric Rv (See Chico, Cal.) 
Northern Illinois Light & Traction Co. (See 

Ottawa, 111.) 
Northern Massachusetts Street Ry. (See Athol, 

Mass.) 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (See 

Akron. Ohio) 
Northwestern Cedarmen's Association, Annual 

meeting, 155 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Norway, Christiania-Drammen line, change of 
gage and electrification, 1107 

o 

Oakland, Cal.: 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry., System. 

1200-volt line reaching San Francisco 
by ferry. Coast Range pierced by 
tunnel 3458 ft. long, *726 

Terminal plans, 226 

United Properties Co., Trusteeship, 946, 

984 

Ohio, Legislation, 128, 166, 227, 305, 341 436, 
519, 560 601, 653, 735, 774, 826, 904, 
1034 

Ohio and Michigan merger proposed, 830, 867 
Ohio Electric Ry. (See Cincinnati, Ohio) 
Ohio Public Service Commission: 
Order concerning Columbus, New Albany 

& Johnstown Traction Co., 233 
Transmission case of Cleveland, Paines- 

ville & Eastern R. R. Re-hearing, 

723 

Oil drier and purifier (Hunt),*641 
Oil engines: 

Best kind of fuel for, *675 

Small power plants [Chase], 963 

Oil house and oil delivery car, Chicago Rys., 
*548 

Oklahoma, Legislation, 865 

Oklahoma Gas, Electric & Street Railway Asso- 
ciation, Convention papers, 884 
Oklahoma Ry. : 

Accident prevention campaign [Knox], 884 

Freight handling, 1091 

Progress, 831 

Omaha, Neb.: 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry. : 

Carhouse, Reinforced concrete, *242 
Fare reduction ordinance, 273; De- 
cision, 1083 
Portable rail grinders, *149 
Repair shop practice, *513 
Tornado damage fund for employees, 
903 

Woodworking shop, equipment and 
arrangement, *750 
Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Ry., Stock and 

bond issue, 440 

Omaha Traction & Power Co., Sale, 1179 

One-man cars. (See Cars, One-man) 
Oneonta, N. Y., Otsego & Herkimer R. R., 

Stock and bond issue, 524 
Ontario, Legislation, 774 

Operating economies [Doyle, Gove and Mc- 
Whirter], 1148; Discussion, 1143 

Oregon Electric Railway. (See Portland, Ore.) 

Organization chart, Michigan United Trac- 
tion Co., Track and roadway, *478 

Oskaloosa (la.) Traction & Light Co., Officers 
and directors, 1123 

Otsego & Herkimer R. R. (See Oneonta, 
N. Y.) 

Ottawa, 111.: 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., Apprecia- 
tion by dairymen, 657 

— —Northern Illinois Light & Traction Co., 
One-man prepayment cars, Experience 
with, 581 

Overhead construction: 

— — Clearance for overhead conductors on 

trunk lines, 103, 935, 1060 

Crossing clamps, * 1 079 

— ■ — Guy clamps, *860, *976 

Michigan United Traction Co., "477 

Midi Ry., France, *793 

-Oregon Electric Ry., *1055 

Trolley wire and overhead frog location on 

curves [Barnard], * 1 15 5 

Verona-Caldiero Ry., Italy, * 1001 

Washington & Old Dominion Ry. [Smith], 

*S38 

(See also Catenary construction) 

Oxy-acetylene torch for cutting away wrecked 
bridge, *860 

P 

Pacific Coast Electric Railway Association, 

*593; Meeting, 641 
Pacific Coast Ry. (See San Luis Obispo, Cal.) 
Pacific Electric Ry. (See Los Angeles, Cal.) 
Paint shops: 

Detroit United Rys., Construction and 

equipment, *668 

San Francisco, United R. R., *882 

Paints and painting: 

Deterioration of paint, Unequal, 489 

Hudson & Manhattan Ry., Baked enamel 

process, *146; Comment, 141 

Pennsylvania R. R., Baked enamel 

process, *686 

Sign painting at Nashville, 1158 

Panama City, Electric railway under con 

struction, 518 
Panama Exposition. (See San Francisco) 
Panama R. R., Electric energy for, 764 
Pantograph on draw span of Charles River- 
bridge, *364 
Parades, Recommendation governing, Louis- 
ville, Ky., 346 
Paris, Meeting of British and French electri- 
cal engineers, 1067; Comment, 1048 
Paris Transit Co. (See Dallas, Tex.) 



January — June, 1913.] 



INDEX. 



XI 



Parkersburg (W. Va.), Marietta & Inter- 
urban Ry. : 

Stock sale, 231 

Wage increase, 870 

Parks and pleasure resorts, Management and 
transportation problems [Crane], 507; 
Discussion, 505 

Passenger handling records: 

Boston articulated car, 585 

Chicago, Report of Board of Supervising 

Engineers, 894 

Comparison of Chicago and San Fran- 
cisco 257 

■ Kansas City, Metropolitan Street Ky., 719 

Passenger interchange, 666 
Passenger service costs. (See Financial) 
Passenger stations. (See Terminals and ter- 
minal stations; Waiting stations) 
Patent reform, Uldheld bill L Montague], 1001 
Pavements : 

■ Asphalt and block construction, San Fran- 
cisco, *464 

Concrete, between car tracks, Birmingham, 

Ala., *514 

— ■ — Granite concrete, Cleveland Ry., 886 

■ Milwaukee case, 124 

Timber for creosoting [Davis], 154 

Track construction at crossings, *545 

Pawcatuck Valley Street Ry. (See Westerly, 
R. I.) 

Pekin (111.) & Petersburg, Interurban Ry., 

Suit and foreclosure, 869 
Penn Central Light & Power Co. (See Al- 

toona, Pa.) 

Pennsylvania, Legislation, 227, 267, 305, 341, 
437, 519, 561, 601 692, 774, 865, 905, 
1119, 1176 

Pennsylvania public service commission pro- 
posed, 650, 821 
Pennsylvania R. R.: 

Electrical correspondence school, 435; 

Comment, 405 

■ Electrification between Philadelphia and 

Paoli, 515, 642, 1116 

Locomotives, Electric, Inspection and re- 
pair of side-rod type. Jackshaft bear- 
ings. Operating results. Maintenance 
cost, *452; Comment, 450 

Painting steel cars, Baked enamel process, 

*686 

Safety campaign, Book of instructions, 

1047 

Storage battery tractor for city switching 

service, Jersey City, *768 
Pension systems. (See Employees) 
Peoria, 111.: 

Illinois Traction Co.: 

Annual report, 866 

Block signal maintenance notes, 501 
Block signal protection, Additional, 
435 

Crossing controversy settled, 689 
Express and freight traffic methods 

at St. Louis, *282 
Freight house at Springfield, 111., 

*930 

Statement to stockholders, 523 
T-rail pavement construction, *61; 

[Swartz], c209 
Terminal station at Peoria, 310 
Through routes and joint rates, 
Opinion of Interstate Commerce 
Commission, 442, 531 
Tower cars, Gasoline, *900 

Peoria, Ry. : 

Guy clamps, Boltless, *860 
Route signs, 1170 

Peoria Railway Terminal Co., Sale, 440 

Philadelphia, Pa.: 

American Rys., Charter taken out in Del- 
aware, 344 

Bucks County Interurban Ry., Stock and 

bond issue, 1038 

Interstate Rys., Financial history, 738 

Motor buses proposed, 1033 

Philadelphia Equipment Securities Co., 

229, 293 

Philadelphia & Westchester Traction Co. 

(See Upper Darby, Pa.) 

Philadelphia & Western Ry. (See Up- 
per Darby, Pa.) 

Rapid Transit Co. : 

Accident prevention campaign, 1091 
Car trust certificates advocated, 266, 
389, 435 

Carhouse at Luzerne Street, * 1 136 ; 

Comment, 1133 
Changes in operation, 910 
Co-operative store for employees, 254, 

855; Comment, 838, 1090 
Cost of living of trainmen, 510 
Rehabilitation, 226 

Re-routing, wages and co-operative 
buying, 1039, 1090 

Smoking, Campaign against, 172, 317 

Wages, 733 

Subway proposed, 770, 1116 

Transportation problem [Ford], 598 

Phoenix (Ariz.) Ry., Strike, 1174 
Physicians, Emergency railway duties of, 948 
Pickpockets on New York railways, 740 
Pipe union, Cold-drawn-steel (Mark), *1026 
Pits. (See Carhouses) 
Pittsburg, Pa.: 

American Water Works & Guarantee Co., 

Annual report, 1177 
Philadelphia Co., Annual report, 1035 



Pittsburgh, Pa.: (Continued) 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New 

Castle Ry., Insurance for employees, 

48 

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie R. R., Two-unit, 

gas-electric train, *387 

Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Westmoreland 

Ry. (See McKeesport, Pa.) 

Pittsburgh Ry., Double-deck cars, *958; 

Comment, 996 

Pittsburgh, Steubenville & Wheeling Ry., 

Plans, 825 

Subway ordinance, 226, 340, 391 

West Penn Electric Co., Hydroelectric de- 
velopments, 337 

West Penn Traction & Water Power Co., 

Annual report, 308, 981 

Planing mill exhauster systems, 617 

Planning for street railways for growing cities 
[Daly], 1020; [Maltbie], 1106 

Plate bending machine, Track work, Cleve- 
land, *887 

Poles: 

Concrete, Manufacture and specifications, 

New York State Rys., *502 

Preservation. (See Timber preservation) 

Policemen, Free transportation, Indiana, 1126 
Port Arthur (Ont.) & Fort William Electric 

Ry., Strike, 903, 941 
Portland, Ore.: 

Fare reduction ordinance, 780 

Oregon Electric Ry. : 

Description of system, *1050 

Extensions, 156, 572, 599 

Sleeping cars, * 1 19 
Portland, Eugene & Eastern Ry., Exten- 
sions, 157, 572, 599, 904 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Accidents, Graphical record, 885 

Calling the streets, 1125 

Fare case, 986, 1124 

Fender equipment, 525, 691 

Skip-stop idea, 88, 172 

Tabulating statistics and accounts by 
machinery. Cards are perforated 
to show code numbers, *853 

Ware increase, 1091 

Welfare work for employees, 317 
Power consumption and gear ratios, 955 
Power distribution: 

Cleveland. Paineeville S- Eastern R. R. 

case before Ohio Public Service Com- 
mission, 723 

Dessau-Bitterfield 60,000-volt cable. 369 

Feeders. Keeping track of [M'Kelway], 

*217 

Feeding street intersections [M'Kelway], 

*504 

Pole-top disconnecting switches, *77 

Problems TChilds], 421 

Progress of 1912 [Belli. 31: Comment, 3 

Report of National Electric Light As- 
sociation, 1013: Discussion, 1059 

Sixty-cycle current in Cleveland, 618 

Waterbury-New Britain system, *368 

Power generation: 

Boston Elevated Rv., Output in 1912, *413 

Developments in, 994 

Direct-current turbo-generators with re- 
duction gears, *326 

Intake channel reconstruction, Washing- 
ton & Old Dominion Ry., * 5 3 6 

Progress of 1912 [Norris], 26; Comment, 4 

Reducing costs, Modern methods [Lichter 

and Gilbert], 759; Discussion, 814 

Reports of National Electric Light As- 
sociation committees, 1012 

Rotarv converter operation from single- 
phase power station, Stamford, Conn., 
*298 

Rush hour load curve, Erie R. R., 1000 

Safety valve maintenance, 55 

Switzerland, High-head hydroelectric sta- 
tion in, 496 

■ Washington & Old Dominion Rv. [Smith], 

*536 
Power stations: 

■ Developments of 1912. Brief descriptions 

of typical plants [Norris], 26; Com- 
ment, 4 

Louisville, Ky., Flood protection, 764 

Minneapolis development plans, 300 

Protection against flood, 764, 837 

Salt Lake City, Extension, *71 

Waterbury-New Britain system [Harte], 

*366; Comment, 356 
Power unit, Myriawatt recommended as, by 

A. I. E. E. and A. S. M. E., 105; 

Comment, 96 
Prime movers, Report of National Electric 

Light Association, 1012; Comment, 

994; Discussion, 1058 
Profit sharing. (See Employees; Financial) 
Providence, R. I.: 
Car inspection, 831 

Providence, Warren & Bristol R. R., 

Service increased, 565 
Rhode Island Co.: 

Discharged men reinstated, 740 

Employees' organization, Attitude of 
company toward, 657 

Express and freight traffic, *574 

Fare collection, Rooke system, *643 

Fare reduction denied, 911 

Grievance committees, 87 

Tunnel progress, 825 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Providence, R. I.: (Continued) 
Subway proposed, 734 

Prussian State Railroads, Dessau-Bitterfeld 
line, Experience with 60,000-volt trans- 
mission cables, 369 

Public policy, Report of National Electric 
Light Association committee, 1057 

Public policy committees in conference, 325; 
Comment, 317 

Public service commissions: 

Education of commissioners, 532, 555 

Regulation and not administration should 

be function of, 650 

(See also names of states) 

Public Service Company of Northern Illinois. 
(See Chicago) 

Public Service Company of Oklahoma. (See 
Tulsa, Okla.) 

Public service corporation securities: 

Demand for [Chamberlain], 982 

Stability of, 868 

Public service corporations: 

[Dunne], 303 

— —Government mediation in labor disputes 

[Low], 212, [Marks], 214 
Governors' messages, 74, 160; Comment, 

Legislation affecting [Bozell], 884- 

[Griffith], 888 
Mistaken popular notions concerning 

[Strauss], 190; Comment, 180 
National Civic Federation: 

Report [M'Millin], 210 

Work on model public utilities law, 
571 

Personnel, Influence of, on organizations, 

205 

Political influences, 140 

Regulation, Byllesby's statements, 25 

Regulation of, in Wisconsin [Ericksonl. 

577 

Relations with the public [Gillette], 888 

Report of Railroad Securities Commis- 
sion, Discussions at American Elec- 
tric Railway Association [Warren], 
185, [Crosby], [Brady], [Henry], 187, 
[Richey], 189 

Scientific management [Sullivan], 369 

Public Service Ry. (See Newark, N. T.) 
Publicity: 

Claim department methods, 56 

Discussion by Manufacturers' Association 

committee, 205 

Discussion by Society for Electrical De- 
velopment, 428 

How not to be popular, 356 

Methods and results, Public Service Cor- 
poration of New Jersey, 806 

Newspaper, Value of, as used by railway 

company, 281 

Pueblo, Col., Arkansas Vallev Railway, Light 
& Power Co., Owl cars, 391 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. (See Tacoma, 
Wash.) 

Puget Sound Traction & Light Co. (See 

Seattle, Wash.) 
Pujo committee findings and recommendations, 

434 

Purchase of railway equipment, "Car trust" 
plan of Philadelphia Equipment Se- 
curities Co., 293 

Purchased power: 

Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Ry., 

for mountain division, 290; Com- 
ment, 280 

Contracts [Norris], 29 

New York State, Extracts from reports 

of railway companies. Prices paid 
for power, 1016 



Queensland Government Rys., Narrow-gage 
gasoline cars, * 1 58 



Rail bond (Ohio Brass), *260 

Rail grinders: 

(Goldschmidt), *40 

Portable, Omaha & Council Bluffs Street 

Ry., *149 

Rail inspection at mill, Indiana Union Traction 

Co., 253 
Rail joints: 

Best kind for use in paved streets, 425 

■ Electric welded, Chicago, 1907-1911, 810 

Rivet-welded [Clark], c73 

(See also Welding, Electric) 

Rail scraper, Two bladed (Consolidated Ac- 
cessories Co.), * 1 026 

Railroad Securities Commission. Report, Dis- 
cussions at American Electric Railway 
Association [Warren], 185; [Crosby], 
[Brady], [Henry], 187; [Richev], 189 
[Bradv], [Henry], 1S7; [Richey], 189; 
[Strauss], 190 

Rails: 

Grooved section, Pacific Electric Ry., *93S 

-Report of American Railway Engineering 

Association, 127 
T-rails in paved streets (See Track con- 
struction) 

Railway Signal Association, Meetings, 551, 1056 



XII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XL1. 



Rates, Public utility, liases used in the estab- 
lishment of rates oy different com- 
missions [Norton], ^64 

Rates, Railway (bee Fares; Freight rates; 
Through routes and joint rates) 

Reading (Pa.) transit & Liglit Co., Acquisi- 
tions, 656 

Receiverships and foreclosure sales in 1912, 14 
Record forms: 
■ Accident : 

Boston, 60 

Seattle, Wash, 216 
Controller, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 

481 

Graphical log at substations, Cleveland. 

*623 

Oiling card. Fort Dodge, Des Moines & 

Southern R. R., 40 
■ Safety report slips, Fort Wayne & Northern 

Indiana Traction Co., 432 
Rectifier in electric railway practice [Bell], 

1005; Comment, 993 
Redbank, N. J., Monmouch County Electric Co., 

Fare reduction case, 780 
Reinforced concrete (See Concrete) 
Repair cars (See Work cars) 
Repair shop equipment: 

Armature coil-taping machine (Columbia), 

*646 

Axle straightener, 1158 

Banding device, Rochester lines of New 

York State Rys., '674 
Broom filling machine, Milwaukee Electric 

Railway & Light Co., *513 
Cross pit transfer table, Fort Dodge, Des 

Moines & Southern R. R., *61 
Effective, for reducing maintenance of 

equipment [Mills], 816; Discussion, 

814 

Engine lathe used with jig for boring 

armature bearings, *922 

Heater, Portable, San Francisco, *882 

Jig used for boring armature bearings in 

engine lathe, *924 

Lathe chuck for armature and axle bear- 
ings (Columbia), "646 

Painting illuminated signs, Nashville, 1158 

— Tools and jigs for finishing trolley wheels, 
*924 

— Transfer table. Flush, Detroit United Rail- 
ways, *672 

Woodworking shop, O'maha, *750 

Repair shop practice: 

Axle straightener, 1158 

Axle welding, *294 

Baltimore, United Railways & Electric Co., 

293 

Bending wheelguard fingers, *293 

Brake rigging pins with tapered ends, *593 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Electrical 

equipment of cars, *480; Comment 450 

Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. [Mills], 816 

— Erie R. R., Electrified section, *999 
Exhauster for commutator slotter to save 

copper dust, 1169 

Exhauster systems for planing mills, 617 

Hamburg Elevated & Underground Ry., 

*472 

International Ry., Buffalo, *922 

Journal brasses, Brooklyn, 101 

Labeling equipment, 790 

Manganese bronze axle check plates, 

Brooklyn, 102 

Michigan United Traction Co., *478 

Motor maintenance [ T hi rl w all ] . 370; 

Discussion, 378 

Notes [Goss], 329 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Ry., * 5 1 3 

Organization in shops [Doyle, Gove and 

McWhirter], 1148 

Oxy-acetylene welding, Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Co., *38 

Pennsylvania R. R., Maintenance of elec- 
tric locomotives. Jack-shaft bear- 
ings. *452; Comment, 450 

Piece work. Increased earnings in New 

York due to, 1143 

Planning shop production, 280 

Reboring motor shells and effect of on 

overhaul mileage, Brooklyn, *98 

San Francisco, United R. R.. *880 

Scientific management, Scope of, Report 

of American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers. 451 

Split bolt for inaccessible places (Kling), 

*300 

Standard methods [Sibbald], 1151; Dis- 
cussion, 1145 

Test of material. What constitutes a fair, 

56 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana, 510 

Welding. (See Welding, Electric) 

Repair shops: 

Design, Scientific [Neff and Thompson], 

*490 

Hamburg Elevated & Underground Ry., 

*468 

New Haven Road, for electric locomo- 
tives at Van Nest. 976 

Omaha woodworking shop, *750 

Paint shop of Detroit United Railways, 

Construction and equipment, *668 

Resistors for street railway service [Harris], 
756 

Resuscitation from electric shock. Report at 
Nation-al Electric Light Association, 
1C57 



Rheostat terminal [Dossert], *899 
Rhode Island, Legislation, 519, 602, 826 
Rhode Island Co. (See Providence, R. I.) 
Rice, E. W., Jr., becomes president of Gen- 
eral Electric Co., * 1 1 10 
Richmond, Va., Virginia Railway & Power 
Co.: 

Carhouses and shops, Scientific design 

[Neff and Thompson], *490 

Operating proposal, 559 

Right-of-way, Cultivation of unused, 747 
Roanoke, Va., Strike, 861, 903, 941, 1118 
Rochester, N. Y., New York State Rys. : 
— ■ — Brake hanger, Light weight, *752 

Cars, New design, *644 

Conference concerning service, 233 

Continuous ride order, 526 

■ Educational experiment in co-operation 

with the Mechanics' Institute, 461 

Exhibit at Syracuse, *974 

Line inspection and repair, Utica, N. 

Y., 474 

Mileage maintenance system on Syracuse 

lines, 542 

Poles, Concrete, Manufacture and speci- 
fications, *502 

■ — — Recommendations in regard to service, by 
C. R. Barnes, 689 

Sanding device, *674 

Service, Reply of company to sugges- 
tions of Council Committee, 939 

Through cars tc Buffalo, 948 

Routing of cars, Chicago, Report of Board of 
Supervising Engineers, *895 

Rules and announcements, Use of good lan- 
guage in, 837 

Rural communities: 

Benefits of electric railway service, In- 
vestigation by tlie Legislature of 
Massachusetts, 406 

Possibilities in the East, Report of Na- 
tional Electric Light Association com- 
mittee, 1058; Comment. 1047 



s 

Sacramento, Cal., Report on traffic [Arnold], 
911 

Safety appliance order of New York Public 
service Commission, 821 

Safety campaigns. (See Accident claim de- 
partment, Prevention of accidents) 

Safety committees. (See Employees) 

Saginaw, Mich., Franchise negotiations, 825, 
903 

St. Joseph (Mo.) Railway, Light, Heat & 
Power Co.: 

Annual statement, 270 

Stock sale, 231 

St. Lawrence International Electric Railroad 
& Land Co. (See Alexandria Bay, 
N. Y.) 

St. Louis, Mo.: 

Express and freight traffic methods of 

Illinois Traction System, "282 

St. Louis & Western Traction Co., Plans, 

559 

Traffic conditions. Report of Public 

Service Commission. Recommenda- 
tion of increases in service and trail- 
car service, 676 

United Rys.: 

Annual report, 393 
Car-washing plant, *722 
Protest against assessment, 1084 
Report of Public Service Commis- 
sion [Allison], 248, 688; Com- 
ment, 239 
Statement concerning recommenda- 
tions in the report of the Public 
Service Commission, 688 
Transfer compromise, 1182 

St. Paul, Extension case, 1175 

Salt Lake City: 

Extensions proposed, 599 

Salt Lake & Utah R. R., Progress on 

construction, 340 

Utah Light & Railway Co.: 

Freight transportation proposed, 780 
Power plant extension, *71 

San Antonio (Tex.) Traction Co., Wage in- 
crease. 232 

San Diego, Cal.: 

Los Angeles & San Diego Beach Ry., 

Storage battery cars, *938 
San Diego Electric Ry.: 

Center-entrance cars and new shops, 
811 

Turbo-generators with reduction gear, 
*326 

San Francisco, Cal.: 

California Railway & Power Co., Divi- 
dend, 440 

Franchises, Proposed terms, 850 

Geary Street Municipal R R.: 

Car, Standard type, *896 
Construction figures, 80. 127 
Extension proposed, 391, 435, 733, 

862, 1083, 1175 
Financial results of operation, 226 
Financial statement bv Mayor Rolph, 
1082 

Joint use of tracks proposed, 691 
Opening of first section, 43, 80 
Traffic agreement, 1034 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



San Francisco, Cal.: (Continued) 
Panama exposition: 

Machinery exhibits, 808 

Transportation problems, 281, 556 
Passenger handling records, Comparison 

with Chicago, 257 

San Francisco Development League, 165 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys.: 

Pension system, 47 

Refinancing plan, 1121 
Track agreement, 863 

Transportation conditions, Reports [Ar- 
nold], 62, 256, 733, 844; Comment, 

839 

United R. R.: 

Application to refund issues of sub- 
sidiaries. 45, 344 
Repair shop practice, *880 
Track maintenance and reconstruc- 
tion, *462 
Welding, Electric arc, »67, *880 
United Railways Investment Co., Finan- 
ces, 396 

San Luis ObispO, Cal., Pacific Coast Ry., 

Narrow-gage combination car, *899 
Sand-drying plant, Lincoln, Neb., * 1 59 
Sand elevator car, United R. R. of San Fran- 
cisco, *467 

Santa Barbara (Cal.) & Suburban Ry., Notes, 

*857 

Scales, Track, in San Francisco shop, *882 
Schedule boards for city lines, Fort Wayne, 

Ind., *72 
Schedules : 

Construction of crew and car schedules 

[Dempsey], 1151; Discussion, 1142 

Train schedule held to be a contract, 

Maryland decision, 698 

Scientific management, Scope of, 451 

Scotland, Aberdeen Corporation Tramways, 
Double-deck prepayment cars, *385 

Scranton (Pa.) Ry.: 

Contracts for central station energy, 772 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Rapid 

Transit Co., Reorganization, 1122 
Seattle, Wash. : 

Highland Park & Lake Burien R. R., 

Sale, 563, 825, 946 
Municipal street railway, History and 

equipment of, 753 
Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co.: 

Cable road improvements, *1108 

Franchise case, 560 

Safety work, 216 
Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. : 

Appraisal, 304 

Condemnation case to Supreme Court, 

559 

Receivership and sale of property, 

696 

Selection of trainmen. (See Employees) 

Self-propelled cars. (See Gasoline cars; Stor- 
age battery cars) 

Seneca Falls, N. Y., Geneva & Auburn Ry., 
Financial plan proposed, 778 

Service cars. (See Work cars) 

Service wagons, Storage battery, 37 

Shovel cars. (See Work cars) 

Shreveport (La.) Traction Co., Franchise ex- 
tension ordinance, 691 

Signal department, Work of [Mann], 962 

Signals : 

Block system : 

Discussion by joint committee of 
American Electric Railway En- 
gineering and Transportation & 
Traffic Associations, 204, 550 

East Cambridge extension of Boston 
Elevated Ry., *365 

Illinois Traction System, 435 

Indiana situation, 127, 304, 380, 496, 
843, 877, 1079 

Maintenance, Illinois Traction system, 
501 

Oregon Electric Ry., 1055 

Progress in 1912, 7 
Crossing, Trolley contact: 

[Nachodl. *298 

(U. S. Electric Signal), *259 
Indiana : 

Man of protected sections, 843 

Order for interurban railways, 127, 
304, 380, 496, 843, 877, 1079 
■ Interlocking plants, Hearing on rules for, 

in Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and 

Minnesota, 541 
Operation. Effect of mental and treated 

ties on track circuits. 543 
Light: 

Performance record, Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 
Co., 512 

Suggested system [Thompson], 117 

Maintenance of [Mann], 962 

Simmen system, Indianapolis & Cincinnati 

Traction Co., 266, 337 
Switch indicator (Union Switch & Signal 

Co.), *859 

— Yonkers, N. Y., installation, *296 

Signs on cars: 

"Car full" signs in Boston, 443 

Destination, Milwaukee Electric Railway 

& Light Co., 526 

Numbered signs in California, 666 

- Peoria Ry., 1170 

Simplon Tunnel, Maintenance experience, 802 



January — June, 1913.] 



INDEX. 



XIII 



Single-phase railway motors |I5ellJ, *1003; 

Comment, 993; [Latour], 1067 
Single-phase railways: 

Cost of operation, Estimated [Kahler], 932 

Cost of power on different systems 

[Sparks], 1062 

Erie R. R., Electrified section. Main- 
tenance and present condition, *998; 
Comment, 993 

—Midi Ry., France, 793, 1067 

— ■ — Spain, between Pamplona and Sanguesa, 
•801 

Sleeping cars. (See Cars). 
Smoking on cars: 

Cleveland, Protest against dead cigars, 525 

Kansas City, Not allowed, 870 

New Jersey rules, 831 

New York City, Hearing, 1111; Comment, 

1099 

Philadelphia, 172, 317 

Snow scraper for limited clearance spaces, In- 
ternational Ry., Buffalo, 1171 
Society for Electrical Development: _ 

Inaugural Conference in New York, 428 

Organization of, and officers, 119, 1118 

South Bend, Ind., Chicago, South Bend & 
Northern Indiana Ry., Block signals, 
843 

South Carolina Light, Power & Radways Co. 

(See Spartanburg, S. C.) 
South Fork-Portage Ry. (See Johnstown, Pa.) 
Southern New England R. R. offered to 

Rhode Island, 692 
Southern Pacific R. R. : 

Disposition of electric lines, 395 

Electrification progress, 1009 

■ Separate management for electric lines, 

1034 

Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association, 
Convention, 963, 1019 

Spain, Single-phase railway between Pam- 
plona and Sanguesa, *801 

Spartanburg, S. C, South Carolina Light, 
Power & Railways Co., Control and 
financial condition, 131 

Speed of cars, Report of Chicago Board of 
Supervising Engineers, 894 

Speed of trains, Control device [Home & 
Crane], 1115 

Spokane, Wash., Near-side stops. 658, 831 

Springfield, 111.: 

Clear Lake & Rochester Interurban Ry., 

Sale, 909 

■ Freight house, Illinois Traction System, 

*930 

Springfield (Mass.) Street Ry., Traffic prob- 
lems, 132 

Springfield (Mo.) Traction Co., Steel tie and 

concrete track construction, 208 
Springfield (Ohio) Ry., Franchise, 825 
Sprinkling systems. (See Fire protection) 
Standards. Proposed changes by American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, 431 
Staten Island. (See New York City, Fare 

concession) 
Statistics : 

Accidents on interstate electric railways, 

47, 1180 

Accidents on steam railways, 1908-1913, 

551 

Austrian electric railways, 414 

Canadian electric railways, 224 

Cars ordered in 1912, 11; Comment, 1, 

57 

Chicago, Report of Board of Supervising 

Engineers, 809 

Cincinnati, Report on terminal possibili- 
ties [Arnold], 330 

Cleveland Ry., 1072 

Cost and other data of electrified steam 

roads [Sparks], 1062 

Great Britain and Ireland Railways, 258 

■ Hungary, 860 

Illinois Electric Rys., 1912, 690 

Japan railways, 196 

Mileage, for 1912, 15; Comment, 57 

Steam railroads, for 1912, 40 

Texas interurban railways, 339 

■ Track built in 1912, 15; Comment, 57 

Traffic, Boston Elevated Ry., 287 

Steam railroad electrification. (See Heavy 

electric traction) 
Steam railroad electrification and financial com- 
mission proposed by F. J. Sprague, 
586; Comment, 573 
Steam railroads: 

Revenues and expenses, Summary of, 426 

■ Statistics for 1912, 40 

Stock car. (See Work cars) 
Stockport, England, Trackless trolley service, 
*805 

Stoker, Mechanical underfeed (Sanford Riley), 

*337 

Stop and speed control. Automatic, for trains 

[Home & Crane], 1115 
Stopping of cars: 

Cleveland, Alternate-stop, 141 

: Davenport, la., Near-side stops, 398 

— ■ — Denver, Skip-stop plan, 857 

Dubuque, la.. Near-side, 1181 

Indiana, "Stop signal" order. 88 

Kewanee, 111., Near-side, 1181 

Los Angeles, Cal., Skip-stop idea, 346 

■ — —Portland, Ore, Skip-stop idea, 88, 172 

Spokane, Wash.. Near-side stops, 658, 831 

Toledo, Near-side stop, 133 



Storage batteries for stations at Cleveland, 618 
Storage battery cars: 

Beach-Edison, Performance of, 767 

Combination passenger and baggage, Los 

Angeles & San Diego Beach Ry., *938 
Construction of .American and Prussian 

[Biittner], c335; [Scott], c383 
Control circuits, 748 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R., 

W aterbury-Meriden Line, 518 

Operating records [Dodd and Arnold], 

934, 965 

Run between New York and Boston, 429, 

767 

Storage battery tractor for city switching 
service, Pennsylvania R. R., lersey 
City, *768 

Storage yards. (See Yards) 

Stores, Co-operative. (See Employees, Co- 
operative stores) 

Straps, Car, Advertising feature [Newton], 
*259 

Street lighting, Need of improved, 353 
Strike losses, Municipal responsibility for, De- 
cision of U. S. District Court, New- 
ark, N. J., 879 

Strikes : 

Asheville, N. C, 863, 1084 

Beaumont, Texas, 1033 

Birmingham, Ala., 1174 

Buffalo, International Ry., 665, *674, 730, 

771, 825, 941, 978, 994, 1030 

Cincinnati. Arbitration efforts, *890, 921, 

939, 979 

Colorado Springs, Col., 903 

Fort William, Ont., 903, 941 

Halifax, N. S., 941, 1083 

Jamestown, N. Y., 825, 901. 1081 

Phoenix, Ariz., 1174 

Receivers to end, 921 

— Roanoke, Va„ 861, 903, 941, 1118 

Yonkers, N. Y., 43, 81 

Substations : 

Buffalo, International Railway Co, De- 
sign and construction of buildings. 
Arrangement of equipment, *840 

Cleveland Ry. with 60-cycle converters 

and storage batteries, *618 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry., *727 

Oregon Electric Ry., *1053 

Stamford, Conn., *298 

Washington & Old Dominion Ry. [Smith], 

*539 

Sweden, Heavy electric traction conditions, 

34, 818; Comment, 9 
Switch indicator (Union Switch & Signal), 

*859 

Switchboard instruments [MacGahan], 1013; 

Discussion, 1059 
Switchboards : 

Buffalo substations, Details of low-ten- 
sion boards, *840 

Cleveland Ry., *622 

Switches, Electric: 

Disconnecting (E. S. S. Co.), *552 

Pole-top disconnecting (E. E. E. Co,), *77 

Switzerland : 

Heavy electric traction conditions, 34; 

Comment, 9 

Spiez-Frutigen Ry. Comparative energy 

consumption, 509 

Street railway statistics, 1911, 765 

Syracuse, N. Y. : 

Empire LJnited Rys., Consolidation of 

Beebe, Syndicate lines, 228, 271, 344 
Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern Ry. : 

Brake rigging pins, *593 

Fare reduction, 49 
Syracuse Rapid Transit, Fare collection, 

Ohmer system, 374 



T 



Tabulating machine (Hollerith) for tabulating 
statistics and accounts, Portland Rail- 
way, Light & Power Co., *853 

Tacoma, Wash. : 

Municipal railway proposed, 435, 903 

Puget Sound Electric Ry., Fare question 

between Seattle and Tacoma, 173, 310 

Tacoma Railway & Power Co., Extensions 

[Shackleford], 948 

Tax assessment in Wisconsin, 691 

Taxation. Corporation tax for leased com- 
panies, Escape from, U. S. Supreme 
Court decision, 878 

Terminals and terminal stations: 

Boston Elevated Ry. Improvements, *361 

*408 

Buffalo, Electrification, 864 

Chicago, Electrification, 254, 883, 904, 

1030, 1116, 1117 
Cincinnati : 

Controversy over use of canal land, 
164 

Report on possibilities in [Arnold], 
330 

Elevated, for interurban lines, 705 

Interurban railways [Hanlon], 814; Dis- 
cussion, 813 
Newark, N. J., *246 

Peoria, 111., Illinois Traction System, 310 

St. Louis freight terminal, Illinois Trac- 
tion System, *282 
Terre Haute, Ind., Proposed, *336 



Terre Haute (Ind.), Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Co. : 

Block signals, 496, 843 

Flood damage, 725 

Signals, Light, Performance record, 512 

Terminal at Terre Haute, *336 

■ Wage increase, 831, 1091 

Tests of equipment, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co., Electric car equipment, 484; 

Comment, 450 

Texas : 

Interurban railway construction in 1912, 

339 

Legislation, 735 

Texas public utility commission proposed, 209 
Thermit welding. (See Welding, Electric) 
Third Avenue Ry. (See New York City) 
1 hird rail and overhead clearances, Report of 

American Railway Association, *935 
Through routes and joint rates: 
Ilmois Traction System, Opinion of In- 
terstate Commerce Commission, 442, 
531 

Rochester-Buffalo, 948 

Union Traction Company of Kansas, 346 

Ticket seller and the public [Van Zandt], 346 
Tickets: 

Commutation, What it implies, Buffalo, 

397 

Folding, New method in Cleveland, *258 

Metal, Sale of, in New Bedford, Mass., 

877 

Prepayment cars, Use of tickets with, 239 

(See also Transfers) 

Tie plates, Principles of design, 544 
Ties : 

Effect of metal and treated, on track cir- 
cuits, 543 

Prolonging mechanical life of ties, 355 

Steel, in concrete beams, Cleveland Ry., 

*886 

Treatment. (See Timber preservation) 

Timber preservation: 

American Wood Preservers' Association, 

Annual meeting, 150, 220; Comment, 
182 

Car lumber [Waterman], 153 

Combustibility of the preservative, 153 

Comparison of zinc chloride with coal-tar 

creosote for cross-ties [Weiss], 151 
Electrical resistance of ties, Effect of 

treatment, 152 
Financial saving due to use of preserva- 
tives, 152 

Oregon Electric Ry., * 1 05 1 

Pacific Electric Ry., 755 

Paving timber [Davis], 154 

Penetration of wood during treatment, 

Ability of preservative, 151 
Permanency of the preservation and effect 

of treatment on strength of ties, 152 
Requirements for successful treatment 

[Von Schrenk], 154 
Wood decay and preservation [ Griffin 1, 

1013; Discussion, 1059 
Time tables for outlying lines, 665 

(See also Schedules) 

Toledo, Ohio: 

Fare, Three-cent, 127 

Municipal ownership resolution, 389 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Ry. (See 

Kendallville, Ind.) 
Toledo Railways S: Light Co.; 

Annual report, 867 

Change of personnel, 696 

Fare schedule, 263 

Franchise negotiations, 730 

Injunction case, 777, 830, 869 

Near-side stops, 133 

Safety campaign, 658 

Wage increase, 780 
Toledo Traction, Light & Power Co.: 

Bond sale. 345 

Decision in control case, 945 

Organization, 396 
Tornadoes in Omaha and Terra Haute, *638 
Toronto, Ont.: 

Civic line opened, 43 

Expropriation case, Award in, 824 

Municipal ownership, 825, 902, 941, 942, 

1085; Reports [Arnold], 769, 968 
Reports on improvements and development 

of the metropolitan district. Estimates 

of future traffic. Subway and motor 

buses considered [Arnold], 769, 968 

Subway proposed in Arnold report, 970 

Toronto Ry. Annual report, 521 

Toronto, Uxbridge & Port Perry Ry., 

Subsidy for, 303 
Tower cars : 

Erie R. R., Electrified section, * 1 00 1 

Gasoline : 

Illinois Traction System, *900 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Co., *642 

Tower wagons: 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., *1080 

Storage battery, Trenton type, 37 

Track construction: 

Ballast, Proper depth, 545 

Chicago. Report of Board of Supervising 

Engineers, 810 
Cleveland. Rehabilitation of track. Steel 

ties in concrete slab, Temporary track, 

*104, *886 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



XIV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XLI. 



Tracks construction: (Continued) 

Concrete, Proposed type, Houston, Tex. 

[Archibald], 964; Discussion, 1019 

Costs of, at Detroit, 897 

Crossings for steam railways at paved 

streets, *S45 

East Cambridge viaduct, *362 

Laying track under traffic, Michigan 

United Traction Co., *476 

Michigan United Traction Co., Organiza- 
tion and methods, *475 

■ Oregon Electric Ry., X054 

Progress in, 5 

San Francisco, United R. R., *462 

Sand cushion support for cross-ties, Van- 
couver, B. C, *511 

Special work [Angerer], 1020 

Springfield, Mo., Steel ties and concrete 

construction, 208 

Statistics for 1912, 15; Comment, 57 

Street crossings, *545 

T-rails in paved streets: 

Houston, Tex., No more T-rails, 1118 
Illinois Traction System, *61 
Lexington, Ky. [MacLeod], *335 
Toledo, Ohio [Swartz], c209 

Tie plate design, 544 

(See also Welding) 

Track maintenance: 

Cultivation of right-of-way, 747 

Life of ties, Prolonging, 355 

Replacing overturned track, Louisville & 

Nashville R. R., *729 

■ Rules added to standard instructions, 

American Railway Engineering As- 
sociation, 543 

San Francisco, United R. R., *462 

Special work [Angerer], 1022 

Temporary track laid on street surface for 

rerouting cars, 886 

Trackless trollev, Stockport. England, *805 

Trackless trolley bus, Merrill, Wis., *1080 

Traffic charts, San Antonio, Tex. [King], 965; 
Discussion, 1019 

Traffic departments. Relations of steam and 
electric railways [Landis], c765 

Traffic investigations, Cities: 

Boston passenger referendum, *856 

Cincinnati suburban lines, 330 

Kansas City, Mo., Report [Arnold], 716 

Newark, N. L, Report to mayor, 658 

■ Philadelphia [Ford], 598 

Sacramento, Cal. [Arnold], 911 

— i — St. Louis. Report of Public Service Com- 
mission. Recommendation of in- 
creases in service and trail-car serv- 
ice, 676 

San Francisco, Reports [Arnold], 62, 256, 

733, 839, 844 

Toronto, Report on improvement and de- 
velopment of the metropolitan district. 
Estimates of future traffic [Arnold]. 
968 

Traffic promotion, Sale of metal tickets, Con- 
venience as an asset to railways, 877 
Trail cars. (See Cars) 
Train delavs and detentions: 

Erie R. R., Electrical causes, 1000 

New York Central R. R., Electrical causes, 

587 

New York State, Statement of Public 

Service Commission, 975 
Train operation: 

Accident, New York Elevated Rv.. 181 

Derailments on curves [Shurtleft], 253 

Trainmen's quarters. (See Employees) 
Transfer table, Flush, Detroit United Ry., 

*672 
Transfers : 

Brooklyn Hearing, 1181 

Chicago suit, 311 

Cincinnati, Ordinance, 1182 

Color scheme', Lincoln, Neb., 1181 

Infection from, 95 

St. Louis, 1182 

Transmission lines: 

Construction [Coombs], 1014 

Erection and protection of high-tension 

lines [Nelson], 1020 

Inductive interference. Reports of joint 

California committee, 512, 531 

New York State Rys., Inspection and re- 
pairs, 474 

Reports of National Electric Light As- 
sociation committees, 1014 
YVaterburv-New Britain system [Harte], 

*366 

Transportation and city planning [Maltbie], 

1106; Comment, 1100 
Tread, Home-made safety for car steps, 548 
Trenton, N. J.: 

■ New Jersey &• Pennsylvania Traction Co., 

Fare increase between Trenton and 
Princeton, 172, 324; Comment 318 

Trenton & Mercer County Traction Corp.: 

Improvement plans for 1913, 901 
Turbo-generators with reduction gear, 
*327 

Trespassers, Laws against, 55 

Tri-City Ry. (See Davenport, la.) 

Tri-State Railway & Electric Co. (See East 

Liverpool, O.) 
Trolley guard, Automatic (E. S. S. Co.), *1026 
Trolley harp with spring and knuckle joint 
for retaining wheel (Special Elec- 
tric), *159 

Trolley wheel, Roller-bearing (American), *900 



Trolley wire and overhead frog location on 
curves [Barnard], * 1 1 55 

Trucks : 

■ Changes of design and increased efficiency, 

407 

Maximum-traction vs. M. C. R. [Bene- 
dict], 1157; Discussion, 1144 

Tulsa, Okla., Public Service Company of 
Oklahoma, Incorporated, 1179 

Tunnel, Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry., *726 

Turbines, Hydraulic, Efficiency record, Ap- 
palachian Power Co., New River, Va., 
720 

Turbo-generators: 

Balancing of alternator rotors, 496 

Design and construction of turbo-alter- 
nators, Comment on paper by Lamme, 
97 

Reduction gears: 

Cleveland, 158 
Design of, *327 

Two types, San Diego, Cal., Trenton, 
N. J., and Bridgeport, Conn., *327 

Report of National Electric Light Asso- 
ciation, 1012 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (See Minne- 
apolis, Minn.) 



u 

Underground Electric Railways. (See London) 
Union Street Ry. (See New Bedford, Mass.) 
Union Traction Co. (See Independence, Kan.) 
Union Traction Co. of Indiana. (See Ander- 
son, Ind.) 

LTnited Properties Co. (See Oakland, Cal.) 
United Railroads. (See San Francisco) 
LTnited Railways. (See St. Louis) 
United Railways Investment Co. (See San 
Francisco) 

United Traction Co. (See Albany, N. Y.) 
L'niversitv of Illinois, Dedication of build- 
ings, 823, 883 
Upper Darby, Pa. : 

Philadelphia & Westchester Traction Co.: 

Extension of Garrettford lines to 
Borough of Media, *589 
Wage increase, 658 

Philadelphia & Western Ry., Wage in- 
crease, 273 

Utah, Legislation, 519, 561 

Utah Light & Railway Co. (See Salt Lake 
City) 

V 

Valuations. (See Appraisal of railway prop- 
erty) 

Vancouver, B. C, British Columbia Electric 
Ry: 

Power improvements, 652 

■ Ties supported on sand cushion, * 5 1 1 

Vancouver, Wash., Washington-Oregon Cor- 
poration, Car for city and light inter- 
urban service, *300 
Ventilation of cars: 

Brooklyn Center-entrance car, *714 

Chicago near-side cars, 311 

■ [Lavelle], 1168 

Vestibuled cars. Safety of, 1105 
Vestibuled trains on sharp curves, 623 
Virginia Railway & Power Co. (See Rich- 
mond, Va.) 
Volt-ammeter, Portable [Weston], *728 
Voucher system. (See Accounting) 



w 

Waco (Tex.) Street Ry., Experience with 

one-man prepayment cars, 578 
Wage arbitration, Chicago, 615 
Wage limits, Problem of ultimate, 571 

Wages: 

Akron Ohio, Increase, 698, 871 

Atlanta, Ga., Increase, 48 

Binghamton, N. Y., Increase, 272 

Boston Elevated Ry., Increase, 49 

Brooklyn, Increase, 1040 

Chicago elevated railways, 615, 732, 749 

—Cleveland Ry., 927 

Davenport, la., Increase, 986, 1040 

Davton, Ohio, Increase, 1040 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion Co., 606 

— — Governors' messages, 74, 160; Comment, 
139 

Great Britain, Lower wages [Clark], 193 

Indianapolis, Increase, 1091 

Tamestown, N. Y., Increase, 740 

Kewanee, 111., Increase, 985 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., Increase, 273 

Louisville, Ky., Increase, 978 

Montreal, Increase, 985 

New Orleans, 1091 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 698 

Parkersburg, W. Va., Increase, 870 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Increase, 

733 

Philadelphia & Westchester Traction Co., 

658 

Philadelphia & Western Ry., Increase, 273 

Portland, Ore., Increase, 1091 

Richmond, Ind., Increase, 831 

San Antonio, Texas, 232 

Third Avenue Ry., Increase, 171 



Wages: (Continued) 

■ Toledo, Increase, 780 

Windsor, Ont., 870 

Waiting stations: 

Boston Elevated Ry., *408 

Hamburg Subway & Elevated Ry., *417 

Oregon Electric Ry., * 1 053 

Pacific Electric Ry., Mission style of 

architecture, *966 

Philadelphia suburban line, * 589 

Wallkill Transit Co. (See Middletown, N. Y.) 

Warehouse Point, Conn., Hartford & Spring- 
field Street Ry., Dividend, 868 

Washing of cars, Plant at St. Louis, *722 

Washington : 

Legislation, 437, 519, 602 

Tax Commission's assessment, 1175 

Washington, D. C. : 

Capital Traction Co. : 

Annual report, 306 

Transfer difficulty with motor bus 
line, 356 

District Electric Railway Commission, 

Annual report, 301 
Merger proposed, 128 

Motor bus line transfer difficulties, 356 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec- 
tric Ry. (See Baltimore) 
Washington & Old Dominion Ry.: 

Electrical equipment [Smith], 534 

Rate hearing, 173 
Washington Railway & Electric Co.: 

Annual report, 1087 

Double-deck car, 304, *430; Com- 
ment, 405 

Earnings for 1912, 343 

Merit system, 88 

Profit sharing with employees, 87 

Service increased, 273 

Transfer difficulty with motor bus 

line, 356 

Washington Utilities Co. organ-zed, 128 

Washington-Oregon Corporation. (See Van- 
couver) 

Way and buildings. Progress in 1912, 5 
Weed killer, Los Angeles, * 1 1 69 
Welding, Electric: 

Chicago, Improved methods. Report of 

Board of Supervising Engineers, 810 
Economies, 1133 

San Francisco and Los Angeles experi- 
ence, *67 

— San Francisco shops, List of savings, *880 
— — Thermit, Goldschmidt simplified method, 

*76 

— Third Avenue R. R., New York, *1 102 
Welding, Oxy-acetylene, Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Co., *38 
Welfare work. (See Employees) 
West Penn Electric Co. (See Pittsburg) 
West Penn Traction & Water Power Co. 

(See Pittsburgh) 
West Virginia, Legislation, 305 
West Virginia Public Service Commission, 

Members, 1084 
West Virginia Public Utility Bill, 1082 
Westchester Street R. R. (See White Plains, 
N. Y.) 

Westerly. R. I., Pawcatuck Vallev Street Rv., 
Sale. 46 

Western Railways & Light Co. (See Cham- 
paign, 111.) 
Western State Rv. (See France) 
Western Red Cedar Association, Annual 

meeting. 156 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 

Annual report, 944 
Wheel-grinding machine, Michigan United 

Traction Co., *479 
Wheel tread, Report of Chicago Board of 

Supervising Engineers, 894 
Wheels, Transfer from interurban to city 

service. Michigan United Traction 

Co., 478 

White, T. G., New companies organize. 84 
White & Co., Inc., J. G., Annual report, 1036 
White Plains, N. Y.. Westchester Street 
R. R., Value of property, Decision of 
Public Service Commission, 381 
Willoughby, Ohio, Cleveland, Painesville & 

Eastern R. R.: 
Annual report, 520 

Transmission case, Rehearing before Ohio 

Public Service Commission, 723 

Wilmington (Del.) & Philadelphia Traction 
Co., Taken over by National Prop- 
erties Co., 130 

Windsor, Ont., Sandwich, Windsor & Am- 
herstburg Ry., Wage increase, 870 

Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Ry. : 

Annual report, 695 

Traffic report, 691 

Wire, Fence, Non-corrosive, 545 

Wire for overhead distribution circuits [Stev- 
enson], 1014 

Wisconsin: 

■ Legislation, 305, 341, 392, 437, 602, 653, 

735, 774, 826, 865, 905, 943, 1034, 
1086, 1176 

Tax assessment, 691 

Wisconsin Electrical Association: 

Annual meeting, 106, 115 

■ Liability insurance committee, Report, 111 

Papers at annual meeting, 108 

Wisconsin Railroad Commission: 

■ Investigation of service in Milwaukee, 232 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



January — June, 1913.] 



INDEX. 



XV 



Wisconsin Railroad Commission: (Continued) 
Milwaukee fare case, Decision [Mack], 

110; Comment, 181, 1101; 272, 1081 
Regulation of public utilities [Erickson], 

577 

Woodworking shop. (See Repair shops) 
Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Ry. : 

Express service, 347 

Power costs, 1078 

Power situation, 340 

Service recommendation, 606, 870 

Work cars: 

Boston Elevated Ry., 640-hp work-car 

locomotive, *295 



Work Cars: (Continued) 

Derrick cars, Chicago Elevated Railway, 

*1 15 

Efficiency of service cars, Increasing, 181 

Kansas City, Mo., Asphalt car, "479 

San Francisco, Derrick, shovel and bitu- 
men cars, "462 
Work order system. (See Accounting) 
Workmen's compensation laws: 

Governors' messages, 74, 160; Comment, 

139 

National Civic Federation, Efforts of 

[McMillinl, 210; [Belmont], 214 



Y 

Yards, Open storage, One objection to, 353 
Yonkers (N. Y.) R. R.: 

Service resumed, 126 

Signal installation, *296 

Strike, 43, 81 

York (Pa.) Ry.: 

Accident prevention campaign, 740 

A.c.-d.c. equipment [Greene], 1024 

Annual report, 167 

z 

Zinc chloride. (See Timber preservation) 



AUTHOR INDEX 



H 



Armstrong, A. H. Steam road electrifications, 
17 

Ayers, M. V. Accounting versus statistics, 803 



Barnard, J. H., Jr. Location of trolley wire 
and overhead frogs on curves, * 1 1 5 5 

Bell, D. C. Selection and instruction of 
trainmen, 815 

Bell, Louis. Progress in electric power trans- 
mission practice, 31 

Single-phase railway motors, *1003 

Belmont, August. Workmen's compensation 
laws, 214 

Benedict, H. A. Maximum-traction trucks 
versus M. C. B. trucks, 1157 

Bolen, N. W. Relations between employees 
and supervisory force, 1153 

Burch, E. P. Great Northern Railway elec- 
trification in Montana, 117 

New York Central locomotive rating, c818 

Burleigh, J. J. Present tendency of street 
railway operating expenses, 187 

Biittner, A. Construction of American and 
Prussian accumulator cars, c335 



Childs, H. J. Some power distribution prob- 
lems, 421 

Clark, C. H. Riveted-welded joints, c73 
Clark, W. T. Discussion on rates and fares, 
192 

Conklin, G. H. A remarkable series of co- 
incidences, c73 

Crane, C. F. Park management and its trans- 
portation problems, 507 

Crane, I. L. Railway motor connections, 
"c*1114 



Dana, Edward. Accident prevention in Bos- 
ton, *58 

Davis, H. G. Timber for creosoted block 
paving, 154 

Dempsey, J. J. Construction of schedules, 1151 
Doyle, J. S., W. G. Gore and J. S. McWhirter. 

Operating economies, 1148 
Duffy, C. N. Effect of load factor on cost of 

electric railway passenger service, 195 



Elkins, A. F., F. K. Young and F. Pantel. 

Central Electric Railway Accountants' 
Association, 1168 



Ford, G. L. Voucher indexing simplified, 1167 



Ilammett, Edward. Dispatching and handling 

street cars and train crews, 108 
Hanlon, J. F., Interurban terminals, 814 
Harris, F. W. Resistors for street railway 
service, 756 

Harte, C. R. Modern power network — the 
Waterburv-New Britain system, *366 

Heindle, W. A. Tale of two cities, 506 

Henry, C. L. Conditions on the Indianapolis 
& Cincinnati Traction Co., 636 

Ilyland. W. II. Successful claim agent, 420 



Kalweit, G. W. Work order system adaptable 
to public utilities, 113 



Landis. L, II. Relations of Steam and elec- 
tric railwav traffic departments, c765 

I.avelle, H. E. Ventilation of electric cars, 
1168 

Low, Seth. Government mediation in railroad 
labor disputes. 212 



M 



MacLeod, George. T-rail construction in 

paved streets, c*335 
M'Kehvav. G. H. Feeding steet intersections, 

*504 

Keeping track of feeders, *217 

M'Millin, Emerson. Report of the Department 
of Regulation of Interstate and Mu- 
nicipal Utilities. 210 

M'Phillips, James. Interurban railway versus 
the citv railwav. 423 

McWhirter. J. S. (See Doyle. J. S.) 

Maltbie, M. R. Transportation and city plan- 
ning, 1106 

Marks, M. E. Industrial mediation laws, 214 
Mills, G. A. Effective shop equipment for re- 
ducing maintenance of equipment, 
816 



N 

Neereamer, A. L. Report as chairman of the 
Central Electric Traffic Association, 
378 

Report as secretarv-treasurer of the Cen- 
tral Electric Railwav Association, 377 

Neff, C. A., and T. P. Thompson. Scientific 
design of carhouses and shops. *490 

Norris, H. H. Developments during 1912 in 
power plant design, 26 



Ohmer, J. F. Human factor in fare collection 
service, 373 



Radcliffe, G. L. Operation of trailers in con- 
nection with peak load city service, 
422 

Richey, A. S. Discussion of report of Rail- 
road Securities Commission, 189 

Rifenberick, R. B. Valuation as covered by 
recent legislation, 1163 

Rippey, A. G. Successful methods of prevent- 
ing accidents, 760 



Scott, Leroy. Construction of American and 
Prussian accumulator cars, c383 

Sibbald, John. Standard methods for me- 
chanical department, 1151 

Smith, W. N. Washington & Old Dominion 
Railway, *534 

Sparks, J. B. Electric railway costs, 1061 

Stearns, R. B. Discussion on rates and fares, 
189 

Steuart, W. M., Forthcoming Census report, 
c818 

Storer, N. W. Development of the electric 

railway motor, 21 
Strauss, Frederick. Some mistaken popular 

notions concerning public service 

corporations, 190 
Sullivan, C. O. Interline freight business, 

374 

Swartz, A. T-rail pavement construction, c209 



Tbirlwall, J. C. Economies in motor main- 
tenance. 370 
Thompson, T. P. (See Neff, C. A.) 



Von Schrenk, Hermann. Requirements for 
successful timber treatment, 154 



w 



Walsh, Frank. Freight and express on elec- 
tric roads, 1154 

Waterman, J. H. Preservation of lumber for 
car construction, 153 

Weiss, H. F. Comparison of zinc chloride 
with coal-tar creosote for preserving 
cross-ties, 151 

Whitney, W. S. Address as president of the 
Central Electric Railwav Association, 
377 

Wilson, II. L. Accounting versus statistics, 

c859 



Gilbert, D. W. Modern methods of reducing 
generating costs, 759 

Gonzenbach, Ernest. Report of liability in- 
surance committee, 111 

Gove, W. G. (See Doyle, J. S.) 

Goss, E. W. Notes along the line, 329 



Pantel, F. (See Elkins, A. F.) 

Price, A. L. Mounting of radial couplers, 372 



Young, F. K. (See Elkins, A. F.) 



XVI 



INDEX. 
PERSONAL 



[Vol. XLI. 



Abbott, F. W., 134 

Adams, H. H., 912 

Aid, VV. F., 832 

Akarman, J. N., 7-11 

Akens, Albert E., 400 

Akers, Albert, 781 

Allen, E. C, 1182 

Allen, H. C, 347 

Allison, James E., 872 

Alston, T. P., 312 

Anderson, A. A., 89, 699 

Anderson, Alfred, 89 

Anderson, George VV'., 1183 

Antonisen, J., 987 

Armstrong, Allen Gordon, 274 

Artaud, T. P., _74 

Astle, W. G., 399 

Avery, C. W., 566 

Ayers, J. R., *348 

Bailey, C. O., 347 
Baker, C. H., 1092 
Baker, N. P., 234 
Baker, W. C, 912 
Balliet, Herbert S., 526 
Bardo, Clinton L., 444 
Barnes, Tames P., 312, 348 
Barnes, S. W., 566, 699 
Barrett, James M., 987 
Bary, V. T., 89 
Baukat, J. G., 1092 
Bell, Harmon, 1092 
Bell, Thomas K., 274 
Benham, A., 1126 
Bertrand, P. A., 872 
Bidvvell, J. N., 234 
Bisbee, Chester L., 912 
Bissell, T. II., 1092 
Bissell, "W. A., 1041 
Block, Frank E., 872 
Bogardus, Martin T., 443 
Bouslog, H. P., 912 
Bowman, F. E., *988 
Boyd, O. T., 275 
Bradley, L. C, 608 
Brady, Arthur VV., MOO 
Bramlette, J. M., 443 
Branson, Henry, 1092 
Bricker, Tames, 566, 660 
Briggs, Frank O., 913 
Bronson, Miles, 274 
Brooks, Charles A., "41 
Brooks, F. II., 1092 
Brophy, George P., 782 
Brosius, Frank R., 134 
Brown, F. D., 832 
Brown, Frank H., 444 
Brown, G. M., *348 
Brown, M. H., 312, 1126 
Brown, Robert C, 1092 
Browning, M. S., 443 
Buffe, Fred G., 699 
Burns, Toseph M., 443 
Burrill, E. A., 134 
Burritt, E. B., *\\27 
Burt, Horace G., 949 
Butler, William W. S., 987 

Cabaniss, E. W., 607 

Cady, A. H., 1126 

Caffrey, G. H., 274 

Calder, C. E., 607 

Calderwood, J. F., 173 

Cameron, George S., 1092 

Camp, Henri, 399 

Case, J. R., 1092 

Cash, John, 89 

Cavanagh, M. A., 89 

Choate, Joseph K., 234, *399 

Clmbbuck, H. E., 1126 

Clark, Edgar E., 443 

Clark, E. H., 912 

Clark, Edward L., 349 

Clark. Harlow C, 74 1 

Clark, J. P. E., 174, 872 

Clifford, George H., *1042 

Coffin, C. A., 1110 

Colbv, Safford K., *349 

Collins, J. C, *659 

Conn, Charles F., 173 

Connette, E. G., 90 

Coolidge, C. A., 781 

Coons, C. A., 1126 

Cooper, George, 347 

Cournyer, A. W., 312 

Courtenav, Tames W., 1127 

Covkendall, S. D., 134 

Crafts, P. P., 312 

Crocker, George Glover, 988 

Crosbv, Oscar T.. 134, 174 

Crosier, R. H., 741, 1092 

Culberson, Alexander Craig, 872 

Cummins, R. F., 234 

Daly, David, 699, *742 
Davis, A. T., 659 
Davis, E. C., 234 
Davis, Joseph, 566 
Deal, E. C, 741 
Deming, Clarence, 872 
Denman, B. T., 949 
Dewberry. T. M.. 134 
Disney, F. ' X., 912 
Domby. H. R., 89 
Donahue, Timothy T., 987 
Donecker, H. C, *700 
Draper, Walter A., 347 



Dutfy, C. N., 781 
Dunbar, James W., 89 
Dunlap, George W., 347 
Durand, E. Dana, 1092 
Dutton, Arthur N., 912 
Dyer, D. B., 50 



Earle, Warren C, 987 
Eddy, H. C, 566, 659 
Edmunds, V. L., 608 
Ely, Van Horn, 134 
Erdeman, George B., 607 
Esslinger, George W., 699, 781 
Evans, John, 173 
Evans, Joseph D., 50, 90 
Kversman, John C, 1041 



Faber, George F., 741 
Faut, H. P., 347 
render, Leon, 1183 
Field, Stephen D., 949 
Fife, Charles E., 89 
Finigan, Thomas, * 1 9 3 
Fisher, Dan G., 348 
Fisk, Wilbur C, 443, *566 
Flahive, F. B., 1092 
Fledderjohann, Edwin, 832 
Ford, Whitfield, 399 
Foster, Horatio A., 832 
Fowle, Frank F., 234 
Fowler, E. VV., 1041 
Francis, George B., 1183 . 
Fraser, James D., 443, 607 
Fraser, W. IL, 912 
Frazier, Rex, Dunbar, 741 
Franch, Mansfield J., 741 
Fravel, Howard, 50 
Furlong, A. D., 89, 234 



Gallaher, S. Miller, 872 
Gardner, J. E., 443 
Garrison, N. L, 173 
Geiger, H. H., 234 
Gerald, Amos F., 1127 
Gillette, James Walter, *913 
Glavin, Edward, 988 
Glenn, Thomas K., 274 
Gorenflo, W. N., 1092 
Gothlin, O. P., 832 
Graham, E. A., 872 
Graham, Tames, 173 
Grant, Hugh, 50 
Graves, C. B., 1092 
Graves, W. F., 949 
Green, George H., 987 
Greenland, S. W., 741, *781 
Griffith, Franklin T.. 699, *782 
Griscom, Rodman, 89 
Guyon, Alfred J., 949 
Gwinn, G. W., 1041 



Hamlin, R. N., 443 
Hamprecht, Edward, 443 
Handshy, C. F., 1126. 1183 
Hannaford, R. M., 347 
Hai-en, D. J„ 1092 
Harmon, James, 312 
Harrsen, Harro, 1092 
Harrington, A. C, 566 
Harrington, Russell, 872 
Harvie, VV. J., 1042 
Hatch, Charles M., 399 
Healy, F. A., 173 
Hearn, George A.. 173 
lledley, Frank, 1183 
Hengst, E., 832 
Henrv, David W., 1182 
Heron, E. A., 1041 
Iliggins, W. E., 274 
Hild, Frederic, *742 
Hill, Charles H., 50 
Hinman, F. L., *348 
Hodson, Devoe P., 274 
Hoeger, George, 1093 
Holding, George G., 399 
Dolman, T. F., 1041 
Holmes, Albert E., 742 
Holstock, William E., 1093 
Howley, Tohn W., 987 
Hubbard, Frederick L., 526 
Hubbard, Henry de Forest, 134 
Hubbell, Charles H., 781 
Hueme, J. W., 399 

Ingle, W. O., 659 
Insull, F. W., 134 
Irwin, Howard W., *274 
Iwai, Kinichi, 832 



Tackson, H. E., 234 
"Tames, C. H., 781 
"Toel, T. M., *741 
Tohnson, F. W., 781 
Johnson, H. F., 741 
Tohnson, James W., 174 
Tones, B. L, 1126 
Josselyn, B. S., 659, 699 

Kaercher, P. C, 347 
Fravanaugh, W. M., 274 
Keeney, Seth L., 566 



Kehoe, M. J., 1182 
Kehoe, S. I., 987 
Kelker, R. i* ., Jr., 312 
Kellev, William ii., 781 
Kellogg, C. VV., 987 
Kenneuy, D. R., 912 
Kennedy, John i,., 234, 912 
Kennedy, Roy, 9i2 
Kerper, George B., 660 
King, Clarence P., 444 
King, G. A., 1092 
Kline, P. D., 174, 912 
Kuhn, William S., 607 
i 

Lake, Edward X., 912 
Lane, Franklin K., 89, 444 
Laney, Charles J., 312 
Lanius, VV. H., 174 
Lasher, Frank B., '659, 781, 872, 
1182 

Launey, R. O., 89 
Lawrence, Geo.ge P., 1182 
Lawton, I. Parker. 742 
Lebkuecher. lulius A., 913 
Lee, Ivy L., 89 
Letens, Thies Jacob, 782 
Lewis, E. L., 174 
Linn, Arthur L., Jr., 60S, 1182 
Lott, A. L., 174 
Lovett, Alfred IL, 988 
Lowry, Horace, 234 
Lupfer, A. M„ 134, 741 
Lynch, Daniel F., 312 
Lyne, George H., 173 

McAdoo, William G., 444 
MacAlIister, V\ . II., 173 
McCail, tdward 275 
McCarter, Ihomas X., 1093 
McClellan, William, 347 
McCorkindale, W. J., 400 
McCoy, Frank, 89 
McCrea, James, 660 
McCulloch, Riciiard, 526 
McDonald, Duncan, 949 
McDonald, W. L., 347 
McElroy, T. M., 399, 987 
McGinty, George B., 608 
McHenrv, E. H., 699 
MacKenzie, D. C, 1182 
McKinlev, VV. B., 912, 1182 
McXamara, J. T., ?r., 89 
Mc.Namee, G. A., 89 
McReynolds, T. C, 781 
Mc\ eigh, Lawrence A., 312 
Mahaney, J. E., 134 
Mann. A. H., 1041 
-Mann, Olaf A., 274 
Marbie, John H., 443 
Masuda, Motosuke, 566 
Maxwell, Fred L. 1041 
Maxwell. L D.. 89 
Maxwell, M. T., 949 
Michaels, Chester, 1092 
Miller, F. A., 234 
Miller, Frank H.. 234 
Miller, I. II., 1041, 1093 
Millson, F. M., 832, 949 
Miser, VV. B.. 1041 
Mitten, P. L, 347 
Mock, Howard A.. 1127 
Moffitt, J. K., 1041 
Moore, Anderson G., 1092 
Moore, John P.. 949 
Morrison, R., Jr., 443 
Munger, E. T.. *275 
Murrav, C. L., 50 
Murrin, W. G., 912 
Myers, A. R., 1126 

Nagle, George O., 274 
Neal, W. V., 659, 912 
Nettleton, Henry A., 89 
Xorthcott, George A., 234 • 

Ord, Joseph P., 134 
Orme, Joseph T., 742 
Ossoski, Sidney, 174 

Palmer, E. A.. 1092 
Palmer, Russell, 50, 1041 
Pardee, J. IL, 134 
Parker, Tames F., 349 
Patten, V. W., 1041 
Patterson Tohn, 312 
Pearce, Henry G., 987 
Peck, Edward F., 1041 
Penney, Thomas, 90 
Perkins, Robert W., 832, 988 
Pevear, T. S., 1126 
Pierce, J. Jackson, 912 
Pinkerton, Clarence S., 274 
Pitcher, T. A., 134 
Plunke'tt, M., 1041 
Pratt. Mason D., 699 
Purvis, Allen, 607 

Ouain, Redmond, 912 



Rabe, Theodore H., 89 
Randall, G. L.. 347 
Raver, Edward M., 1093 
Ravert, George W., 1182 
Ray, Frederick L.. 832 
Read, L M., 912, 987 



Read, Norman, 173 

Reed, Albert S., 987 

Reed, Tohn, 1126 

Reed, William Belden, Jr., 700 

Reichart, Howard L., *659 

Reidel, Daniel, Jr., 89 

Reinkmg, P. C, 781, 832 

Rhett, E. Lowndes, 89 

Rice, E. W., Jr., MHO 

Rice, R. IL, 312 

kickert, Van Dusen, 607 

Riddle, Daniel, 443 

Riddle, SamueJ, 1092 

Riggs, Edward G., 347 

Robert, Edmund Arthur, 347 

Robertson, A. M., 234 

Robertson, C. H., 173 

Rodenbaugh, L. H., 566 

Roeber, Eugene F., 699 

Rose, Harvey B., 134 

Rose, W. E., 234 

Rosenthal, George D., 949 

Ross, T. P., 89 

Ross, W. G., 173 

Rugg, Julius E., 872 

Sampsell, Marshall E., *526 
Sampson, A. J., 566 
Sawyer, H. B., 443 
Schejick, D. D., 1182 
Scheumann, Albert, 781 
Schley, Julian L., 766 
Schneider, Frank B., 699 
Schoepf, W. Kesler, 174 
Scbuck. Tohn Henry, 566 
Schultz, O. G., 399 
Scott, Charles B., 312 
Sexton, P. D., 1127 
Shankland, Edward C, 1126 
Shane, Alexander, 234 
Shaughnessy, T. H., 1041 
Shaw, Alexander, 607 
Silvus, Walter, 1041 
Skinner, VV. D., 134 
Smith, E., 526 
Smith, Frank P., 912 
Smith, R. L, 659 
Smith, R. R., 1092 
Smith, W. N., 173 
Somers, VV. H., 566 
Soules, E. E., 1041 
Spragle, C. J., 949 
Stephens, B. R., 1041 
Stevens, Frank W., 912 
Stoddard. George W., 90 
Strong, Elmer E., 1092, 1182 
Swain, George F., 1041 
Sweeney, F. W., 699 

Tabler, B. E., 1041 

Taylor, A. Merritt, 987 

Thompson, /Gaylord, 659, 1041 

Thompson, John C, 274 

Thompson, Samuel B., 607 

Throop, H. G., *348 

Titzel, C. Edrar, 660 

Toll, Roger W.. 173 

Treat, Dean, 50 

Troxell, Charles Edward, 174 

Tucker, Thomas L, 566 

Tulley, IT. G., 781 

Turner. D. L., 742 

Tuttle. W. B„ 347 



Valentine. George A., 1092 
Vickery, W. O., 832 
Vordermark, Harry E., 987 
Vreeland, E. E., 89 

Wakeman, J. M., 134 
Walbridge, H. D., 235 
Ward, Ralph, 1126 
Warren, J. W., 134 
Weidman, Claude O., 50, 399 
Wendt, Edwin F., 608 
Werth, M. F., 872 
Westinghouse, George, 1182 
Whalev, A. R., 235, 872 
Wharff, E. M., 872 
Wheeler, F. F., 347 . 
Whitehouse, H. B., 699 
Wickersham, L. B., 741, 832 
Wilcox, Delos F., 1127 
Wilde, Elton S., *608 
Wtlke, Tohn E., 949, 1041 
Willcox", W. R., 348, 781 
Williams, J. G., 912 
Williams, Timothy S.. 699 
Wilson, Chester P., 235 
Wilson, T. W., 134 
Wins'ow, Williams H.. *174 
Winter. Edwin W., 987 
Wise, Tohn S., 913 
Wishart,, W. C, 949 
Wood, P. J., 741 
Wood, W. L, 832 
Woulfe, T. R., 1041 

Yeatman, George F., 987 
Yockey, F. C. 347 
Young, Marcellus H., 349 



Zimmerman, H. B., 872 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. XLI 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1013 



No. 1 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

M c]G raw Publishing Company, Inc. 

James H. McGraw, President. C. E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treas. 
239 West 39th Street, New York. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Philadelphia Offic£ Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. .. .Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 



Terms of Subscription 
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at the end of which subscription expires. 



Notice to Advertisers 
Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Wednesday, 
9 a. m., of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 1913, by McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal, 8500 copies arc printed. 



ELECTRIC RAIL- With this number the Electbic 
WAY JOURNAL Railway Journal begins its fo/ty- 

IN first volume as well as the thirtieth' 

year of its existence, the first number having been publishe 
in 1884. The coming year promises to be as important in 
the development of the industry as any during the past three 
decades. Precedents will undoubtedly be set in a great many 
places and in various directions and will have an important 
bearing on the general economic condition of the industry. 
These changes will be in part political, in part financial and 
in part of an engineering character, modifying as they will 
the ideas current as to the best type of equipment to be 
used. A review of these several phases of the industry 
appears in the series of editorials and contributed articles 
which compose the major part of this issue. They show that 
the industry is face to face with many serious problems and 
that every endeavor must be made to solve them. This can 
be done only if each worker in the field knows what the 
others engaged in similar work are doing. It is in this 
weekly exchange of ideas that the Electric Railway 
Journal is able to serve the field, and it hopes and expects 
with its present facilities and long experience to be of even 
greater value to its readers than in the past. 



V 



him, and we believe that most of the subscribers will find 
most of the articles of use and that a great many will 
read all of the contents of each issue. Another advantage to 
the reader from the publication of the table of contents on 
the front cover is that it renders much more easy the 
search for a desired article in a previous number before the 
numbers are permanently bound. It is no longer necessary 
to open each copy and turn to the table of contents which 
formerly was published on the first editorial page. A glance 
at the cover suffices. Finally, the greater space on the front 
cover allows us to print some explanatory text under the 
titles of the longer articles, a plan which could not be fol- 
lowed in the restricted space of the table of contents when 
it was published on the editorial page. As explained last 
month, the plan involves the financial sacrifice to the pub- 
hjiu&F«--©4~tlie^most valuable space for advertising purposes 
rjbt^we believe that the advantages to our 
d, more than outweigh our loss. 



SEP 29 1914 



OUR STATTS- S 
^A^^S^. 



THE TABLE 
OF CONTENTS 



Beginning with this issue the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal recommences 
the plan of publishing the table of 
contents of each issue on the front cover. Announcement 
that this would be done was made last November, and we 
believe that the change will be generally welcomed by our 
readers. Two advantages appear prominently as a result 
of this practice. One is that the reader can quickly obtain, 
after removing the wrapper from the paper, a summary of 
the principal articles contained in each issue. We do not 
expect that every article will prove of interest to every 
subscriber, but we do try to compile each issue so that every 
subscriber will find at least some articles in it of use to 



The electric railway industry is grow- 
ing so rapidly in the design and appli- 
cation of equipment that one actively 
engaged in the business does not often take time to realize 
the improvements and changes which are effected in the 
industry during the short space of one year. The laborers 
in the field are many, and as the result of their labor, 
operating conditions and construction conditions change, 
and we change with them, almost without thought. A 
breathing space is helpful in progress of this kind if it is 
utilized for a survey of work recently done, because thereby 
it is often possible to determine better than in any other 
way the direction in which improvements are tending. If 
one does this, he can set himself in the march of progress 
rather than work counter to it. The first of the year seems 
to be a particularly proper time for a survey of this kind. 
This has been the main reason for the publication by this 
paper of a Statistical Number during the first week of 
January. As the plan and purpose of our Statistical Num- 
ber have become better understood it has been possible for 
us each year to compile more accurately the statistical por- 
tion of this number. When we first attempted, a number of 
years ago, to obtain records of the miles of track built and 
the number of cars ordered by the electric railways in the 
country, many companies did not realize the importance of 
supplying this information. But this year the returns have 
been from a very large percentage of all of the operating 
companies in the country, and we believe that the tables 
this year form the most nearly complete compilation of 
electric railway statistics ever made under private auspices. 
For their courteous and prompt attention to our inquiries 
we wish to thank the operating electric railway companies, 
for without their co-operation no such record of cars and 
track as that which we publish in this issue would have been 
possible. 



2 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



ELECTRIFICATION ON MOUNTAIN-GRADE DIVISIONS 

Following the statistical portion of this number is a series 
of four signed articles by well-known authorities in the field 
discussing various phases of electric railway engineering. 
Among these, Mr. Armstrong considers at length a phase of 
steam road electrification which is now attracting the serious 
attention which its importance deserves. We refer to the 
electrification of mountain-grade divisions of steam roads. 
This branch of the work, so far as actual installations are 
concerned, has lagged behind other applications of electric 
power to heavy traction work, but now it promises to be one 
of the most important, certainly within the near future. 
During the past year there has been little change in this 
country in the matter of steam railway electrification for 
purely passenger service, except so far as the extensions of 
existing lines are concerned, and most of these were origi- 
nally installed because of peremptory factors, such as tunnel 
service. But in the field especially studied by Mr. Arm- 
strong in this issue the advantages afforded by electri- 
fication are entirely different from those in suburban and 
tunnel service, and if electric power is to win it will do so 
purely on the merit of economy. 

It is a familiar principle of railroading that the capacity 
of a line is limited by its severest grades. There has been 
for years a steady tendency to reduce these even at very 
large expense, yet on many mountain divisions any consid- 
erable reduction in grade is almost a physical impossibility. 
Now, as Mr. Armstrong points out, in many such cases the 
region traversed is already supplied with electric power 
from ample stations over a reliable distribution service. 
Even where such service is not now available, conditions 
generally permit its establishment in response to demand 
for electric traction. Second, the experience gained in 
tunnel and terminal work has actually put in our possession 
locomotives fully capable of doing mountain work efficiently 
and well. And, finally, it seems to be perfectly well demon- 
strated that the electric locomotive is considerably better 
adapted to meet the requirements of a mountain road than 
the steam locomotive. 

The steam locomotive is undeniably a very remarkable 
machine, yet it always has to carry its power station upon 
its back, :o to speak, and its capacity is limited by this fact, 
as well as its inability to produce an even torque at the 
rims of the driving wheels, so that it affords an opportunity 
for slipping to begin at certain points in each revolution. 
Its effective adhesion is therefore disproportionately small 
compared with the terrific strains due to its weight, and its 
power of climbing heavy grades with a long train behind it 
at fair speed is correspondingly diminished. The electric 
locomotive, with all or nearly all its weight on the drivers, 
can produce a considerably higher tractive effort with a 
greatly diminished weight on the track. For instance, Mr. 
Armstrong's table shows that for equal tractive effort the 
electric locomotive is likely to weigh something like 40 per 
cent less than the steam locomotive and is able to haul 
efficiently its loads at better speed. The capacity of the 
steam locomotive is, moreover, seriously limited in practice 
by the difficulty of firing, which, unless high-grade fuel is 
used, becomes a very serious matter when the output has 
to be forced. Of course, in mountain service two or even 



three steam locomotives are frequently used, at a consider- 
ably increased cost of operation. But, if convenience dic- 
tates, the electric locomotives can also be coupled on con- 
siderably easier terms inasmuch as they can divide the load 
more steadily and are troubled with no difficulties of firing. 
Further, the electric locomotive is sufficiently efficient to 
leave comparatively small margin for improvement, so that 
railroads need not hesitate in the hope that a delay will 
result in large increase of efficiency. 

To offset this it is undeniably true that the steam loco- 
motive is susceptible of considerable improvement. Very 
little has been done in this country with the use of high 
super-heat and the efficient application of compounding. 
The steam consumption of even the best locomotives in 
regular use is materially greater than one would reason- 
ably expect in a stationary engine of even considerably 
smaller capacity. This failure in efficiency is due to a 
complicated set of causes, some of them perhaps unavoid- 
able. The mere fact that, after many years of constant 
facing of these familiar difficulties and constant effort at 
improvement, nothing better has been evolved bears witness 
to the difficulty of the task. The waste of coal in the loco- 
motive owing to its discontinuous use, and with consumption 
going on all the time, is also a formidable matter. 

There seems to be no doubt that the electric locomotive 
in the mere task of hauling heavy trains over steep grades 
can beat out the steam locomotive in efficiency, steadiness 
of service and speed. These considerations ought to enforce 
its use as a mere matter of operative economy. Probably 
we shall never get the full advantages of electrification until 
we can deal with the whole system as a system, because dis- 
continuities, so to speak, in the character of the motive 
power lead to increased expenses; but Mr. Armstrong has 
certainly made out a good case for the electric locomotive 
in mountain service irrespective of the rest of the system. 

IMPROVEMENTS OF MOTOR DESIGN 

Mr. Storer's account of the changes in motor design 
that have characterized the growth of electrical railroad- 
ing is a very timely summary of improvements in practice, 
Such improvements have been spread over a period of a 
quarter of a century and have taken place in so irregular a 
manner that it requires just such a close knowledge of the 
art as Mr. Storer possesses to group the changes in any 
systematic manner. Those who remember the original 
Sprague motors and their immediate successors, to say 
nothing of the still earlier types, cannot help looking with 
something of wonderment at the changes which have taken 
place. Part of these have been due to the great increase 
in our knowledge of motor design, part of them to the con- 
current growth of tramway practice involving great modi- 
fications in the rolling stock. The earlier Sprague motors, 
for example, with their double commutators, flat form and 
high-speed armatures, did not express the ultimate then 
existing knowledge so much as they indicated the current 
necessity for cutting one's coat according to one's cloth. 
It seemed to be necessary in that early period of exploita- 
tion, and doubtless was necessary, to adapt the motor drive 
to existing rolling stock construction, and many of the early 
roads were equipped with converted cars. In the attempt 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



3 



to force the motor into use on its merits the handicap of 
at once requiring radical changes in rolling stock design 
seemed too great. 

One was, too, in the period of many inventions in the 
hands of many companies, so that good things could not be 
readily utilized, and important improvements in design were 
temporarily bottled up. For example, in* the very early 
period of electric railway construction, when armatures 
hand-wound like a ball of twine with overlapping layers 
were the order of the day, the admirable Eichemeyer 
formed coil, designed so that each coil could be wound and 
inserted independently of any other, began a movement 
which led to modern electric railway motor design. An- 
other most important improvement, made some twenty years 
ago, was the adaptation of multi-polar construction to rail- 
way practice, leading to types of single-reduction motors, 
different only in detail from those still commonly used. 
Many of the details, however, providing for ready access 
to the parts, suitable insulation and greater mechanical 
security were necessary before the electric road could settle 
down to safe and regular practice. The coming of the 
carbon brush at the beginning of this period was perhaps 
the most important single detail which made for the im- 
provement of motor practice. 

For nearly a decade these improvements went on work- 
ing steadily toward modern conditions, although it must not 
be forgotten that sporadic efforts were very early made in 
the direction of single-reduction gear and even gearless 
motors. Meanwhile the unquestioned success of the elec- 
tric railway had created a demand for and forced the manu- 
facture of rolling stock more suitable for the powerful driv- 
ing mechanism and with more room to accommodate the nec- 
essary motors. This of itself produced a steadily increas- 
ing improvement in motor design, at first so hampered for 
lack of space. 

During the last decade the path of change has been mostly 
in the direction of still further refinement of electrical and 
mechanical design, particularly the latter. From the elec- 
trical standpoint motors did not change rapidly, but their 
reliability was enormously increased by judicious changes 
in details. The most important change in motor design in 
recent times has undoubtedly been the adoption of the inter- 
pole construction, the inception of which goes back consid- 
erably beyond the modern period. With this has come prac- 
tical immunity from many of the commutator difficulties 
once most formidable, and, what is of vastly greater im- 
portance, it has made comparatively easy the production of 
motors for higher voltages than those which have hereto- 
fore been common. 

This is not perhaps an important matter in general tram- 
way progress, but it is of vital significance with respect to 
the development of heavy electric traction. Just why it 
should have taken so long to bring to fruition the commu- 
tating-pole idea it is very difficult to say, but its time has 
now come, bringing a new power of usefulness to the elec- 
tric motor in large work. Incidentally the commutating 
pole has made easy a return to field commutation as an im- 
portant auxiliary in variations of speed. Tried at the very 
beginning of electric traction, it passed completely out of 
use, to return again now, with added possibilities. What 
the future of traction motor design is to be now depends 



very largely on the general trend of electric railway prac- 
tice. For existing circumstances it has settled down into 
somewhere nearly standard form, yet demands for greater 
power, or higher speed, or increased voltage, will inevitably 
result in still further changes, the data for which are fortu- 
nately already at hand. 



PROGRESS IN POWER TRANSMISSION 

Another review in the series of articles on technical 
developments during 1912 appearing in this issue is con- 
tributed by Dr. Louis Bell and relates to the progress in 
electric power transmission during the year. This is a 
subject of growing importance because of the increasing 
interest apparent in the distribution of electric power for 
all purposes in a district from one or a chain of central 
power stations. Another fact which imparts special in- 
terest to the subject is the close relation which has always 
existed between the kind of electrical energy employed for 
transmission, especially the frequency used, and the type 
of motor which could best utilize that energy when obtained 
from the trolley wire. But this correlation, according to 
Dr. Bell, is not so imperative as was formerly the case. 
The development of the interpole rotary converter, by 
which it is possible to produce direct current from a fifty- 
cycle and sixty-cycle transmission system without the use 
of motor generators, now permits a wider choice of systems 
of motive power, and Dr. Bell intimates that further im- 
provements are probable by which the mercury converter 
will make conversion of alternating current to direct current 
for railway purposes still more easy and greatly extend the 
possibilities of direct-current railways. 

In the problems directly concerned with long-distance 
power transmission there has been notable advance during 
the past year. The suspension type of insulator established 
a new era in this field of electrical endeavor, and trans- 
mission voltages are increasing as a direct consequence. 
The maximum so far reached in this country for commer- 
cial purposes is 140,000 volts, the potential employed on the 
lines of the Au Sable Electric Company in Michigan, but 
this year 150,000 volts will probably be used on the lines 
of the Pacific Light & Power Corporation now under con- 
struction. These figures represent double the voltage em- 
ployed in commercial service less than five years ago, and 
with the improvements to be expected in insulators as re- 
gards their ability to withstand puncture, the limit may be 
still further increased. 

Dr. Bell sounds a note of warning in regard to the 
character of pole transmission lines often erected and sug- 
gests that a modified form of "A" steel structure for inter- 
mediate supports, with anchor towers at intervals, would be 
more durable and in many cases no more expensive than 
many existing structures. Interruptions to the service of 
electric transmission lines are exasperating under all con- 
ditions, but are particularly so when the power is used for 
railway purposes, and they should be guarded against at all 
hazards. A few more dollars spent on insuring the con- 
tinuity of supply by increasing the stability of the trans- 
mission line might often eliminate the necessity for reserve 
steam stations with their expensive charges for maintenance 
and upkeep. 



4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF POWER P LANTS 



Prof. Norris' discussion of recent movements in power 
plant design furnishes striking evidence of refinements of 
engineering design. Speaking broadly, recent changes have 
not been radical, but they betoken a steady movement for- 
ward, particularly in the direction of larger units and their 
more efficient utilization in following the load curve of 
the plant. Among the conspicuous recent tendencies may 
be found that toward the use of horizontal turbo-generators, 
a tendency largely due to the increasing difficulty of carry- 
ing the necessary weights for big units on a step-bearing. 
A considerable proportion of the recent large plants are 
utilizing the horizontal turbine, despite the loss in floor 
space. However, since it is commonly true that the theo- 
retical gain in floor space by the use of vertical machines 
is seldom or never utilized to anything like its full extent, 
this loss is far from striking. Greater than this in im- 
portance, and marking perhaps the most notable line of im- 
provement in power station practice, is the tendency toward 
using bigger boiler units under more efficient conditions of 
combustion. 

In locations where good feed water is available, making 
the use of large units desirable, boilers of relatively trivial 
capacity have been obstinately continued in use long after 
the prime movers have been brought to suitable output. The 
ordinary big turbo-generator with its attendant army of 
boilers reminds one of nothing so much as of Gulliver being 
fed by the Liliputians. Not only is the plant of small boilers 
expensive to house and install, but it leads to needless com- 
plication in the piping and auxiliaries, and also to decreased 
economy in operation from almost every standpoint. The 
tests of the huge Detroit boilers last year showed the gain 
to be made in using large steam-producing units. 

Just how far actual increase in dimensions may be ad- 
visable is a subject upon which engineers differ, but the 
advantage of units of greatly enlarged output admits of no 
dispute. All the arguments of the ultra-conservative in 
favor of small boiler units apply with equal force and very 
little change of wording to small engines and small dyna- 
mos. The main question just now is how far the demand 
for great evaporative power in a single unit should be met 
by increased ratings for the present units rather than by 
increased dimensions. The use of forced draft, as exem- 
plified by some recent plants noted by Professor Norris, is 
one way out of the difficulty, and this line of advance will 
doubtless be pushed to its economical limit along with in- 
crease of size. Ultimately we shall certainly have very 
large boilers worked intensively during the period of heavy 
load, but the improvement will be one of gradual and 
tentative growth. 

As regards the dynamo room the movement toward big- 
ger units goes steadily on. With it has come the need for 
increased protective measures to gain greater security. Per- 
haps the most important of these is the use of reactance 
coils, exterior to the machines, to avert the danger of heavy 
short circuits. Such devices are in themselves undesirable 
and interfere with regulation, yet they serve a useful pur- 
pose in time of need. The thing most effective would be a 
coil of which the reactance would increase very rapidly as 
the current neared the danger point, and such a coil may 



perhaps be worked out in due season. The increase in un- 
derground distribution at high tension has brought added 
responsibilities, and Professor Norris has considered sev- 
eral interesting details of recent practice in the care of 
cables. With respect to the electrical generators for large 
stations, the effects of increased output on design are being 
keenly felt, and in particular the problem of disposing of 
the heat has been growing steadily more serious. When 
with high rotative speeds the output per unit of bulk in- 
creased, the limit of capacity came to be the heating, and 
the old battle of the squares and cubes was on again. To- 
day the struggle is on the field of forced ventilation, and the 
designer may even be driven to refrigeration as the combat 
deepens. 



PROGRESS IN CAR DESIGN DURING 1912 

The development of car design during the past year has 
been marked by extreme radicalism on the part of designers 
of cars for city service. In fact, no period in the history 
of street railways has seen so many startling innovations. 
The modern stimulus in car design for city service may be 
said to have begun with the successful demonstration of 
the pay-as-you-enter car which was originated in Montreal 
and was shown first in the United States at the Columbus 
convention in 1906. The prepayment plan may now be 
considered as a permanent feature of city car design. The 
developments in 1912 have been in the extension of this 
principle to center entrances, with an increase in accessibil- 
ity of the car, greater attention to safety features and re- 
newed interest in one-man cars. 

Early in the past year came first the New York "step- 
less" car with a body hanging near the ground between the 
trucks, and then in rapid succession the low center-entrance 
cars of Brooklyn and Washington and the center-entrance, 
end-exit car of San Diego. These were accompanied by 
the "low-floor" car of Pittsburgh, in which 24-in. wheels 
and small motors eliminated one step and reduced the 
weight to an unprecedented figure. As soon as the success 
of the low-level cars of New York and Pittsburgh was as- 
sured, the trial of double-deck cars based on these designs 
became almost obvious, and during August cars of this 
type were placed upon the street almost simultaneously in 
the two cities. In the meantime also the near-side principle, 
developed during 191 1, had been applied to one-man cars, 
thus supplying a need for light traffic service which had 
existed since the bobtail horse car disappeared from our 
city streets with the dawn of the electrical era. 

During 1912 also there has been under construction and 
trial the most extraordinary development of all, the "articu- 
lated" car of Boston, consisting of two old single-truck cars 
set end to end and flexibly connected by a low-hanging ves- 
tibule with center side doors giving access to the car from 
_the street. Last among the radical designs of the year 
came the storage battery "stepless" type, a four-wheeled car 
without a truck frame and of extremely light weight. 

With one exception, all of the center-entrance cars were 
developed primarily to provide easier access for passengers 
by a reduction in step heights, with the exceedingly im- 
portant indirect benefit of decreasing the time of passenger 
interchange, thus permitting faster schedule lines. Most of 



January 4, 1913. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



5 



the cars mentioned have received the practical indorsement 
of repeat orders, thus demonstrating the practicability of 
their obvious advantages — namely, increased seating capac- 
ity, greater accessibility of all seats and increased safety of 
operation. 

The articulated car, of which there is yet but one in use, 
is primarily adapted to the rebuilding of old equipment. 
This, in fact, makes it of especial interest, as it provides an 
answer to the question arising many times during the year 
as to what disposition could be made of old rolling stock 
rendered obsolete by the introduction of the new types. 
For this -reason it is to be hoped that the designers will 
make every effort to develop the idea thoroughly, as its 
practical success would be a boon to the industry. The dou- 
ble-deck designs of New York and Pittsburgh also have not 
apparently arrived at the stage where their designers are 
sufficiently certain of their future to duplicate them in con- 
siderable numbers. The Pittsburgh car, however, has been 
reported from that city to be a thorough success for hand- 
ling crowds going to parks or games and caring for rush- 
hour traffic from factories, and a duplicate of the New York 
car has been ordered for trial in Columbus, Ohio. Both 
double-deck cars are, of course, of very recent construction, 
and the opportunity for trial has been limited. This, to- 
gether with the revolutionary character of the designs, has 
undoubtedly influenced the designers of both cars in adopt- 
ing an ultra-conservative policy. During the coming year, 
however, there is no doubt that the question of the practica- 
bility of the double-deck principle in this country will be 
finally settled. 

After the wealth of new designs for city cars, the devel- 
opments in the field of cars for interurban service and for 
heavy electric traction seem to be minor in character. The 
steel cars of the Cambridge Subway probably show a 
greater divergence from generally accepted standards than 
any of the other large cars of the year. They are equipped 
with three side doors, and the usual platforms, bulkheads 
and platform doors have been eliminated. One of the doors 
is located at the center of the car, and the other two are 
approximately over the trucks. This arrangement divides 
the car into four sections and gives, in the longer car, the 
same effect as that produced by the center entrance so 
prominent in the new designs for city service. 

In general, the use of steel for car bodies has shown a 
marked increase. All except two of the new types of city 
cars have depended upon the girder effect of the side sheath- 
ing between belt rail and sills to support the load, the 
strains being carried around the doorway by heavy rein- 
forcement, and it is manifest that this construction is to be 
perpetuated. In fact, with the existing demand for light- 
weight cars, such a form of steel construction seems to be 
obligatory, as the low records for weight established during 
the year were obtained through its use. For the same rea- 
son it would seem that the adoption of wheels of small 
diameter should soon become general in slow-speed service, 
as their practicability has been very thoroughly demon- 
strated. 

Progress in the design of equipment has been signalized 
by the introduction on a large scale of multiple-unit control 
on the Public Service Railway, where for some months past 
train operation has been carried on during rush hours. The 



use of this means for reducing traffic congestion has re- 
sulted in the development of several new designs for trail 
cars with center entrances and small wheels, along the lines 
of the successful Pittsburgh trailers of 1910. In two cases 
the opportunity for single-end operation has permitted the 
trailer to be made with the novel arrangement of a door 
on one side only, the other side of the car containing an 
unbroken line of seats. 

Summed up, the developments of the past year in city car 
design have been along the lines of improving the entrance 
and exit facilities and increasing the safety of operation, 
and in construction toward the greater use of steel. With 
the exception of the one-man prepayment car, the improve- 
ments have been largely for the benefit of the larger city 
systems, and in the smaller communities, especially where 
lack of street paving necessitates the stopping of cars with 
the entrance opposite the cross walk, it is not likely that the 
center-entrance types will find favor for their loading facili- 
ties alone, although they may be adopted in some such 
localities on account of other advantages such as light 
weight and freedom from accidents. 



WAY AND BUILDINGS 

A review of the progress made by departments of way 
and structures on electric railways during the past year 
shows that although improvements in the methods employed 
and the materials used have not been as marked as in the 
other departments of the industry, much has been done 
along the line of refining methods, testing materials and 
improving the design of different roadway appliances. The 
few extensions made to existing lines, as compared with 
former years, have permitted more exhaustive study of the 
characteristics of old track and roadway under operating 
conditions. The net result of this has been extensive re- 
habilitation along more scientific lines. 

Various types of track construction in paved streets 
have been employed, but as a general rule permanency has 
been the ruling factor in the selection of materials used. 
In almost all new track work great care has been exercised 
to produce a permanent track surface. Some roads have 
employed a solid mass of concrete to do this, while others 
have used crushed stone ballast, either rolled in place with a 
road roller or else repeatedly tamped until a true, permanent 
surface is obtained, the track being left open while traffic 
passes over it. In one instance the usual practice did not 
obtain, but a combination of crushed stone and concrete was 
employed. This consisted of a concrete slab laid on the 
subgrade, a layer of crushed stone directly under the ties 
and a second layer of concrete over these two. In all cases 
the best results have been secured where drainage has re- 
ceived careful consideration. 

In selecting ties similar precautions have been observed 
to obtain permanency. Steel and treated ties have been 
employed almost universally for both city and interurban 
railway track. Examination of track built in recent years 
in Chicago, where various kinds of treated ties were em- 
ployed, developed the new and interesting fact from the 
electric railway standpoint that ties treated with zinc 
chloride would practically destroy a screw spike after three 
years' service. This destruction was attributed to a gal- 



6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



vanic action taking place in the presence of moisture and 
the zinc chloride. 

Rail and joint composition is receiving more and more 
attention. The specifications for recommended practice, as 
presented by the committee on way matters to the American 
Electric Railway Engineering Association, have been fol- 
lowed by engineers giving special attention to this subject. 
High-carbon rail with the addition of a small percentage of 
titanium to its composition appears to be most favored. 
Both girder-grooved and T-rail are being used with con- 
siderably more of the latter for track in paved streets than 
heretofore. The satisfactory results obtained by several 
large companies experimenting with T-rail have been large- 
ly responsible for its general adoption. In this connection 
the decision rendered during the year by the Connecticut 
Public Utility Commission is interesting. It was to the 
effect that T-rail is less objectionable in paved streets 
than formerly because automobiles, which constitute an 
increasingly larger proportion of the street traffic, have 
no difficulty in crossing the head of the T-rail. Hence the 
commission agreed to its continuance and the extension of 
its use in such a large city as New Haven. 

Considerable progress has been made along the line of 
improved rail joints, the welded and riveted types being 
favored. The low percentage of failures reported by dif- 
ferent companies demonstrates the practicability of these 
types. Welded joints are being installed by several proc- 
esses, including the Goldschmidt thermit, the Lorain electric 
welds, oxy-acetylene and electric-arc welds. In several in- 
stances a combination of the riveted joint and the welded 
joint has given very satisfactory service. 

With the more permanent types of track construction in 
streets, longer life is being obtained from all classes of 
pavement. The creosoted wood block and asphaltum are 
growing in favor, and a new method of combining brick and 
wooden keys for fillers is attracting considerable attention in 
the Eastern States. In some instances engineers have gone 
so far as to pave between the rails with asphalt or solid 
concrete, considering that the excellence of the present track 
construction warrants a pavement which requires a higher 
cost for renewal. The question of a proper filler for block 
paving has attracted considerable attention, but no definite 
conclusions have been reached, grout, asphaltum and sand 
being used largely. 

Rail corrugation and the reasons for it have received 
much attention. Reports from abroad would indicate that 
this mysterious phenomenon may be solved by special rail 
design, such as one with a slotted web or a double web, as 
used in Gothenburg, Sweden. A tentative report by a Brit- 
ish committee recommends that the composition of the rail 
be changed to include a relatively high percentage of man- 
ganese, carbon and silicon, which would make it hard and 
tough. 

In this country the introduction of several types of 
rail grinders for removing corrugations economically has 
had considerable bearing on investigation of this subject. 
Engineers have satisfied themselves of the fact that cor- 
rugations exist and the best way to eliminate them, for the 
present at. least, is to remove them by grinding. Recently 
a new method of increasing the life of rail, particularly on 
curves, has been considered by steam roads. This is by 



lubricating wheel flanges, which, while it does not reduce 
braking power as might be expected, increases the life of 
rail on curves from one to two and one-half years. 

First-quality construction has not been confined wholly 
to the track in city streets but has governed the construc- 
tion and renewals on interurban lines. Practically all roads 
are making tie renewals with treated timber, the creosoted 
oak ties being favored largely. In several instances long- 
leaf yellow pine has been employed with the addition of 
tie plates to prolong their mechanical life. Screw spikes 
have not been used extensively except in track in pave- 
ment, satisfactory results being obtained from ordinary 
spikes. We believe, however, that they will come into ex- 
tensive use on interurban lines in a few years as will tie 
plates also, if the engineer hopes to secure a mechanical 
life of a tie equal to its physical life. 

Drainage has received proper attention in the way of 
extensive ditching in preparing track for winter and the 
installation of farm drain tile in wet cuts. Both tend to 
lengthen the life of the ballast and improve track conditions 
generally. The narrow roadbed has been abandoned for 
one of sufficient width to give an ample ballast shoulder on 
embankments, as well as wide ditches in the cuts. Very 
little temporary construction has been employed in bridges 
and culverts on new interurban lines as its high mainte- 
nance cost on existing lines has been thoroughly estab- 
lished. This experience also has resulted in the replace- 
ment of old temporary structures with concrete and steel, 
which will ultimately mean that the engineers' attention 
may be turned entirely to that part of a roadbed above the 
track subgrade. 

It is with considerable pride in the industry that we point 
to the progress in building construction during the past 
year. We believe that not a single carhouse, repair shop, 
substation or power station of any importance has been 
built which did not embrace every precaution and appliance 
for the reduction of fire hazard. When the building con- 
formed to the principles of fireproof construction through- 
out, the addition of a sprinkler system, hose outlets and 
other fire-protective apparatus was included to reduce the 
risk on the contents, which cannot be made absolutely fire- 
proof. The general shop layout has been receiving con- 
siderable attention with a view to reducing lost motion and 
at the same time meeting the requirements of insurance 
underwriters. 

The year just passed represents an era of marked prog- 
ress along economical lines so far as way and buildings are 
concerned. Greater efficiency in service will result without 
doubt, but the acme of improvement has not been reached. 
There is room still for great advancement in the selection 
of the materials going to make up the track and roadway, 
the buildings and structures. The introduction of motor- 
driven tools, concrete mixers and electric shovels and other 
labor-saving devices is doing much toward reducing the cost 
of new track as well as the rehabilitation of the old. Upon 
the head of the way and building department of any com- 
pany depends to a large extent the safety and economy of 
operation, as well as the maintenance of the physical excel- 
lence of the property. He must, therefore, lend an ear to 
the profitable experiences of his colleagues in the industry, 
and all must work together for the benefit of the whole. 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



7 



BLOCK SIGNALING ON ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 

During the past year the practicability of block signaling 
for electric railways has become an established fact, and 
the problem which the subject presents is no longer that 
of durability or of commercial possibility, but is instead 
one of standardization and selection from among the nu- 
merous types of apparatus existing to-day. Considering 
the fact that the whole matter of block signals on electric 
railways is one to which serious attention has been devoted 
for only two years, it is not surprising that no immedi- 
ate possibility exists for standard arrangement or even 
for standard details of construction. On the other hand, 
the serious attention which is being paid to this subject by 
many of the electric railways through the national associa- 
tion is certain to exert a strong tendency at least toward 
the development of standard aspects. 

While the standardization of apparatus will unquestion- 
ably reduce costs, the necessity for uniform signal aspects 
is actually of greater importance, especially as uniformity 
in this respect can be accomplished with vastly greater 
ease at the present time, when the installation of automatic 
signals on electric railways is only just beginning, than 
at some later time when large and important roads are fully 
equipped with widely different types. This necessity is 
shown even to-day in cases where, through operating agree- 
ments, several interurban roads are using the same tracks. 
Each road may be using a different signal aspect on its own 
track so that motormen are hampered by the fact that they 
have to think in totally different terms at different portions 
of the route. In consequence of this demand for standard- 
ization the upper-left-hand quadrant, three-position arrange- 
ment for semaphores has already been approved by the 
electric railway associations. 

The year has been characterized by a remarkable growth 
of sentiment in favor of light signals in which the semaphore 
arm, practically standard upon steam railroads, is replaced 
by colored lenses so illuminated as to be visible even in the 
brightest sunlight. A number of such installations have 
been made during the year, and although the semaphore 
arm still appears to be considered as the most reliable in- 
dication from the standpoint of arrestive effect, the de- 
creased first cost of the light signal, estimated to be in some 
cases as much as 30 per cent lower than the semaphore, 
together with the decreased maintenance due to the absence 
of moving parts, is a good indication that it will be subject 
to a still wider adoption during the next few years. 

Of the different methods of control for signals, the con- 
tinuous track circuit has maintained its leading position 
among the installations on high-speed lines. This may be 
partly due to conservatism in following a method so uni- 
versally used by the steam railroads, although one of the 
advantages claimed for it, namely, that it indicates broken 
rails, can hardly be said to apply with much force to electric 
railways. It has, however, a somewhat similar advantage 
in this case in that it indicates defective bonding by the 
failure of the signals to clear. The thoroughly demon- 
strated reliability of the track circuit through many years 
of experience naturally cannot be denied, and it was un- 
doubtedly this feature which influenced the joint committee 
on block signals of the Engineering and Transportation & 
Traffic associations at the Chicago convention in recom- 



mending for high-speed interurban service the use of con- 
tinuous track circuit control. The fact that this recom- 
mendation was not accepted by the association in conven- 
tion was an interesting occurrence indicative of the desire 
of the delegates to be left free either to accept new devices 
or else to await the development of systems not then suffi- 
ciently tried out. 

Of the comparatively recent innovations, a great deal of 
attention has been paid to dispatchers' systems, although the 
number of such installations is hardly comparable with the 
older track circuit types. On the Piedmont Traction Com- 
pany's lines a selector system controlling semapore blades 
has been installed to enable the dispatcher to stop trains for 
orders which are transmitted by telephone boxes attached 
to each signal mast. The Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company has installed, as the other extreme, an ex- 
ceedingly complete type in which connection between the 
dispatcher and the train is made at short sections of third- 
rail through a shoe on the car. By means of this connection 
the dispatcher can illuminate either a red or a green lamp 
m the cab of the train in accordance with his desire to stop 
the train or let it proceed, although an ingenious interlock- 
ing system prevents him from letting two trains proceed 
against each other. As it is reported that this system can 
be installed at a moderate cost, its action has been watched 
with considerable interest. 

Various forms of the trolley contact system have been 
installed on a number of railways throughout the year, 
as their very greatly reduced cost offers a strong incentive 
to their installation. In addition, the possibility for intro- 
ducing a car-counting device by giving the contactor a direc- 
tional sense makes this system of unusual advantage where 
permissive signals, allowing cars to follow each other into 
the same block, are desired. Permissive blocking, however, 
except for very low speeds, seems to have been regarded 
with decreasing favor during the past year. 

Little has been done with automatic stops in addition to 
that discussed in these columns a year ago. On the 
Illinois Traction System a device has been developed by 
which the air brakes are applied in case a car runs past a 
home signal set at stop. Such a device is of undoubted value 
as it stands. On the New York, Westchester & Boston Rail- 
way the future necessity for automatic stops was considered 
to be such a certainty that the signal system was laid out in 
a manner which would permit them to be installed at any 
time, the overlaps to be effected by additional signals being 
interpolated where necessary along the line. 

The important legislative action of the year in regard to 
block signaling developed through an enactment of the 
General Assembly of Indiana. This law became effective 
on Jan. 1, 1912, and placed with the State Railroad Com- 
mission power to compel the introduction of approved block 
signals on the railways of Indiana which had sufficient traffic 
or were surrounded by such conditions as to make block 
signals necessary. The results of this action seem to have 
been remarkably satisfactory. The Railroad Commission 
has been working in perfect accord with the electric rail- 
ways of the State, and a very marked increase in mileage 
of interurban lines protected by signals has resulted during 
the year. It is estimated that 18 per cent of the total elec- 
tric railway mileage is now being equipped, and it is ex- 



8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



pected that all lines coming within the scope of the enact- 
ment will be equipped within three years. 

Of the large single-track installations made during the 
year, that of the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis is 
probably the most interesting. On this road the customary 
preliminary sections are omitted and each block is made 
self-contained, extending the full distance between sidings. 
Light signals set about iooo ft. inside of the home sema- 
phores take the place of the preliminaries, and all home 
signals are approached under control. The home signals at 
each end of the block are controlled by the whole block, but 
the light signals are controlled only by two-thirds of the 
block length at the opposite end of the block. As each block 
is a unit, the movements of a car in one block do not affect 
those in the next one, and cars need be spaced no more than 
one block apart. In case two opposing trains pass home 
semaphore signals at the same time, they will be stopped 
by the light signals, which will not clear until one train has 
backed out of the block. As this installation is the first of 
its kind, the results of its operation should be watched with 
interest. 

Judging from the interest displayed in the matter during 
the past year, there is no doubt that the subject of signals 
will remain a leading one during 1913. In fact, it is likely 
that wherever funds are available for signals some one of 
the many forms now available will be installed, not only 
for the additional safety which they afford, but also to 
accelerate operation on lines of dense traffic. 

THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY SITUATION 

So far as the gross volume of business is concerned, the 
electric railways of the country generally enjoyed a satis- 
factory year in 1912. The well-known characteristic of 
these properties is that, as a rule, unless extraordinary 
conditions interfere, they show a fair rate of increase in 
gross revenue from year to year. The degree in which this 
characteristic is manifested is affected of course by fluctua- 
tions in the population and voiume of business in each local- 
ity; but the normal changes in population and business are 
increases, and to the street railway this means a larger total 
of possible riders and a larger amount of work to which 
employees must travel each day. The exceptions among 
the electric railway companies to the conditions thus set 
forth are found in districts which are highly sensitive to 
changes in the general business situation, such as mining 
localities and some of the iron and steel districts, and also 
in those occasional instances where strikes among the em- 
ployees of the railway itself or catastrophes disarrange the 
expected order of affairs. The spurt in general manufac- 
turing and commercial lines in 1912, which occurred in 
spite of the impending presidential campaign, was an ad- 
vantage to the electric railway companies. 

The factor of gross business, however, is not the solitary 
index of electric railway fortune. Increased volume of 
business has been handled by many companies at a greater 
expense for operation. Higher costs of labor and materials 
affect the companies in two ways. They increase the cost 
of investment and hence the fixed charge for additions to 
the property, and they increase the daily outlay which has 
to be made and charged to operating expenses in order to 
keep the cars in operation. There are only two ways in 



which this rising tide of expenses can be met. One is by 
increase in the rate of fare. That is not open now to most 
of the companies, because they operate under fixed franchise 
terms. The other way is by increase in the density of 
traffic, and it is through this means that each company tries 
to improve its position. 

There is one more respect in which the relations of all the 
companies and the communities they serve are very similar 
now or are rapidly becoming so. Regulative policies of the 
advanced types found in the New York and Wisconsin laws, 
with some modifications influenced by local conditions, are 
succeeding the old relations between the companies and the 
states and are still raising new problems or old problems 
in new clothing for the industry to solve. These problems 
are vital in character and strike at the foundations on which 
the industry rests. They concern the capitalizable values 
of the properties, the rates of fare on which the revenues 
are based and the inviolability of the franchise contracts 
on which the companies have relied in their sales of securi- 
ties to bankers and on which the bankers have relied in their 
purchases and their re-sales to the general public. The new 
policy of regulation usually regards it as its duty to concern 
itself with one or more of these serious problems. In 
some notable instances, however, the regulative bodies have 
given more attention to questions of service than to those 
affecting values or rates. That is to say, these bodies in 
some cases have not considered that they were required, 
either as a matter of public policy or as a matter of obedi- 
ence to the law, to analyze existing capitalization in its rela- 
tion to the property represented or to disturb existing rates, 
but have exerted a powerful influence toward the improve- 
ment of service. Where this course has been followed con- 
spicuously by one conscientious commission, although there 
has been a manifest effort not to disturb existing securities 
at the price of sacrifice to individual holders, the terms of 
issue of additional securities have been safeguarded care- 
fully. 

The interests of all of the companies are bound together 
closely so far as the broad questions of regulation, valuation 
and rate of fare are concerned, but the real settlement of 
the problems must be made necessarily with a single com- 
mission or a single community in the case of each company. 
In other words, these problems become individual and 
must be dealt with as such by each company acting for 
itself. Local conditions differentiate one case from another. 
During the last year the problems have been defined sharply 
and prominently in several cities. A statement of the con- 
ditions existing in several of these places, which have been 
conspicuously before the industry, illustrates what is found 
in other cities in smaller degree. 

In New York the greatest pending development of im- 
portance to the industry is the construction of new subway 
and elevated rapid transit lines proposed by the Inter- 
borough and Brooklyn rapid transit companies. Negotia- 
tions between the city authorities and the companies have 
been very tedious, and the long delay in final settlement has 
been costly to the city. But actual progress in subway con- 
struction is being made now, and the last details of operat- 
ing contracts will undoubtedly be settled in the course of 
time. The condition of financial chaos into which the prin- 
cipal surface properties were thrown when receivers were 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



9 



appointed for the Metropolitan system in 1907 has not yet 
been entirely cleared up, but the steps which remained to 
be taken during 1912, and those which had to go over un- 
settled until the new year, 1913, are very slight compared 
with those that were precipitated upon the community when 
the receivership was announced over five. years ago. The 
withdrawal by the New York Public Service Commission, 
First District, of its order for the amortization of that part 
of the securities of the two principal surface companies 
which it claimed was in excess of the fair value of the 
properties has removed one cause of litigation and conten- 
tion between the commission and the companies under its 
jurisdiction. 

In Chicago the elevated and surface companies are en- 
gaged in negotiations for consolidation. Their relations 
toward each other, their capital values and the entire pro- 
gram of future transit development for the city of Chicago 
are bound up in the outcome of the negotiations. In spite 
of -divided ownership of the surface properties the city 
has tried to secure a measure of through routing on surface 
lines between the three principal sections of the city. The 
four separately operated elevated companies use a common 
loop terminal in the business district but do not interchange 
traffic. It is now proposed to combine with one ownership 
for all the existing properties a definite program to meet 
future transit needs. At the same time that these negotia- 
tions are progressing one of the companies has been en- 
gaged in a controversy with its trainmen in regard to wages 
and the other companies are being confronted by similar 
issues. 

In the State of Ohio two of the cities have problems that 
were not settled in 1912. Toledo has witnessed the remark- 
able and wholesome spectacle of a reorganization which in- 
cluded no arrangement for delay until a satisfactory con- 
tract for renewal of franchise could be closed with the city. 
In Columbus the company is going ahead to fulfil an ex- 
traordinary provision in its franchise providing for a reduc- 
tion in the rate of fare as the gross earnings increase. 
This provision is operative without the slightest regard for 
the question of whether the operating expenses increase or 
decrease, and it is an illogical requirement. The questions 
arising in these two cities involve important issues for the 
attention of the companies during the coming year. 

The companies in other cities have problems, a few of 
which may be mentioned. In San Francisco the city is 
developing a new basis for franchise contracts. The city 
of Cleveland is still continuing its rigid control of the street 
railway and restricting the service so as to keep a low rate 
of fare. In Buffalo a plan of financial reorganization has 
been completed which will be made effective. The valua- 
tion of the properties in Kansas City is part of an attempt 
to reach a franchise settlement. Los Angeles has an elabo- 
rate program for the regulation of its public utilities. The 
Detroit situation is still unsettled. In St. Louis a commis- 
sion appointed by the Municipal Assembly has made an in- 
vestigation of the finances and service of the local railway. 
The Milwaukee company has carried to the courts an order 
of the State commission directing reduction in the rate of 
fare. In Philadelphia progress has been made in the settle- 
ment of some of the difficulties with which the system has 
been beset for years, the city service has been vastly im- 



proved and the city of Philadelphia is conducting an ex- 
haustive investigation into the best means for introducing 
rapid transit within its "metropolitan district." 

On the part of the public the program for the coming 
year includes further extension of regulative commissions. 
Commission bills will be introduced in several of the 
states whose legislatures meet. The movement in this di- 
rection in Illinois has been met by a counter movement 
having for its object home rule of public service corpora- 
tions in each city. The principle of this movement appears 
to be a popular one, and either in Illinois or elsewhere it 
will have some influence on the design of the public ma- 
chinery for regulation. The desire for regulation on the 
part of the public has not diminished, but we believe there 
is a better understanding in at least several of the commis- 
sions of the real difficulties under which the companies 
labor in these times to protect the investment, to make a 
good return thereon and to provide adequate service. 

ELECTRIFICATION PROGRESS IN EUROPE 

In Europe the past year will be remembered as marking 
a notable advance in the attack on the steam locomotive, 
because the present electrification projects, either approved 
or practically sure of approval, have assumed vast propor- 
tions in comparison with the .small experimental sections 
of earlier years. The experience derived from the pioneer 
work, in Italy and Germany particularly, has made the 
question of the reliability of electrical equipment a dead 
issue, and the progress of steam railroad electrification in 
Europe is now more a matter of economics than of design. 

So far as systems are concerned, England appears to be 
the only country where high-tension direct current is being 
considered at present with great favor for trunk-line con- 
ditions. On the Continent the single-phase system, with a 
trolley potential of 10,000 volts to 15,000 volts and a fre- 
quency of fifteen to sixteen and two-thirds cycles, has been 
adopted by Germany (Prussia, Bavaria and Baden), Aus- 
tria, Sweden and Switzerland. The French are now ex- 
perimenting with single-phase equipment, and even Italy, 
which has expressed such satisfaction with its three-phase 
Valtellina and Giovi lines, appears willing to take advan- 
tage of the progress of single-phase equipment as demon- 
strated on the Prussian State Railroads. It is understood 
that, in line with this broad attitude, the 18.6-mile section 
of the Italian State Railways between Turin and Pinerolo 
is soon to be supplied with a single-phase outfit, the behavior 
of which may possibly decide whether single-phase or 
three-phase shall be the standard for future electrifications. 
It is significant, furthermore, that the engineers of the 
largest two electrical firms of Europe favor single-phase 
equipment for all heavy high-speed railroading. The im- 
portance of the various European electrifications is not 
to be gaged by the total horse-power capabilities required, 
which are small in comparison with American trunk line 
installations, like the New Haven, but rather by the fact 
that they are intended to form parts of great arteries of 
Continental traffic. 

The enthusiasm which foreign engineers and railway 
officials are showing for electrification may be a surprise 
to those who are familiar with the conservatism of Europe 
in other matters, but this anomaly may be explained by the 



IO 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLP, No. i. 



fact that the traffic and economic conditions which favor 
electrification are more numerous in Europe that they are 
in America. Switzerland, for instance, offers an ideal set 
of conditions for electrical railroading, inasmuch as elec- 
tric operation of the numerous mountain tunnel railways 
will make tourist travel more agreeable than ever, while 
the large amounts of money which now leave the country 
to pay for high-priced fuel will be diverted to the devel- 
opment of home water-powers. On many Continental lines 
electrification offers the cheapest way of increasing the 
capacity of congested trunk railways and the opportunity 
of exploiting water-power sites or low-grade fuels which 
are not suitable for locomotives. One other excellent eco- 
nomic reason for the choice of electrical equipment on the 
large systems is that the steam locomotives need not be 
scrapped but can simply be diverted to branch lines from 
time to time, while the cars require but few radical changes 
for use with electric locomotives. For these reasons Euro- 
pean engineers have always looked upon electrification as 
something much more than a terminal proposition, a fact 
which accounts in large measure for their choice of high- 
tension overhead systems from the beginning. In gen- 
eral, also, the electrification of European lines is not ac- 
companied by the radical and costly right-of-way changes 
which have characterized American installations. 

A summary of the work under way at this time shows 
that Germany and Switzerland are far in the lead. Follow- 
ing the initial installation of the Dessau-Bitterfeld section 
of the Magdeburg-Halle-Leipzig line, as described at length 
in previous issues of this journal, the Prussian State Rail- 
roads have begun the electrification of the Lauban-Konigs- 
zelt trunk lines and branches to cover 253 miles of single 
track. Five motor cars and forty-four out of seventy-two 
locomotives have already been ordered, with the expectation 
that the first section, Konigszelt-Dittersbach, will be in 
operation late this year and the complete installation by 
1915. Energy will be purchased at the high-tension busbars 
of a new, privately owned power station at 0.69 cent per kw- 
hr. The other great project of the Prussian State Railroads 
■ — namely, the Berlin Stadtbahn and suburban connections — 
is being delayed by interests that assert that larger steam 
locomotives will meet the problem of handling the increased 
traffic. The Prussian Chamber of Deputies has been ad- 
vised, however, that under the very best conditions steam 
locomotives would not permit more than thirty-two trains 
an hour with a maximum of 19,500 seats, compared with 
forty electric trains during the same period with 25,400 
seats. Offers have already been received from private com- 
panies to supply energy to the Stadtbahn at 0.8 cent to 0.95 
cent per kw-hr. Other German work includes the Wiesental 
line of the Baden State Railways, on which trial runs were 
commenced late in 1912, and the contract for the electrifi- 
cation of the Reichenhall-Freilassung division of the Ba- 
varian State Railways. 

The most interesting work now under way in Switzer- 
land is the Loetschberg line, which forms a continuation 
of the famous Simplon Tunnel from Italy. This line, 
which will be opened in the summer of this year, will receive 
thirteen single-phase locomotives, each carrying two 1250-hp 
motors and capable of handling 300-ton trains at a constant 
speed of 31 m.p.h. These locomotives will be the largest in 



Europe. The St. Gotthard tunnel, which constitutes the other 
great highway between Italy and Switzerland, is next in 
line for an electrification which would cover the distance 
of 93 miles between Chiasso and Lucerne. The time for the 
St. Gotthard work is considered opportune as most of the 
present locomotives require early replacement. At any rate, 
the water-power concessions have already been bought by 
the federal authorities. 

Th principal three-phase electrifications in Italy are the 
original Valtellina 67-mile railway and the new Giovi Pass 
13-mile division. The next three-phase electrification is 
that of the Mont Cenis-Freyus tunnel on the Turin-Modane 
line. In Austria the electrifications like those of the 
Vienna-Pressburg and St. Polten-Mariazell lines and the 
Mittenwald Railway are outside the trunk-line pale. How- 
ever, the Austrian State Railways have already made study 
of electrifiction possibilities for 614 miles of route, and the 
Attnang-Puchheim-Stainach-Irdning division, comprising 
66.34 miles of route, has been recommended for early equip- 
ment. 

As yet no extensive trunk-line work is in operation in 
France, but at this time the French Southern (Midi) Rail- 
way has several single-phase locomotives on trial at Ville- 
franche, and thirty 500-hp four-motor cars are on order for 
service over 175 miles of single track covering the main 
line between Pau and Montrejean as well as intermediate 
branches. The western division of the French State Rail- 
ways has recently ordered 130 d.c. motor cars for 
use on its Paris suburban lines, while the Paris-Lyons- 
Mediterranean Railway is experimenting with permutator 
locomotives. As for Scandinavia, the 93-mile Kiruna- 
Riksgransen line of Sweden has already been described in 
these columns, while Norway is still without high-speed 
a.c. railways, although the government engineers have ex- 
pressed their approval of single-phase. The ample water 
powers in both of these countries make the outlook for ex- 
tensive electrification, and even for new lines, very en- 
couraging. 

In conclusion, it is gratifying to note the activity in 
electrification of the steam lines in and about London. The 
London, Brighton & South Coast Railway will soon take in 
hand its important suburban lines, and estimates are also 
being prepared for the electrification of the main line to 
Brighton. The Midland Railway, which has been operating 
8.5 miles of single-phase route on its Heysham-Morecambe- 
Lancaster line, has not announced any additions or other 
changes. On the other hand, the London & South Western 
Railway and the London & North Western Railway have 
decided to use 600-volt direct current on their converted 
suburban lines, thereby making it possible for them to op- 
erate in connection with the London underground system. 
The first South Western electrification will involve the 
conversion of 73 miles of single track with a further 173 
miles of single track later on, while the London & North 
Western Railway is planning to electrify 79 miles. The 
results of the high-tension d.c. experiments of the Lan- 
cashire & Yorkshire Railway are being awaited with inter- 
est by English engineers, as it is appreciated that some 
form of high-tension distribution will be necessary when 
the d.c. electrifications mentioned are extended beyond the 
suburban zone of London. 



January 4, 1913.J 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



r r 



Electric Railway Rolling Stock Ordered in 1912 

Number, Type, Length and Builder of All Cars Ordered by Electric Railways, Compiled from Official Returns Made 

by Railway Companies and Car Builders 



The accompanying table shows in detail the number of 
cars ordered by electric railways in the United States and 
Canada during 1912. The total number of cars of all kinds 
ordered was 6001, which is an increase of 1968, or 49.4 per 
cent, over the number ordered in 191 1. As in previous 
years the table has been compiled from the orders for rolling- 
stock noted from week to week during the year in the rolling 
stock column of the Electric Railway Journal, from 
returns made by the railway companies and from reports 
received from car builders. No claim is made that the 
record is complete. Every effort was made to secure re- 
turns, and those from car builders were checked up against 
those from railway companies, but a few companies did not 
reply in time so that their data could be included. 

The number of cars ordered, classified according to the 
service in which they are used, is given below : 



190S 1909 1910 1911 1912 

Passenger cars, city 220S 2537 3571 2884 4531 

Passenger cars, inlerurban 727 1245 990 626 783 

Freight and miscellaneous cars 176 1175 820 505 687 

Total 3111 4957 5381 4015 6001 



It will be seen from the table that a great many city cars 
ordered during 1912 were of the prepayment type. A 
special enumeration is not made of the prepayment cars 
because this type is almost universal now in new city cars 
ordered. Prepayment cars are indicated by an asterisk (*) 
in the table. 

Interurban passenger cars showed an increase of 25.1 
per cent over the totals of 191 1. The figures for interurban 



cars include orders for subway and elevated equipment. 

The number of electric locomotives ordered was sixty- 
five, as against eighty-one in the preceding year. The 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad ordered 
twenty-four locomotives for passenger and freight service. 

Among the striking features of rolling stock orders last 
year was the spread of the near-side car. Of this type the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company ordered 950 cars, the 
International Railway, Buffalo, 316 cars, and the Chicago 
City Railway 125 cars. The one-man near-side car was 
also developed. Cars of this type were ordered by the 
International Railway, the Illinois Traction System and the 
Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Company. 

Another striking development in rolling stock was the 
introduction of the center-entrance car. Large orders of 
this type included one from Brooklyn for 100 cars, one 
from New York City for 175 cars and one from Los 
Angeles for 36 cars. 

In addition to the rolling stock listed below, there have 
been large sales of gasoline motor, gasoline-electric and 
storage battery cars for branch lines and suburban service 
on steam railroads. The McKeen Motor Car Company 
received orders from steam railroads for fifteen gasoline 
motor cars for the United States and five cars of that type 
for Australia. The General Electric Company built twenty 
gasoline-electric cars for steam railroad service. Of a total 
of forty-nine storage battery cars built by the Federal Stor- 
age Battery Car Company eleven cars were for steam rail- 
road service in this country and nineteen cars were built 
for export to Cuba, Australia and Panama. 



Purchaser No. Class Length Serv. 

Albany (Ga.) Transit Co 5 Closed 18-0 City 

Algiers Ry. & Ltg. Co 3 Closed 18-0 City 

Allen St. Rv 2 Closed 25-4 Int. 

Alt. Jack & Peoria Ry 4 Closed 48-1 Int. 

Ardmore& Llanerch St. Ry. . .. 2 Closed S2-0 Int. 

Arkansas Valley Inter. Ry. ... 3 Closed 46-0 Int. 

2 Trail 40-0 Int. 
1 Work 40-0 Int. 
1 Flat 36-0 Int. 

Aroostook Valley R R 2 Closed 43-0 Int. 

Athol & Orange St. Ry 10 Open 30-0 Int. 

4 Closed 2 5-0 Int. 
Atlantic Coast Flee. Ry 3 Open 42-0 Int. 

3 Closed 28-0JInt. 
Auburn & Syracuse Elec. R.R. 3 Closed 20-0 City- 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R.R. . 1 Express.. 50-0 Int. 

5 Gondola 41-6 Int. 
Bangor Ry. & Elec. Co 3 Open City- 
Bay State St. Ry 12 Open 31-0 City 

8 Open 25-6 City 

30 Closed 28-0 City 

3 Express .... Int. 

1 Flat .... Int. 

Beech Grove Trac. Co 1 Closed 44-0 Int. 

Bent. Har.-St. Joe Ry. & Lt. 

Co 3 Closed 34-8 City 

Berkshire St. Ry 4 Closed 28-0 City 

5 Express 32-8 Int. 

Berlin St. Ry 1 Open .... City 

Berlin & Waterloo St. Ry 2 Semiconv. 31-10City 

Billings Trac. Co 1 Stor.Bat. 18-0 City 

3 Stor.Bat City 

Birm., Ensley & Bess. Ry 20 Closed 45-1 Both 

Birmingham Ry. Lt. & Pwr.Co. 9 Closed 33-6 Sub. 

1 7 Trail Pass. 44-6 Sub. 

1 Express 34-0 Sub. 

4 Ballast 32-0 Sub. 
Boston Elevated Ry 35 Closed* 48-2iCity 

40 Closed* 48-2VCity 

20 Closed 69-2VSub. 

2 Crane 50-0 Int. 
1 Wreck 54-0 Int. 

Boston.Rev.Beach&LynnR.R. 1 Stor.Bat Sub. 

Boston & Worcester St. Ry 6 Express 40-0 Int. 

BiitishCol. Elec. Ry. Co., Ltd. .65 Closed* 30-0 City 

22 Closed 40-0 Int. 

1 Cl.St'pl'ss 34-0 City 
35 Semiconv. *30-l City 

15 Closed City 

6 Closed 40-0 Int. 

1 Closed N-S.34-l|City 

4 Bag Ex.. 54-0 Int. 
70 Frt.Box 41-0 Int. 
45 Frt.Flat 41-0 Int. 

6 Dump 28-0 Int. 

2 Snow-swp. 28-0 Int. 

5 Fl. Locos. 33-0 Int. 



Truck Builder Purchaser A T o. Class Length Serv. 

Brill American Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. .. . 1 Closed C-E. 45-0 City 

Bait. Cincinnati 100 Closed C-E. 45-6 City 

Brill Brill 2 Sweeper 23-7 City 

M'G.C.McGuire-C. Buffalo & Lake Erie Trac. Co . . 1 Sn.-p.ow 30-0 Int. 

Bald. Jewett Burlingame Elec. Ry 1 Stor. Bat City 

St. L. St. Louis Butte. Ana. & Pac. R. R 2 Elec. Loco. 38-0 Pass. 

St. L. St. Louis Butte Elec. Ry 4 Closed 28-0 City 

St. L. St. Louis Calgary St. Ry 6 Closed* 41-6 City 

St. L. St. Louis 12 Closed 41-6 City 

Brill Wason 12 Closed 46-6 City 

Tay. Wason 6 Trail Pass. 44-0 City 

Tay. Wason 1 Sweeper 24-0 City 

Brill Brill 1 Sprinkler 24-0 City 

Brill Brill 1 Sight-see'g City 

.... Kuhlman Cape May, Del. Bay & Sewell's 

.... Jewett Point R. R 2 Stor.Bat. 18-3 City 

Press Pressed St. Capital Trac. Co 5 Semiconv. *30-8 Sub. 

Laconia 50 Semiconv. 28—4 City 

St. L. St. Louis Carolina Pwr. & Lt. Co 2 Semiconv. 20-8 City 

St. L. St. Louis Carolina Trc. Co 1 Stor.Bat City 

St. L. St. Louis Cedar Rap. & Mar. City Ry. 2 Closed 21-4 City 

St. L. St. Louis 1 Sweeper 28-3 City 

.... Laconia Central California Tr. Co 5 Express 36-0 Int. 

M'G-C.McGuire-C. Central Park, North & East 

River R. R 1 Stor.Bat City 

M'G.C.McGuire-C. Cent. 111. Pub. Serv. Co 1 Cinder Int. 

Std. Wason Central Pennsylvania Tr. Co . . . 6 Semiconv. *25— City 

Std. Wason Charleston Cons. Ry. & Ltg. 

Lac. Laconia Co 5 Semiconv.*20-8 City 

Brill Preston Charleston Int. R. R 2 Closed* 48-9}Jnt. 

Brill Brill Charlotte Elec. Ry 3 Closed* .... Int. 

Fed. Federal Chattanooga Ry. & Lt. Co 10 Closed* 28-8 City 

Brill Brill Chicago City Ry 125 Semiconv.*34-l JCity 

M'G-C.McGuire-C. N.-S. 

M'G-C.McGuire-C. Chicago & Oak Park Elev. R.R. 1 Fire ftg. 25-0 Elev. 

Co. Co. Shops Chicago Railways 1 Oil 45-2 City 

Co Co. Shops Chillicothe Elec R. R., Lt. & 

Tay. St. Louis Pwr. Co 2 Closed* 40-0 City 

Tay. Laconia Chippewa Valley Ry. Lt. & 

Brill Laconia Pwr. Co 3 Closed* 22-0 City 

Brill Russell Cincinnati Trac. Co 26 Closed* 33-0 City 

Brill Russell Citizens' Trac. Co 8 Closed* 21-0 City 

Fed. Federal City & Suburban Rv 1 Semiconv. 25-6 City 

Std. Osg-Brad. Cleveland Const. Co 1 Work 20-0 Int. 

Pres. Preston Cleveland Ry 1 CI. C-E. 45-4 City 

St. L. St. Louis 200 Trail Pass. 48-0 City 

Brill Brill 2 Sweeper 22-3 City 

Brill Brill Columbia Ry Gas & Elec. Co. . 2 Closed* 39-0 City 

.... Co. Shops Columbus, New Albany & 

St. L. St. Louis Johnstown Trac. Co 1 Comb. 50—0 Int. 

Brill Brill Columbus Rv.. & Lt. Co 10 Closed* 28-8|City 

Std. Niles Conestoga Trac. Co 4 Open 28-0 City 

Seat. Seattle 3 Closed 30-8 Int. 

Seat. Seattle . 1 Com. & PI. 45-0 Both 

H.-O. Hart-Otis. Connecticut Co 1 Express 40-0 Int. 

Otta. Ottawa 2 Elec. Loco. 31-8 Switch 

Bald. Westingh. 4 Dump 10-0 City 



Truck 


Builder 


Std. 


Standard 


Brill 


Brill 


Rus. 


Russell 


Rus. 


Russell 


Fed. 


Federal 


A. L. 


Gen. Elec. 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


Brill 


Preston 


Brill 


Ottawa 


Brill 


Ottawa 


Brill 


Ottawa 




Ottawa 


Brill 


Preston 




Preston 


Brill 


Brill 


Std. 


Cincinnati 


Brill 


Jewett 


Brill 


Brill 


Fed. 


Federal 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


M'G.C.McGuire-C 


Hoi. 


Holman 


Fed. 


Federal 


M'G.C.McGuire-C, 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Cincinnati 


Std. 


Jewett 




Cincinnati 


Brill 


Cincinnati 


Brill 


Brill 




Co. Shops 


St.' L. 


Co. Shops 


Brill 


Kuhlman 



M'G-C 
Brill 
St. L. 
Brill 
M'G.C. 
Brill 
Brill 
M'G-C 
Brill 



.McGuire-C. 
Cincinnati 
St. Louis 
Brill 

McGuire-C. 
Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
McGuire-C. 
Co. Shops 



M'G-C.McGuire-C. 
Brill Kuhlman 
Brill Brill 
Std. Cincinnati 
Std. Cincinnati 
Std. Osg-Brad. 
Bald. Westingh. 
Was'n Wason 



12 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. l. 



Purchaser No. Glass Length Serv. Truck Builder 

Connecticut Valley St. Ry. . . . 3 Closed 30-0 Int. Tay. VVason 

1 Express 40-0 Int. Tay. Co. Shops 

County Trac. Co 20 Closed* 45-0 City M'G-C.McGuire-C. 

1 Work 45-0 Both M'G-C.McGuire-C. 

1 Sweeper .... City M'G-C.McGuire-C. 

1 Sprinkler 29-6 City M'G-C.McGuire-C. 

3 Dump City M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

Cumberland (Md.) Elec. Ry... 3 Open 22-0 City Brill Brill 

3 Closed 22-0 City Brill 

Cumberland (Pa.) Ry 1 Stor.Bat. 50-0 City Federal 

Dallas Elec. Corp 13 Closed* 26-6 City Brill St. Louis 

1 Work .... Int. .... St. Louis 

Dallas- Southern Tr. Co 6 Closed 34-6 Sub. Brill Osg.-Brad. 

1 Baggage 45-0 Int. Brill Osg.-Brad. 

Davenport & Muscatine Ry. . . 8 Closed* 20-1 City Brill American 

1 Sn.-Plow Int. M'G-C.McGuire-C. 

DeKalb-Sycamore Int. Ry . . . . 1 Closed* 28-10City .... American 

Denver City Tram. Co 2 Closed 44-0 City Brill Woeber 

6 Closed 44-0 City Brill Woeber 

Des Moines City Ry 25 Closed* 28-10City Brill American 

2 Sweeper 28-3 City M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

Detroit, Monroe & Toledo 

Short Line Ry 4 Closed 45-10|Int. Std. Niles 

Detroit United Ry 2 Closed. 36-3 Int. Bald. Niles 

8 Closed 41-10ilnt. Std. Niles 

100 Closed* 23-2 City Dup. American 

50 Closed* 31-4 City Std. Kuhlman 

5 Express 41-5 JInt. Std. Niles 

5 "Work Tr. 38-0 Both R.W. Russell 
& Wheel 
Fdy. & Fdv. 

15 Work Fl. 28-0 Both R.W. Russell 
& Wheel 
Fdy. & Fdy. 

1 48-0 Both Std. Co. Shops 

1 Supply 49-1 OInt. Std. Niles 

1 Loco.Cr. 23-0 City Ind.W.Ind. Iron 

Wks. 

1 Con. Mix. 12-7 City Dup. Co. Shops 

Dominion Pwr. & Trans. Co. 

Ltd 12 Closed 21-0 City Tay. Preston 

15 Closed 30-0 City Brill Preston 

Dover, Somersworth & Roch. 

St Ry 2 Semiconv. 39-0 City Laconia 

Eastern Texas Trac. Co 9 Closed 56-0 Int. M'G-CJewett 

1 Express 50-0 Int. MG-CTewett 

Eastern Transit Co 3 Semiconv.*20-8 City ... Bull 

East St. L. Col. & Waterloo Ry. 2 Sn.-plow .... Int. Rus. American 

1 Bag. -Ex. 42-6 Int. Brill American 
East St. Louis & Sub. Ry 1 Closed 50-0 Int. St. L. St. Louis 

2 Sprinklers 29-6 City M'G.C.McGuire-C. 
Edmonton Radial Ry 35 Semiconv.*33-3 ?City Std. Preston 

15 Semiconv. *30-6 City St. L. St. Louis 

1 Work 40-0 City M'G-C.McGuire-C 

1 Dump. 33-6£City Can. Canadian 

Elkins Elec. Ry 1 Comb. 40-0 Int. St. L. Si. Louis 

Elmira Wtr. Lt. & R. R. Co 8 Semiconv.*33-0 Citv Std. Cincinnati 

El Paso Elec. Ry 12 Closed 29-0 City St. L. St. Louis 

Ephrata & Lebanon St. Ry. .. . 2 Stor.Bat City Fed. Federal 

Escanaba Trac. Co 1 Flat 42-0 Special M'G.C.Co. Shops 

Evansville Rys 3 Comb. Pas. 50-0 Int. Brill American 

& Bag. 

1 Ex. -Bag. 45-0 Int. Brill American 

Fargo & Moorhead St. Ry 1 Sweeper 26-0 Int. M'G-C. McGuire-C. 

Fonda, Johns. & Glov. R. R. ... 2 Closed 41-8 Sub. Tay. Jones 

1 Work 27-0 Line Tay. Co. Shops 
Fox & Illinois Union Ry 1 Express 36-0 Int. M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

2 Closed 48-0 Int. M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & 

Southern R. R 2 Closed 40-0 City Std. Jewett 

Ft. Wayne & No. Ind. Trac. 

Co 19 Closed* 21-0 City Curtis Cincinnati 

17 One-man 21-0 City Brill Brill 

4 S-C N-S 34-l|City Brill Brill 

Freeport Ry. & Lt. Co 1 Sweeper 28-3 City M'G-C.McGuire-C 

Fresno Trac. Co 4 Closed* 42.-8 City Jewett Jewett 

Gait, Pres. & Hespeler St. Ry. . 2 Closed 43-5 Sub. Bald. Preston 

Galveston-Houston Elec. Co.... 4 Closed 53-0 Int. St. L. St. Louis 

Gary & Int. Ry 1 Elec. Loco Int. M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

8 Closed 44-0tCity M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

Geary St. Munic. St. Ry 43 Closed* 48-0 City Brill Holman 

Geneva & Auburn Ry 1 Sn.-plow 36-4 Int. Bald. Co. Shops 

Goshen, So. Bend & Chi. Ry. . . 6 Express 50-0 Int. M 'G.C.McGuire-C. 

2 Closed 56-0 Int. M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

Grand Junction & Grand River 

Valley Ry 2 Closed* 26-0 Citv Bald. Southern 

1 Express 40-0 Int. Brill Woeber 

Grand Rapids, Grand Hav. & 

Musk Ry 1 Closed 52-7 Unt. Bald. Niles 

1 Comb. 52-7*Int. Bald. Niles 

3 Express 46-1 '.Int. Bald. Niles 

Grand Rapids Ry 10 Closed* 28-0 Citv Brill Cincinnati 

Granite City Ry 4 Closed 22-0 City M'G-C.Jones 

Greenville, Spartanburg & An- 
derson Ry 5 Elec.Loco. 35-0 Freight Bald. West. 

Guelph Radial Ry 1 Sweeper 26-6 City M'G-C. Preston 

1 Sweeper 28-3 City M'G'C.McGuire-C. 

Hagerstown & Clearspring Ry. 4 Closed 28-0 Citv St. L. St. Louis 

Halifax Elec. Tram. Co 4 Closed 21-0 Citv Co. NovaScotia 

1 Sweeper 28-3 City .... McGuire-C. 

Helena Lt. & Rv. Co 1 Semiconv. 28-10VCity Brill American 

Hillsboro Ry 2 Closed 30-0 City M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

Homest. & Mifflin St. Ry 1 Open 21-0 City M'G-C. St. Louis 

1 Closed 21-0 City M'G-C. St. Louis 

Houston Elec. Co 14 Semiconv.*26-6 City Std. St. Louis 

1 Work 33-0 City Std. Co. Shops 

4 Ballast 33-0 City Rodg. Rodger 

Hueneme, Malibu & Port Los 

Angeles Ry. .... 1 Gas. Mot Int. Co. Co. Shops 

Hull Elec. Co 6 Semiconv. *3 8-0 Both Brill Ottawa 

Hummelst'n&Camp. St. Ry... 2 Semiconv. *30-8 City Brill Brill 

1 Sweeper .... Both Brill 

Idaho Trac Co I 3 Closed 42-0 City St. L. St. Louis 

12 Ballast 36-0 Int. Rodg. Rodgers 

Illinois Central Elec. Ry 2 Comb. 47-2iInt. Brill American 

Illinois Trac. System 10 Closed . .. Int. St. L. St. Louis 

1 Closed 5 7-0 Int. Curtis St. Louis 

3 Closed 41-0 City St L. St. Louis 

11 One-man* 20-0 City St. L. St. Louis 

8 Trail. 5 7-0 Int. St. L. St. Louis 

1 Observ. .... Int. St. L. St. Louis 



Purchaser No. Class Length Serv. 

Illinois Trac. System 1 Sleeper .... Int. 

50 Frt. Box 40-0 Int. 
75 Gondola 40-0 Int. 
25 Ballast 40-0 Int. 

Ind., Col. &East. Tr. Co 50 Closed* 33-0 City 

Indianapolis Trac. & Term. Co. 25 Closed 33-2£City 

International Ry 10 Closed .... City 

200 Closed N-S 34-lfCity 
103 Closed N-S 34-l£City 
13 CI. N-S* 21-2 City 



H&B 
H&B 
H&B 
Brill 
Std. 



4 Sweeper 
Interurban Construction Co .. . 4 Closed 
1 Express 
1 Flat 

Interurban Ry. Co 1 Express 

1 Work 
1 Work. Tr 
1 Line 

Interurban Ry. & Term. Co 

Iowa City Elec. Ry 2 Closed 

Iowa Ry. & Lt. Co 2 Sweeper 

Ironwood & Bessemer Ry. & 



28-3 City 
56-0 Int. 

48-0 Int. 

36-0 Int. 

45-0 Int. 

42-0 Int 

32-0 Int. 

40-0 Int. 

3 Excursion 5 0-0 Int. 



22-0 City 
28-3 City 



Truck Builder 
St. L. St. Louis 

Has. & Bar. 
Has. & Bar. 
Has.&Bir. 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
St. L. St. Louis 
Brill Kuhlman 
Brill Brill 
Brill Brill 
M'G.C.McGuire-C. 
M'G-CMcGuire-C. 
M'G-C. McGuire-C 
St. L. St. Louis 
M'G-C.McGuire-C. 
M'G-C.McGuire-C. 
M'G-C.McGuire-C. 
M G-C.McGuire-C. 
Std. Cincinnati 
M'G-C.McGuire-C 
M'G.C.McGuire-C. 



Jamestown, Chautauqua & 



Jersey Central Trac. Co 

Joplm & Pitts. Ry 

Kans. City, Clay County & St 



Keokuk Elec. Co. . 



LaSalle County Elec. Co. 



Lethbridge Munic. Tramway... 
Lewisburg, Mil. & Wat. Pass 



Lincoln Trac. Co. 



London & Lake Shore Ry. & 



Longview & Junction St. Ry. . 



Los Angeles & San Diego Beach 

Ry 

Louisville Ry 



Macon Ry. & Lt. Co 6 Closed 

Mahon. & Shenan. Ry. & Lt 

CO: 

Manchester St. Ry 6 Closed 

Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent 

Line 

Manhattan City & Inter Ry. . 
Manila Elec. R. R. & Lt Co . . . 

Mason City & Clear Lake R.R 

Memphis St. Ry 

Meridian Lt. & Ry. Co 1 Closed 

Merrill Ry. & Ltg. Co. . . 
Mesaba Elec. Ry 10 Closed 



2 


Closed 


40- 


-0 Int. 


M'G-C. Brill 


4 


Semiconv.' 


s 20- 


•8 City 


Brill 


American 


5 


Semiconv. *28-0 City 


Brill 


American 


1 


Gas. Mot. 


55- 


-0 Int. 


McK 


McKeen 


4 


Semiccnv. 


33- 


-4 Int. 


Brill 


Brill 


1 


Express 


45- 


-0 Int. 


Bald. 


Jewett 


8 


Closed 


57- 


-0 Int. 


Bald. 


Cincinnati 


8 


Comb. 


57- 


-0 Int. 


Bald. 


Cincinnati 


5 


Express 


57- 


-0 Int. 


Bald. 


Cincinnati 


1 


Work 


40- 


-0 Int. 


Bald. 


Cincinnati 


5 


Frt. Trail 


40- 


-0 Int. 


AC&F.Cincinnati 


1 


Closed 


21- 


-0 City 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


4 


Closed 


32- 


-0 City 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


1 


Closed* 


31- 


-4 City 


Std. 


Cincinnati 


2 


Closed 


21- 


-0 City 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


1 


Comb. 


28- 


-0 Int. 


Brill 


Cincinnati 


3 


Closed 


48- 


-0 Int. 


M'G.C.McGuire-C. 


1 


Express 


45- 


-0 Int. 


M'G.C.McGuire-C 


4 


Closed 


24- 


-0 City 


Brill 


American 


20 


Closed* 


30- 


-1 City 




Brill 


6 


Closed 


55- 


-lOtlnt. 


Bald. 


Jewett 


4 


Closed* 


30- 


-1 City 


Bald. 


Brill 


1 


Line 


30- 


-0 Both 


Bald 


Russell 


2 


Wreck 


40- 


-0 Both 


Bald. 


Russell 


5 


Closed* 


29- 


-0 City 


Tay. 


Preston 


5 


Closed* 


32- 


-6 City 


Brill 


Preston 


1 


Stor.Bat. 


34- 


-0 Int. 


Brill 


Brill 


3 


Near-Side* 34- 


-1-1 Both 


Brill 


Kuhlman 


1 


Ballast 


28- 


-0 Both 


St. L. 


Co. Shops 


1 


Sweeper 


27- 


-6 City 




. American 


4 


Closed 




. . Both 




. St. Louis 


4 


Closed 




. Int. 




Niles 


1 


Bag. 




. . Int. 




Niles 


30 


Comb. 


54- 


-0 Int. 


AC&F.A. C. &F. 


4 


Bag. 




. . Int. 


AC&F.A. C. & F. 


8 


Parlor 




. Int. 


AC&F.A. 0. &F. 


1 


Closed 


16-0 City 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


50 


Calif. 


44- 


-7 City 


Brill 


American 



Milford, Attleboro & Woon 

socket St. Ry 

Milford & Uxbridge St. Ry. Co 
Mill Val. & Mt. Tarn. Scenic 

Ry 



Milwaukee Northern Ry 

Minn., St. P., Roch. & Dub 
Elec. Tr. Co 



Missoula St. Ry. .... 
Mobile Lt. &R. R.Co. 



Monongahela Val. Tr. Co. 
Montgomery Transit Co. . 



3 


Stor.Bat. 




. . City 


Fed. 


Federal 


5 


Comb. 


40 


-5 Int. 


Bald. 


Cincinnati 


5 


Comb. 


33- 


-2 Int. 


Bald 


Cincinnati 


1 


Sweeper 


28- 


3 City 


M'G.C.McGuire$-C 


6 


Closed* 


28-0 City 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


3 


Flat 


30-0 City 


Brill 


Co. Shops 


1 


Derrick. 




. . Int. 


M'G.C.McGuire-C. 


6 


Closed 


26- 


-6 City 


Std. 


Laconia 


t 

1 


Sweeper 




. . City 


Brill 


Brill 


3 


Closed 


46- 


-0 Int. 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


3 


Semiconv. 


28- 


-4 City 


Brill 


Brill 


1 


Semiconv. 


28- 


-4 City 


Man. 


Brill 


1 


Express 


50- 


-0 Int. 


M'G.C.McGuire C. 


15 


Closed C-E 38 


^City 


Brill 


Brill 


1 


Closed 


20- 


-8 City 


Brill 


American 


5 


Semiconv. 


31- 


-0 City 


Brill 


Southern 


. 1 


Trackless 




. City 


Field 


Field 


10 


Closed 


50- 


-0 Int. 


Bald. 


Niles 


4 


Trail Pass. 


40- 


-0 Int. 


Bald. 


Niles 


2 


Express 




. . Int. 


Bald. 


Niles 


1 


Sn.-Plow 


38- 


-0 Int. 


Was'n 


Wason 


26 


Closed* 


34 


-0 City 


Std. 


Cincinnati 


1 


Dump 


36- 


-4 City 


St. L. 


Co. Shops 


1 


Dump 


39- 


-8 City 


St. L. 


Oren-Ar- 










thur-Koppel 


1 


Material 


24- 


-0 City 


Dup 


Co. Shcps 


10 


Closed 


28-0 City 


St. L. 


St. Louis 


20 


Closed* 


28- 


-0 City 


Brill 


Brill 


5 


CI. N-S 


21- 


-1 City 


Brill 


Brill 


1 


Comb. 


61- 


-9 Int. 


Brill 


Brill 


1 


Sn.-Plow 


38- 


-0 City 


Was'n 


Wason 


2 


Closed 


22- 


-0 City 


Tay. 


Jones 


' 2 


Trail 


36- 


-0 Int. 


Brill 


Holman 


1 


Semiconv. 


31- 


-8 Int. 


Brill 


Brill 


30 


Closed* 


47- 


-0 City 


Bald. 


St. Louis 


1 


Special 


50- 


-0 Both 




• Co. Shops 


8 


Sweeper 


43- 


-0 City 




McGuire-C. 


1 


El. Loco. 


19- 


-lOSwitch 


Bald. 


Westing. 


6 


Closed* 


32- 


-4 City 




.Co. Shops 


2 


Closed 


31- 


-6 City 


St. L. 


Niles 


2 


Closed 


56- 


-0 Int. 


Brill 


Wason 


7 


Trail 


48' 


-6 Int. 


Brill 


Wason 


. 1 


Semiconv. 


30- 


-8 Int. 


Brill 


American 


1 


Ballast 


32- 


-0 Int. 


Brill 


Co. Shops 


8 


Closed* 


21- 


-0 City 


Brill 


American 


4 


Closed* 


28- 


-0 City 


Brill 


American 


4 


Semiconv. 


28- 


-0 Int. 


Brill 


Kuhlman 


2 


Comb. 


43- 


-0 Both 


Brill 


St. Louis 


1 


Comb. 


40- 


-0 Both 


Brill 


Brill 


1 


Express 


40- 


-0 Both 


Brill 


Russell 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



'3 



49. 

48- 
32- 
32 
20- 

39- 
36- 

21- 

Semiconv. *34-i 



Comb. 
Express 
Closed 
Closed 
Si). -Plow 
Closed 
Express 



Purchaser No. Class 

Montreal & Southern Counties 

Ry. Co 6 Closed 

2 Comb. 

Montreal Tramway 35 Closed* 

40 Closed* 

1 Sn.-Plow 

2 Sweeper 
1 Crane 

Morris County Trac. Co 1 Sweeper 

Muskogee Elec. Trac. Co 4 Closed* 

10 

Nashville-Gallatin Int. Ry. . . . 4 
1 

Nashville Int. Ry l 

Nashville Ry. & Lt. Co 12 

N. J. & Pa. Trac. Co 2 

New Midland Pwr. & Trac. Co. 4 
1 

Newport News & Old Point 

i Ry. & Elec. Co 4 

N.Y.C. & H.R.R.R 19 

6 
1 

N.Y., N.H. l% H.R.R 24 

New York Railways 175 

1 
1 
1 

New York State Rys., Utica 
k Lines 20 

1 

New.' York, West. & Boston Ry. 2 

Niag., St. Cath. & Tor. Ry 1 

1 

Nipissing Central Ry 2 

North Car. Pub. Ser. Co 4 

Northern Ohio Trac. & Lt. Co... 15 

25 
20 
2 
1 
1 

2 
1 

Northern Texas Trac. Co 4 

2 

Northwestern Elev. R.R. . 
Norwich & Westerly Tr. Co 



Length Serv. Truck Builder 



•4 Int. 
4 Int. 
City 
■0 City 
City 
6 Both 
lOBoth 
. Both 
3 City 
Both 
Int. 
■0 Int. 
■6 Int. 
lOCity 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 



Curtis 
Curtis 
Brill 

Otta. 
Can. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Bull 

Brill 

Brill 

Was'n 

'Pay. 

St. L. 



Ottawa 
OUawa 
Ottawa 
. Canadian 
Ottawa 
Ottawa 
Co. Shops 
Brill 

American 

American 

American 

American 

American 

Co. Shops 

Wason 

Jewett 

Jewett 



Semiconv. 45-0 Int. 



1 
4 
1 
10 
4 
1 
1 
5 

10 
1 
6 
1 
6 
1 
1 

Ohio Elec. Ry. Co 6 

6 
2 
3 
2 
14 
10 



Oak, Antioch & East. Ry. 



Ogden R. T. Co. . 



Ohio River Elec 

Co 

Omaha & Council 

Ry 



Ry. & Pwr. 
Bluffs St. 



Closed 
Comb. 
Stor.Bat. 
El. Loco. 
Stcpless 
Doub.d'k 
Stepless* 
Stcpless 
Stor.Bat. 

Closed* 
Sweeper 
Sn.-Plow 
El. Loco. 
El. Loco. 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Semiconv. 
Con v. 
Express 
Wr.& PI. 
Derrick 
Express 
Substa. 
Closed 
Express 
Fire-Ftg. 
Closed 
Express 
Comb. 
Comb. 
Parlor 
Parlor 
Express 
Work- 
Derrick 
Ballast 
El. Loco. 
Trail 
Express 
Sn.-Plow 
Comb. 
Trail Pass. 
Open 
Express 
Work 
Fr. Tr. 
Flat 



53-0 Sub. 
53-0 Sub. 

50-6 F.& P. 
44-0 City 
43-1 City 
40-8 City 
28-9 City 



Brill Brill 
Pres'd Pr. Steel 
Pres'd Pr. Steel 
.Fed. Federal 
Bald. Westingh. 
St. L. St. Louis 
Brill Brill 
Brill Brill 
Brill Brill 



-1 lCity 
-0 City 
. Int. 
. P.& Sw 
-0 Int. 
-6 Int. 
-0 City 
-2 Int. 
-MSub. 
-6 City 
-0 Int. 
-0 City 
. Int. 
-0 Int. 
. Int. 
-0 tnt. 
-0 Int. 
-0 Elev. 
8 Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
Int. 
-0 Int. 
■0 Freight 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
. Int. 
-6 Int. 
-0 Int. 
-9JCity 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
-6 Int. 
-0 Int. 



Brill 

Brill 

Rus. 

.Bald. 

Tay. 

Beami 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

M'G.C 

M'G.C 

M'G.C 

M'G.C 

M'G.C 

Bald. 

Brill 

Brill ' 

Bald.' 



Bald. 

Hoi. 

Hoi. 

Hoi. 

Hoi. 

Bald. 

Brill 

St. L. 

Std.' 
Std. 
Brill 
Std. 
Tay. 
Std. 
Std. 



Brill 
Brill 
Russell 
Westingh. 
Co. Shops 
a Preston 
Southern 
Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
McGuire-C 
McGuire-C. 
.McGuire-C. 
.McGuire-C. 
.McGuire-C. 
St. Louis 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Brill 
\\ ason 
Holman 
. Wason 
. Wason 
Holman 
Holman 
Holman 
Holman 
Holman 
Westingh. 
American 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati I 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 



1 Elec. Loco. 30-0 Int. 



Bald. American 



.25 
1 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beat. Ry... 1 

Oneida Ry 2 

Orange County Tr. Co 4 

11 



Oregon Elec. Ry. 



3 

. 6 
3 
25 
2 
1 
1 

Oshawa Rv 2 

• 1 
1 
1 

Ottawa Elec. Ry 10 

Pacific Coast Ry 1 

Pacific Elec. Ry 10 

53 
36 
10 
3 

. 4 

20 
1 

. 6 



Pacific Northwest Tr. Co. 



Paducah Trac. & Lt. Co . 
Park, Marietta & Int. Ry. 



Peninsular Ry 

People's Gas & Elec. Co. 



2 
1 

10 

3 

People's Ry., Wil., Del 10 

Pet. & Santa Rosa Rv 5 

Phila. & Garret. St. Ry 1 

Philadelphia R. T. Co 50 

950 
1 
1 
2 

Phila. & West. Trac. Co 5 

Piedmont Trac. Co 1 

Pine Bluff Co 12 

Pittsburgh Rvs 6 

44 

Port Jervis Trac. Co 1 

Portland, Gray & Lew. R R. . 2 
4 
5 



Closed 42-0 

Sweeper 28-3 
Elec. Loco. 24-0 

Semiconv. 40-0 

Closed* 44-0 

Closed* 34-8 

Gondola 21-0 

Comb. 58-4; 
Coaches 5 7-11-i 

Coach.tr. 58-4.' 

Tr. Sleep. 5 7-0 

Wreck .... 

Substa. .... 

Conv. 40-0 

Express 36-0 

Sweeper 3 5-0 

El. Loco 25-0 

Closed* 45-3 

Comb. 55-0 

Closed 42-9 

Closed 55-6 

Stepl'sC-E 

El. Loco. 3 6-0 

El. Loco. 36-0 

Fr't Box 41-0 

Fr't flat 41-0 

Caboose 41-0 

Closed 2 1 -0 

Fr't Box 36-0 

Gondola 3 6-0 

El. Loco. 36-0 

Closed 26-6 

Closed 

Closed* 22-0 

Fr't Box 36-0 

Sweeper. . . 28-3 

Closed 39-7 

Closed 34-3J 

Funeral 36-6 

Sweeper .... 

Sand 30-0 

Closed 44-6 

El. Loco. 3 5-0 

Semiconv. 33-0 

CI. C-E 45-0 

Trail 45-0 

Open 20-0 

Closed 38-0 

Closed 46-0 

Flat 34-0 



City 

City 

Switch 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

Const. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 



Both 

City 

Both 

Shunt. 

Both 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

Fr't. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

City 

Elev. 

City 

Both 

City 

City 

Sub. 

Fr't. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 



Brill 
M'G.C 
Bald. 
Brill 
M'G.C 
M'G.C. 
M'G.C. 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Bald. 
M'G.C. 
Tay. 
Brill 
Ott. 
Rath. 
Brill 
Bald. 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Seat. 
Seat. 
Seat. 
St. L. 
Ralst. 
Ralst. 
Bald. 
St. L. 
War. 
Brill 
Std. 
M'G.C 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Bald. 
Bald. 
Bait. 
Std. 
Std. 
Brill 
Brill 
Bald. 
Lacon 



Co. Shops 

McGuire-C. 

Westingh. 

Kuhlman 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

American 

American 

American 

Bar. & Sm. 

Co. Shops 

McGuire-C. 



Ottawa 

Rathbun 

Ottawa 

Cincinnati 

Jewett 

Jewett 

Brill 

Westingh. 

Westingh. 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

St. Louis 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

Westingh. 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

Cincinnati 

Co. Shops 

McGuire-C. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Jewett 

Westingh. 

Southern 

Standard 

Standard 

Wason 

Wason 

Laconia 

Laconia 



Purchaser 

Portland Ry. Lt. & Pwr. Co. .. 

Portland R.R 

Portsmouth St.. R. R. &< Lt. Co 
Pottstown & Phocnixville Ry.. 
Pottstown & Reading St. Ry . 

Pub. Serv. Co. of No. Ill 

Public Service Ry 



Public Utilities Co 

Puget Sound Trac, Lt. & Pwr. 

Co 

Quebec Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co. . . 



Class 
Flat 
Closed 
Semiconv. 
Semiconv 
Semiconv 
Closed 
Closed* 
Closed* 
Semiconv 
Semiconv. 
Line 
Closed* 
Line 



Length Serv. 
41-0 Int. 
30-0 City 
28-0 City 
*30-8 City 
*45-0 Both 
30-0 City 
32-0 City 
32-0 City 
34-0 Int. 
*34-0 Int. 
30-0 Int. 
28-0 City 
28-0 Int. 



32 



Reading Transit Co. 
Regina Munic. Ry. . 



1 

.10 
10 
. 8 
16 

6 

Rhode Island Co 35 

2 

Richmond & Rappahannock 

River Ry 2 

Roanoke Ry. & Elec. Co 6 

Rochester & Manitou R. R 1 

Rockford Citv Trac. Co 2 

Rome Ry. & Lt. Co 2 

St. Joseph Ry., Lt., Ht. & Pwr. 

Co 6 

St. Joseph Valley Ry 1 

St. Louis, Brownsville & Mex- 
ico Ry 2 

St. Thomas St. Ry 2 

Saginaw-Bay City Ry 1 

1 

Salt Lake & Ogden Elec. Ry . 



Closed 
Sweeper 
Sweeper 
Semiconv 
Semiconv 
Closed* 
Closed* 
Closed* 
Sem iconv.*28 
Substa. 



-0 City 

. . Both 

-3 City 

-8 Int. 

-8 City 

-0 City 

-0 City 

-0 Citv 

-6 City 

. Int. 



San Diego Elec. Ry, 



3 
1 
1 
1 

Sand., Windsor & Amherst Ry. 2 

Sand Springs Ry 2 

San Francisco, Napa & Calis- 

toga Ry 2 

4 

San Jose R. R 4 

Santa Barbara Cons. Elec. 

R.R 5 

Saskatoon Munic. St. Ry 12 

Savannah Elec. Co 9 

Seattle, Renton & Southern 

. 6 
6 
2 

. 10 



Closed 
Closed 
Open 
Closed* 
Closed 

Closed 
Closed 

Open tr. 
Closed* 
Open 
Closed* 
Closed 
El. Loco. 
Cent.-Ent. 42-0 City 
Work 46-0 Int. 

Closed* 21-0 City 
Closed 50-0 Int. 

54-0 Int. 

Fr't Box 30-0 Int. 
Closed* 42-8 City 

S-C C-E* 39-4 City 
Closed 32-0 City 
Closed 38-6 City 



31-0 City 

28- City 
46-3. '.Sub. 

29- City 
20-8 City 

30- City 
48-0 Int. 

City 

25-0 City 

City 

28-0 City 
62-0 Int. 
34-7 Fr't. 



Ry. 



Schenectady Ry. 
Selma St. & Sub. 
Shore Line Elec. 



Ry. 

Ry.. 



Southern Pacific Co. 



... 3 
1 
6 
1 

Shreveport Trac. Co 5 

Sioux City Serv. Co 7 

Sioux Falls Trac. Sys 1 

Slate Belt Elec. St. Ry 2 

1 

South Cov. & Cin. St. Ry 20 

Southern Cambria Ry 2 

Southern III, Rv. & Pwr. Co. . . . 2 
2 
2 
1 

. . .20 
2 
13 
4 
17 
5 
11 
10 
4 
1 

Southern Trac. Co 4 

4 

Southern Wisconsin Ry 10 

Southwest Mo. R. R 5 

Southwestern Trac. Co 3 

Southwestern Trac. & Pwr. Co . 1 
2 
2 

Spokane & Inland Empire 

R.R 1 

Springfield Cons. Rv 1 

7 

Springfield St. Rv 6 

5 

Springfield & Jacksonville Elec. 

Ry 5 

Stark Elec. Ry 1 

Ster., Dixon & East. Elec. Ry... 1 
Stockton Terminal & Eastern 

Ry 1 

Suffolk Trac. Co 1 

Syracuse & Sub. R. R 2 

Syracuse R. T. Ry 9 

1 

2 

Tacoma Ry. & Pwr. Co 10 

Tar. Breck" & Butler St. Rv.Co . 2 
Terre Haute, Ind. & East. 

Trac. Co 1 

1 
1 

Texas City Transp. Co 3 

Tidewater Power Co 43 

Toledo Rys & Lt. Co 20 

7 

Toledo & Western R. R 1 

Toronto Civic Lines 4 

1 



Closed 
Closed 
Closed 
Closed* 
Semiconv 
Closed 
Express 
Work 
Sn.-Plow 
Closed* 
Semiconv 
Sem icon V 
Conv.* 
Sweeper 
Semiconv. 
Comb. 
Pass.Sm . 
Pass. Bag. 48 
Trail .... 
Bag. -Ex. 
Closed 
Bag.& Ex 
Coaches 
Gas. Mot. 
Pass.&-Bag.47- 
Bag. & Ex.47- 
Tr.Coach. 47- 
Coaches 58- 
Pass.&-Bag.5S- 
El. Loco. 36- 
Closed 41- 
Trail Pass. 41- 
Closed* 20 
Closed 43 
Ballast 18 
Open 47- 
Closed 48- 
Pass.&Ba&37- 



43 



Truck 

Seat. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

M'G.C 

Std. 

Std. 

Std. 

Std. 

Tay. 

Std. 

Brill 



Builder 

Seattle 
Wason 
Kn lilman 
Hull 
Brill 

McGuire-C. 
Cincinnati 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Russell 
Cinicnnati 



St. Louis 

Brill 

M'G.C.McGuire-C . 
Brill Brill 
Brill Brill 
Curtis Preston 
Brill . Preston 
Brill Preston 
Std. Osg.Brad. 
M'G.C.McGuire-C 

Std. Jewett 

Brill St. Louis 

Brill Kuhlman 

Std. American 

Brill Brill 

Brill American 
M.G'C.McGuire-C 



Brill 
Brill 
Brill 

Bald.' 

A.L. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 



Air.erican 
Kuhlman 
Brill 

Kuhlman 
Niles 

Gen. Elec. 
Brill 

American 

Preston 

American 



-2 Both 
•0 City 
■0 Int. 
-1 ICitv 
-0 City 
-5 Int. 
■0 Int. 
Int. 
-6 Int. 
-lOCity 
-0 City 
-0 City 
-1 Int. 
-3 City 
. City 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
■0 Int. 
Int. 
-0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
■0 Int. 
-0 Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
-0 Switch 
■0 City 
City 
-8 City 
-0 Int. 
-0 Gen. 
6 Int. 
Int. 
5 Int. 



El. Loco. 29-2 Switch 

Closed* 3 7-0 City 

Closed* 30-0 City 

Closed 28-0 City 

Express 41-2 Gen. 

Closed .... Tnt. 

Sweeper. 53-0 Int. 

Ex.& Sw. 36-0 Int. 



Bald. Niles 

Jewett 

Brill Brill 

St. L. St. Louis 

St. L. St. Louis 

Bald. Cincinnati 
M'.GC.McGuire-C. 
M'G.C. McGuire-C. 
Tay. St. Louis 

Co. Shops 

Bald. Jewett 
S&W. Sm. & Wal. 
Brill Brill 
Grothe J. Grothe 
Brill American 
Brill Co. Shoos 
M'G.C. McGuire-C. 
Bald. Brill 
M'G.C. McGuire-C. 
Brill St. Louis 
Bald. Niles 
Brill American 
Brill American 
Brill American 
Brill American 
Bald. Pullman 
Bald. Pullman 
Bald. Pullman 
McK. Pullman 
Bald. Pullman 
Bald. Pullman 
Bald Pullman 
Bald. Pullman 
Bald. Pullman 
Bald. Westing. 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

Brill American 
Tay. Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

Brill American 
Brill American 
Brill American 

Bald. Westing. 

Brill American 

Brill American 

Std. Osg.-Brad. 

Std. Osg.-Brad. 



Gas. Mot. 
Stor. Bat. 
Semiconv 
Closed* 
CI. C-E 
Sweeper 
Closed* 
Closed 

Work 

El. Loco. 

Work 

Closed 

Semiconv. 

Closed 

Closed 

Express 

Closed 

Sweeper 



41-0 Int. 
.... Int. 
34-4 Int. 

44- 6 Citv 

45- 4 Citv 

Both 

34-5 City 
30-0 City 

45-0 Int. 

41- 8J-Both 
.... Int. 
30-0 City 
20-0 City 

42- City 
42-0 City 
50-0 Int. 
44-OfCity 
28-3 City 



M'G.C. McGuire-C. 
M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

Hoi. Holn.an 
Fed. Federal 
Brill Brill 
St. L. St. Louis 
Brill Kuhlman 

Brill 

Std. Cincinnati 
M'G.C.McGuire-C. 



Peck. 

Std. 

M'G.C. 

M'G.C 

Brill 

St. L. 

St. L. 

Bald. 

M'G.C 

M'G.C. 



Cincinnati 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

McGuire-C. 

Co. Shops 

St. Louis 

Co. Shops 

Kuhlman 

McGuire-C 

McGuire-C 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



Purchaser No. Class Le 

Toronto Civic Lines 4 Closed* 30 

1 Sweeper 23 

Towson & Coekneysville Elec 

Ry 1 Stor.Bat.* 27 

Trenton & Mercer Co. Tr. Co... 10 Closed 28 

Tri-City Ry 20 Closed* 30 

8 Closed* 21- 

1 Sweeper 28- 

Trinidad Elec. Trans. Ry. & 

Gas Co 2 Closed 30 

Twin City R. T. Co lOOClosed 47- 

3 Work 38- 

Twin Falls Ry 2 Stor.Bat. . . 

Tyler Trac. Co 4 Comb. 45- 

1 Express 45- 

1 Flat 40 

1 Fr't Trail 40 

Union St. Ry 1 Closed 26- 

1 Sn.-Plow 15- 

Union Trac. Co 3 Closed 48- 

1 Bag. 46- 
Umon Tr. Co. of Ind 10 Comb. 60- 

6 Closed* 34- 

United R. R. of San Fran 65 Calif.* 17 

United Rys. Co. of St. Louis. . . 2 CI. C-E 45- 

25 Semiconv. *3 4- 

United Rys. & Elec. of Bait 60 Semiconv.*30- 

United Trac. Co 20 Closed* 32- 

Valdosta St. Ry 3 Closed* 18- 

Virginia Ry. & Pur. Co 3 Stor.Bat. 26- 

Warren, Brookfield & Spencer 

St. Ry 3 Closed 20 

Wash., Bait. & Annapolis Elec. 

RR 4 Express 51 

Wash. & Old Dom. R. R 6 Closed 50- 

4 Comb. 50- 
6 Trail 42- 

2 Freight 42- 
Washmgton Ry. & Elec. Co. . . .50 Open 40- 

30 Cent-Ent.* 41- 

5 Cent-Ent.* 46- 
20 Semiconv. *41- 
10 Semiconv. *41- 

1 Cent-Ent.* 41- 

1 Sweeper 

Washington, Spa Spring &- 

Gretta R. R 2 Stor.Bat. . . 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & North. 

Ry 2 Comb. 58- 

2 Express 50- 
1 Sn.-Plow 32- 

1 El. Loco. 40- 

6 Closed 32- 

Waycross St. & Sub. Ry 4 Closed 18- 

Wellsburg, Bethany & Wash- 
ington R. R 1 Pass.&Bag.25- 

West Penn Rvs 10 Closed 56- 

"Western N. Y. & Penna. Trac. 

_ Co 1 Semiconv. 20- 

Wheehng Trac. Co 5 Closed 30- 

Wichita Falls Trac. Co 2 Closed* 21- 

Wilkes-Barre Ry 1 Work 43- 

2 Trail flat 32- 

Wilmmgton, New Castle & Del. 

City R. R 2 Stor.Bat. . . 

Winnipeg Elec. Ry 40 Closed 45- 

2 Sweeper 28- 

1 Sprinkler 29- 

W.isconsin Pub. Serv. Co 1 Sprinkler 32- 

Worcester Consol. St. Ry 6 Closed 30- 

Yakima Valley Trans. Co 2 Comb. 45- 

1 Express 45- 

lork Railways 4 Semiconv. 25- 



ngth Serv. Truck Builder 

-0 City M'G. C.Preston 

City Preston 

-8 Int. Fed. Federal 

-0 City St. L. St. Louis 

-8 City Std. St. Louis 

-10 City American 

•3 City M'G.C. McGuire-C.' 

-0 City Brill Woeber 

-0 City Co. Co. Shops 

-0 City Co. Co. Shops 

. City Fed. Federal 

-0 Inc. Std. Cincinnati 

Int. Std. Cincinnati 

-0 Int. Std. Cincinnati 

-0 Int. Std. Cincinnati 

-0 City Brill Brill 

-0 City Rus. Russell 

-0 Int. St. L. St. Louis 

-0 Int. St. L. St. Louis 

-1 Int.. Std. Cicninnati 

2 Sub. Brill Cincinnati 
City Brill American 

-0 City Co. Shops 

-0 City Co. Shops 

8 City Brill Brill 

-0 City Laconia 

-0 City Brill American 

-1 vCity Cincinnati 

8 City Brill Wason 

-0 Int. Bald. Niles 

Int. Std. .Southern 

■0 Int. Std. Southern 

-0 Int. Std. Southern 

-0 Int. Std. Southern 

-0 City Brill 

-0 City Bald. Brill 

■0 Sub. Brill Brill 

City Bald. St. Louis 

City Bald. Southern 

■0 City Brill Brill 

. City Brill Brill 

. City Fed. Federal 

Int. M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

-0 Int. M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

■0 Int. M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

■0 Int. Co. Co. .Shops 

-0 City M'G.C.McGuire-C. 

■0 City Brill American 

4 Int. Brill Kuhlman 

-0 Int. Co. Co. Shops 

-8 City Brill Brill 

■lOSub. Brill Jewett 

-3 City Brill American 

City Brill Brill 

-0 City Brill Brill 

. Int. Fed. Federal 

-0 City Brill Co. Shops 

3 City . .M'G.C McGuire-C. 
6 City . .M'G.C. McGuire-C. 
-0 City M'G.C. Kennicott 
•0 Sub. Std. Osg.-Brad. 
Int. Brill Jewett 
■0 Gen. Brill Jewett 
City Brill Brill 



early in the year were able to carry out a plan of reorgani- 
zation providing for a formal sale at foreclosure during 



RECEIVERSHIPS AND FORECLOSURE SALES IN 1912 



Records of electric railway companies for which receivers 
were appointed in 1912 show that the number of companies 
which became involved in financial difficulties was larger 
than in the preceding year but that the miles of track 
owned by the companies and the capitalization outstanding 
were much smaller. A number had not reached the stage 
of operation of completed systems and one, the Chicago & 
Oak Park Elevated Railway, is not directly an operating 
company. The record of receiverships for 1912 compares 
with the preceding three years as follows : 

No. of Miles of Outstanding Outstanding 

Companies Track Bonds Stock 

1909 22 558 $22,325,000 $29,962,200 

1910 11 696.61 75,490,735 12,629,400 

1911 19 518.9 38,973,293 29,533,450 

1912 26 373.58 11,133,800 20,410,700 

As will be noticed from the accompanying list of com- 
panies most of the properties concerned operated a very 
small amount of mileage. 

The record of foreclosure sales of companies during 1912 
involves a smaller number of companies than were affected 
by similar proceedings in 191 1, but, as in the case of the 
receivership proceedings, the miles of track and outstanding 
capitalization were much smaller in the last year than in 
the previous twelve months. As in previous years when 
records of this character have been compiled, it was found 
that some companies for which receivers were appointed 



Companies for Which Receivers Were Appointed in 



Cassville & Western Railway 

Chicago, Fox Lake & Lake Geneva Rail- 
road 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railway. . 

Columbus, Urbana & Western Electric 
Railway 

Dedham & Franklin Street Railway, 
Westwood, Mass 

Ft. Wayne & Springfield Railway 

Geneva & Auburn Railway 

Ithaca Street Railway 

Kanauga Traction Co., Gallipolis, O.... 

Kansas City, Outer Belt & Electric Rail- 
road 

Lakeview Traction Co., Memphis, Tenn. 

Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Traction 
Company 

Medfield & Medway Street Railway, 
Westwood, Mass 

Nevada Water, Light & Traction Co.... 

New lersey & Pennsylvania Traction 
Co 

New York, Auburn & Lansing Railroad. 

North Jersey Rapid Transit Co 

Pavvcatuck Valley Street Railway, West- 
erly, R. I 

Philadelphia & Eastern Electric Railway 

Rochester, Corning & Elmira Traction 
Co 

Sandusky, Norwalk & Mansfield Electric 
Railway 

Sapulpa & Interurban Railway 

Schuylkill & Dauphin Traction Co 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway.... 

Seattle, Snohomish & Everett Railway. . 

Warren, Brookfield & Spencer Street 
Railway 



Miles of 
Track 
5 



Bonds Out- 
standing 



1912 

Capital 

Stock Out- 
standing 
$100,000 



8,714,900 



10 


$438,500 


380,500 


9.5 


100,000 


75,000 


23.7 


465,000 


673,000 


17.7 


400,000 


450,000 


10.5 


475,000 


325,000 


4.6 


100,000 


100,000 


10.83 




1,500,000 


32 


720,000 


850,000 


11.25 


100,000 


100,000 


5 


200,000 


350,000 


40 


1,430,000 


1,000,000 


39 


975,000 


1,000,000 


15 


2,000,000 


2,000,000 


6.3 


50,000 


75,000 


34.1 


911,000 


611,800 




1,000,000 




33 


600,000 


600,000 


11 




80,500 


10 


219,300 


25,000 


25 


825,000 


1,250,000 


20.1 


125,000 


150,000 


373.58 


$11,133,800 


$20,410,700 



the calendar year. The record of foreclosure sales com- 



pares with the preceding th 


ree years 


as follows: 






No. of 


Miles of 


Outstanding 


Outstanding 




Companies 


Track 


Bonds 


Stock 


1909 


21 


488 


$21,174,000 


$22,265,700 


1910 


22 


724.36 


26,374,065 


19,106,613 


1911 


25 


660.72 


115,092,750 


91,354,800 


1912 


18 


457.75 


26,286,250 


19,947,300 



The accompanying list of companies whose properties 
were sold at foreclosure contains the name of the Chicago & 

Electric Railways Sold at Foreclosure 



Baltimore & Washington Traction Co... 

Central Park, North & East River Rail- 
road 

Centre & Clearfield Street Railway 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad. 

Chicago & Southern Traction Co 

Eastern New York Railroad 

Geneva & Auburn Railway 

Hannibal & Northern Missouri Railway. 

Indianapolis, Crawf ordsville & Western 
Traction Co 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co... 

Lakeview Traction Co., Memphis, Tenn. 

Pawcatuck Valley Street Railway 

Pelham Park Railroad 

Portsmouth & Exeter Street Railway. . . . 

St. Albans (Vt.) Street Railway 

Sedalia (Mo.) Light & Traction Co 

South Shore Traction Co 

Twenty-eighth & Twenty-ninth Streets 
Crosstown Railway, New York 







Capital 


Miles of 


Bonds Out- 


Stock Out- 


Track 


standing 


standing 


4 


$100,000 


$100,000 


31.38 


1,200,000 


1,800,000 


13.6 


492,500 


312,300 


172.87 


15,201,000 


5,300,000 


47 


2,500,000 


2,500,000 


15 


150,000 


275,000 


17.7 


400,000 


450,000 


45 


1,500,000 


1,500,000 


41 


1,650,000 


2,600,000 


10.83 




1,500,000 


6.3 


50,000 


75,000 


1.4 


27,750 


50,000 


14.4 


145,000 


185,000 


13 


196,000 


200,000 


9 


749,000 


1,000,000 


10.5 


425,000 


600,000 


4.77 


1,500,000 


1,500,000 



457.75 $26,286,250 $19,947,300 



Milwaukee Electric Railroad. In this case the Illinois and 
Wisconsin divisions of the company were sold at fore- 
closure but the reorganization has not yet been perfected. 

In addition to the properties mentioned in the foregoing 
lists other companies have undergone various kinds of re- 
organizations or readjustments, but without the formal 
receiverships or foreclosure sales which were necessary for 
their inclusion in these tables, for instance, in Toledo. 
Properties of the Chicago Subway Company and Illinois 
Tunnel Company were sold at foreclosure during the year 
1912, but were not included because they are not of the 
class of electric railways which the tables are designed 
to include. In other cases, such as the Beaumont Trac- 
tion Company, the receiver was discharged by the court 
long after the formal foreclosure proceedings had been 
completed. The Manistee Light & Traction Company was 
not included in the tables for the reason that the sale was 
the second one of the same property. 



January 4, 1913.I 



ELECTRTC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



15 



New Electric Railway Track Built in 1912 

Statistics of New Track Completed During the Year — Smallest Total Since 1909 



The accompanying table shows in detail the length of 
new electric railway track built and placed in operation 
during 1912. The table has been compiled from answers 
received from the railway companies whose names appear, 
so that the lengths given in each instance are official. The 
only mileage represented in the table is track which was 
completed and placed in operation during the year, but 
lengths of electrified steam road are included. The total 
is not complete as far as the total amount of track built in 
each state is concerned, since some of the companies did 
not reply in time for this compilation. The total new track 
built or electrified in 1912 was 950.29 miles, as compared 
with 1 191.58 miles reported in 191 1, 1397.26 miles in 1910, 
and 887.16 miles in 1909. Special care has been taken in 
compiling the table to exclude all mileage previously re- 
ported and all track laid but not put in operation. 

New York heads the list of states with 93.47 miles re- 
ported. The largest part of this mileage is represented by 
the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, which 
electrified 58.3 miles of track. This includes 38 miles, 
measured as single track, of the four-track stretch be- 
tween Tarrytown and Croton, 14.3 miles in the Harmon and 
Croton yards, 0.9 mile in Harlem division sidings, 1 mile 
in North White Plains yard and 4.1 miles in the Grand 
Central Station. The New York, Westchester & Boston 
Railway completed and placed in operation its 18-mile line 
connecting New York, Mount Vernon, North Pelham, 
New Rochelle, Eastchester, Scarsdale and White Plains. 

Oregon with 83.50 miles is second and includes the 



longest and most important extension built in the United 
States during the past year. This is credited to the Ore- 
gon Electric Railway, which built 78 miles of track con- 
necting Salem, Albany, Junction City, Harrisburg and 
Eugene, Ore. During 1913 this company plans to build 
a 30-mile extension between Tualitin and McMinnville, 
Ore., and a 6-mile cut-off between Orenco and Helvetia. 

California is third with 82.7 miles of new track con- 
structed. A new interurban line 30 miles long was com- 
pleted by the Tidewater & Southern Railroad between 
Stockton, Atlanta, Escalon and Modesto. The Los An- 
geles Railway added 18.5 miles of track to its lines about 
Los Angeles, and the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Railways built 12.2 miles of city track. 

The new mileage in Pennsylvania amounted to 63.25, of 
which the Southern Cambria Railway completed 11 miles 
between Ebensburg and Johnstown. The Lehigh Valley 
Transit Company and the Hummelstown & Campbellstown 
Street Railway each completed about 10 miles of new line. 

In Texas, which has a total of 56.33 miles, the longest 
interurban line was built by the Fort Worth Southern 
Traction Company, between Fort Worth, Everman, Burle- 
son, Joshua and Cleburne. Another interurban line, 12 
miles long, was placed in operation by the Gainesville, 
Whitesboro & Sherman Railway. 

The Chicago Railways Company built 19 miles of new 
city track. The electric railways of Canada built a total of 
78.37 miles of track last year, in comparison with 117.1 
miles in 191 1. 



ALABAMA Miles 

Birmingham, Ensley & Bessemer Ry 28.00 

Mobile Light & Railroad Co u.38 



28 38 

ARIZONA 

Warren-Bisbee Ry 0.14 



0.14 

ARKANSAS 

Fort Smith Light & Traction Co 5.00 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Co 0.50 

Southwestern Gas & Electric Co 0.10 



5.60 

CALIFORNIA 

Bakersfield & Kern Electric Ry 0.50 

Cedar Lake R. R 0.70 

Los Angeles Ry 18.50 

San Diego Electric Ry 8.00 

San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga Ry. — Between St. Helena 

and Calistoga 7.50 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys. — City lines 12.20 

Stockton Terminal & Eastern R. R. — Between Fine and 

Bellota 3.00 

Tidewater & Southern R. R. — Between Stockton and 

and Modesto 30.00 

United Railroads of San Francisco 2.30 



82.70 

COLORADO 

Arkansas Valley Railway, Light & Power Co 2.50 

Denver City Tramway 1.00 

Denver & Northwestern Ry 0.06 



3.56 

CONNECTICUT 

Connecticut Company 2.80 

Shore Line Electric Ry. Through Deep River 4.00 



6.80 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 
Washington & Old Dominion R. R. — Connecting line 

between Great Falls and Bluemont Divisions 6.00 



6.00 

FLORIDA 

Tampa Electric Co. — Tampa 1.50 



1.50 

GEORGIA 

Macon Railway & Light Co 2.63 

Rome Railway & Light Co 0.25 



2.88 

IDAHO 

Idaho Traction Co. — Between Meridian, Nampa and Cald- 
well 18.00 



ILLINOIS Miles 

Centralia & Central City Tr. Co 2.50 

Chicago City Ry 3.50 

Chicago Railways Co 19.00 

Freeport Railway & Light Co 0.50 

Hillsboro Street Ry 2.50 

Illinois Central Electric Ry. — Between Bryant and Lewis- 
town 9.50 

Illinois Traction System — Second track 0.60 

Kankakee Electric Ry 1.00 

Metropolintan West Side Elevated Ry 1.00 

People's Traction Co 0.50 

Quincy Ry 4.00 

Rockford City Traction Co. — Rockford 1.14 

Springfield Consolidated Ry. — Second track 0.50 

Springfield & Jacksonville Elec. Ry 1.50 



47.74 

INDIANA 

Evansville Railways Co 10.00 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. — South Bend 1.50 
Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co 1.52 



13.02 

IOWA 

Davenport & Muscatine Ry. — Between Davenport, Blue 
Grass, Pleasant Prairie, Sweetland Center and Musca- 
tine 25.28 

Iowa City Electric Railway 2.00 

Oskaloosa Traction & Light Co 1.00 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Co 0.25 

People's Gas & Electric Co. — Burlington 2.00 

Tri-City Railway 1.35 

Union Electric Co 0.67 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. — Between Gibert- 

ville and La Porte City 20.00 



KANSAS 

Manhattan City & Interurban Ry 2.50 



2.50 

KENTUCKY 

Owensboro City R. R 0.50 



0.50 

LOUISIANA 

Algiers Railway & Light Co. — Algiers 2.00 

New Orleans Railway Light Co 0.89 

Southwestern Traction & Power Co. — Between New Iberia, 

Olivier and Jeanerette 12.42 



15.31 

MAINE 

Aroostook Valley R. R. — Margison to Sweden 2.00 

Portland, Gray & Lewiston R. R. — Between Lewiston, Au- 
burn, New Gloucester, Grav, Cumberland and West 
Falmouth 20.00 



18.00 



22.00 



i6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLI, No. i. 



MARYLAND Miles 

Frederick R. R 1.0U 

Towson & Cockeysville Electric Ry. — Between Towson, 

Lutherville and Timonium 3.16 

4.16 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Berkshire Street Ry. — Between Lee and Becket 9.58 

Boston Elevated Ry 2.46 

Boston & Worcester Street Railway Co. — Natick and South 

Framingham 0.13 

Oak Bluffs Street Ry.— Oak Bluffs 0.50 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry 0.70 

13.37 

MICHIGAN 

Detroit, Jackson & Chicago Ry 1.96 

Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Ry 1.64 

Detroit United Ry. — Detroit and Pontiae and Flint Divisions 10.-8 
Ironwood & Bessemer Ry. & Lt. Co. — Between Ironwood, 

Jesseville, Ironton, Puritan, Colby and Bessemer 7.00 

Rapid Railway System. — Double track in Mt. Clemens and 

Pt. Huron 3.08 



23.96 

MINNESOTA 

Fargo & Moorhead Street Railway Co. — Between Moorhead 

and Dilworth 3.65 

Granite City Ry 0.50 

Mesaba Electric Ry. — Between Virginia, Hibbing, Eveleth, 

Chisholm, Buhl, Mountain Iron and Gilbert 36.00 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 10.00 

50.15 

MISSISSIPPI 

Jackson Light & Traction Co 1.00 

1.00 

MISSOURI 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co 2.96 

St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & Power Co 0.55 

3.51 

MONTANA 

Missoula Street Railway Co. — Second track 1.00 

1.00 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln Traction Co. — Between Lincoln and Bethany and 

between Lincoln and State Hospital for Insane 2.50 

Omaha & Council Blufts Street Railway 1.00 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Railway Co 1.00 

4.50 

NEW JERSEY 

Atlantic Coast Electric Railway Co. — Bradley Beach 0.54 

Morris County Traction Co. — Summit, Chatham and Madi- 
son 10.50 

Ocean City Electric Railroad Co 2.00 

Public Service Railway Co 1.53 

24.57 

NEW YORK 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co 0.42 

International Ry 1.71 

Ithaca Street Railway 0.38 

New York Central & Hudson River Railroad 58.30 

New York City Interborough Ry. Co 5.01) 

New York Railways Co 0.31 

New York State Railways. — Rochester Lines 1.38 

New York, Westchester & Boston Railway Co. — Between 
New York, Mt. Vernon, North Pelham, New Roehelle, 

Eastchester, Scarsdale and White Plains 18.00 

Schenectady Railway Co 1.27 

Syracuse, Watertown & St. Lawrence River R. R. — Be- 
tween Cicero and Brewerton 6.20 

Westchester Electric Railroad Co. — Xew Roehelle 0.50 

93.47 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Durham Traction Co 1.00 

North Carolina Public Service Co 6.00 

Tidewater Power Co. — (Second Track) 1.00 

8.00 

NORTH DAKOTA 
Grand Forks Street Railway Co 0.50 

0.50 

OHIO 

Cleveland Railway 1.00 

Columbus Railway & Light Co 0.40 

Dayton, Covington <&. Piqua Traction Co 0.50 

Hocking-Sunday Creek Traction Co. — From Myers, through 

Floodwood and Circle Hill to Chauncey 5.75 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co 3.00 

New Midland Power & Traction Co. — Between Byesville, 

Derwent and Pleasant City 4.75 

Toledo Railways & Light Co 1.32 

16.72 

OKLAHOMA 

Muskeqon Electric Traction Co 4.50 

Sand Springs Railway Co 2.50 



PENNSYLVANIA Miles 

Chester & Philadelphia Railway Co 4.00 

Duquesne & Dravosburg Street Railway Co 2.00 

Fairchance & Smithfield Traction Co 0.76 

Hummelstown & Campbellstown Street Railway Co. — Be- 
tween Hummelstown, Hershey, Palmyra, Campbells- 
town and City of Lebanon 10.50 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. — Between Lansdale and Norris- 

town 10.00 

Montgomery Transit Co. — Between Lederach and Harleys- 

ville 5.00 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 4.00 

Philadelphia & West Chester Traction Co 2.00 

Philadelphia & Western Railway Co. — Between Phila- 
delphia and Norristown 6.00 

Pottstown & Reading Street Railway Co. — Pottstown . . . . 2.00 
Scranton & Binghamton Railroad Co. — Between Factory- 

ville and Nicholason 6.00 

Southern Cambria Railway Co. — Between Ebensburg and 

Johnstown 11.00 

63.25 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Manila Electric Railroad & Light Co 5.00 

5.00 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Columbia Railway Gas & Electric Co 1.25 

1.25 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway Co 0.25 

Sioux Falls Traction System 1.50 

1.75 

TENNESSEE 

Knoxville Railway & Light Co. — Between Knoxville and 

Vestal : 2.60 

Memphis Street Railway Co 4.70 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway 27.00 

Nashville Railway & Light Co 4.50 

38.80 

TEXAS 

Amarillo Street Railway Co 0.50 

Austin Street Railway Co 2.00 

Dallas Electric Corporation 2.40 

Gainesville, Whitesboro & Sherman Railway Co. — Between 

Gainesville, Whitesboro and Sherman 12. 00 

Houston Electric Co 5.03 

Fort Worth Southern Traction Co. — Between Fort Worth, 

Everman, Burleson, Joshua and Cleburne 28.90 

Northern Texas Traction Co. — Fort Worth 5.00 

San Antonio Traction Co 0.50 



UTAH 

Logan Rapid Transit Co. — Logan, North Logan, Hyde 

Park, Smithfield, Providence 

Utah Light & Railway Co. — Highland Park and Holliday. . 



56.33 



12.00 
10.00 



OREGON 

Oregon Electric Railway Co. — Between Salem and Albanv. 

Junction City, Harrisburg and Eugene 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co 



7.0U 



78 0(1 
5.50 



83.50 



22.00 

VIRGINIA 

Charlottesville & Albemarle Railway Co 0.38 

WASHINGTON 

Grays Harbor Railway & Light Co 0.27 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co 2.42 

Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad Co 2.50 

Whatcom County Railway & Light Co 0.50 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co. — Selah 1.00 

6.69 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Charleston Interurban Railroad Co. — Between South 

Charleston, Spring Hill and St. Albans 9.00 

Elkins Electric Railway Co 1.50 

Monongahela Valley Traction Co. — Clarksburg to North- 
view 1.00 

Parkersburg, Marietta & Interurban Railway Co. — North 

End 2.35 

13.85 

WISCONSIN 

La Crosse City Railway Co 0.50 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. — In Milwaukee, 

Wauwatosa, Lake and Racine 6.03 

Milwaukee Northern Railway Co. — Between Milwaukee 

and Brown Deer 11.00 

Southern Wisconsin Railway Co 0.50 

18.03 

CANADA 

Berlin & Northern Railway Co. — Through Bridgeport.... 0.25 

Calgary Municipal Railway 18.50 

Edmonton Radial Railway 2.50 

Guelph Radial Railway Co 0.60 

Halifax Electric Tramway Co., Ltd 0.75 

Lethbridge Municipal Tramway 11.00 

Levis County Railway. — Between St. Romaud and Gor- 
man's Bridge 1-50 

London Street Railway Co 100 

Moncton Tramways Electric & Gas Co., Ltd 2.25 

Montreal & Southern Counties Railway Co. — Between St. 

Lamberts and Greenfield Park 3.00 

Montreal Tramways Co. — Montreal 2.07 

Nipissing Central Railway. — Between Cobalt, Haileybury 

and "New Liskeard 5.70 

Oshawa Railway Co. — Oshawa 2.00 

Regina Municipal Railway 3.50 

St. Thomas Street Railway 0.50 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Railway. — In Windsor 

and Sandwich West 1-25 

Saskatoon Municipal Street Railway 22.00 

78.37 

GRAND TOTAL 

United States and Canada 950.29 



January 4, 1913. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



17 



Steam Road Electrifications 

The Author Discusses Mountain-Grade Service and Shows That with the Electric Locomotive the Ruling Grade Need 

No Longer Be a Limiting Factor to Transportation Capacities 



BY A. H. ARMSTRONG, RAILWAY DEPARTMENT GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 



The electrification of our steam railways has been the 
goal toward which the efforts of electric railway engineers 
have been directed for many years. Certain installations 
such as terminal and tunnel electrifications are thoroughly 
justified and will take place for reasons other than adequate 
return upon the capital invested. With a better understand- 
ing of the electric locomotive and its operating possibilities, 
its fitness as a superior type of motive power for main-line 
electrification has become apparent. This fact, together 
with certain fundamental conditions which have developed 
during the past few years, has made it possible to consider 
immediate electrification of certain portions of our main 
steam roads where the local conditions are especially favor- 
able to electrification and where the limitations of the steam 
engine are most apparent. 

As a result of several years of operation of electric loco- 
motives, sufficient figures are at hand to indicate within rea- 
sonable limits their probable cost of operation and main- 
tenance. After making due allowance for the different con- 
ditions obtaining, there seems every reason to believe that 
the electric locomotive can successfully replace the heaviest 
type of steam engine on the mountain-grade divisions of our 
main steam roads, provided the daily tonnage is sufficiently 
heavy to justify the first cost of electrification. These pro- 
posed electrifications show a saving over present steam 
operation sufficiently large to attract the capital investment 
required, and therefore come outside the scope of the so- 
called "enforced electrifications" demanded by local senti- 
ment or for reasons of expediency. 

There are certain fundamental causes underlying the fact 
that mountain-grade electrifications can in many instances 
be considered immediately, and these may be classed under 
the following three general headings : 

1. Electric power situation. 

2. Preparedness of the manufacturing companies. 

3. Superiority of the electric over the steam locomotive. 

ELECTRIC POWER SITUATION 

The past few years have witnessed the formation of large 
power interests in both the West and the East, and these 
installations have reached such a magnitude and the high- 
tension distribution systems now cover such a large terri- 
tory and are fed from so many sources of supply as to 
guarantee to prospective railroad purchasers a reliable and 
cheap source of power. The very mountain-grade divisions 
that are so troublesome to the operators of steam engines 
are frequently the centers of large hydraulic installations, 
so that the abundant supply of power in the mountains finds 
a ready local market in the railroads. The reliability of 
such electric power supply is indicated by the operation of 
the Great Falls installation of the Butte Electric & Power 
Company, which showed a total of seventeen minutes' delay 
during its first year of operation and a still better record 
the second year. 

Except under very favorable conditions, it does not ap- 
pear economical to install and operate a power station de- 
voted solely to supplying electric locomotive load alone, 
owing to the high fixed charges required to furnish power 
with a ragged load curve and also maintain sufficient reserve 
apparatus to guarantee continuity of service. Such loads, 
however, can be absorbed by large power developments at a 
cost for power which may in many locations make electri- 
fication attractive, because such power systems can take 
full advantage of the diversity factor of railway, lighting 
and miscellaneous power load. Not the least of the con- 



tributing causes justifying immediate electrification in cer- 
tain localities is therefore the fact that power can be pur- 
chased by the railroad companies at reasonable rates, thus 
eliminating the necessity of any additional outlay for power 
house and transmission lines, a condition most attractive 
when financing constitutes the greatest obstacle toward elec- 
trifying certain engine divisions. 

ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE AND STEAM LOCOMOTIVE DESIGN 

It is to be expected that the electric locomotive will be 
improved from time to time with the advance of the art, 
and the present preparedness of the manufacturing com- 
panies to build electric locomotives of any capacity de- 
manded is based upon the experience gained in the manufac- 
ture of many such machines. Compared to the steam en- 
gine, the electric locomotive is comparatively new, and the 
belief is held by some that the purchase of to-day will be 
rendered obsolete by the improvements of to-morrow. It 
is difficult, however, to anticipate material improvement in 
the operating results of such machines, for example, as the 
locomotives operating over the New York Central electric 
zone. These machines, purchased at a reasonable price, 
operating at over 92 per cent efficiency from third-rail to 
rim of drivers, maintained in original operating condition 
at a total cost of approximately 3 cents per mile run and 
requiring inspection only after 1200 miles operation, leave 
small opportunity to effect any but minor future improve- 
ments. 

The steam engine, on the other hand, is open to funda- 
mental improvements in future designs that may readily 
make present machines economically obsolete. The change 
from simple to compound, coal to oil as fuel, the adoption 
of the superheater, feed-water heater, etc., may make for 
a fuel economy considerably greater than that open to future 
improvements in electric locomotives. The use of mechan- 
ical stokers may also be justified by reason of the in- 
creased engine output so obtained, provided such increased 
capacity is not purchased at a too great sacrifice in fuel 
economy. 

In other words, the modern steam engine itself is much 
more liable to future fundamental changes in design than 
the electric locomotive, owing to the fact that the latter is 
already advanced to a high state of development not possi- 
ble with the more complex steam engines comprising both 
motive power and steam generating plant. Any fear, 
therefore, that the electric locomotive constructed to-day 
will be discarded to-morrow by reason of having become 
obsolete is based upon a lack of understanding of the in- 
herent qualities of such a type of motive power, as such re- 
placement, if made, will be for reasons other than that of 
locomotive efficiency. 

The main reason for electrification, however, rests in the 
superiority of the electric over the steam locomotive as a 
type of railway motive power and its better adaptability to 
the rigorous requirements of heavy mountain-grade rail- 
roading. The electric locomotive possesses certain inherent 
characteristics not equally shared by the steam locomotive, 
which offer the opportunity of introducing improved meth- 
ods of operation and effecting economies in the handling 
of mountain-grade traffic which will have far-reaching 
effect. 

POWER OF STEAM ENGINE LIMITED 

The steam engine is a complete power house on wheels 
and depends upon the mechanical activity and skill of the 
fireman as regards its horse-power or service capacity out- 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



put. Its available tractive effort is a function of the weight 
upon the drivers, diameter of cylinder and steam pressure, 
all of which may be thoroughly in keeping with the local 
conditions obtaining in the class of service to which the en- 
gine is assigned. The speed at which this tractive effort is 
delivered, however, depends upon the rate at which a fire- 
man can throw coal and also upon his skill and the effi- 
ciency of the boiler. As the result of the continually in- 
creasing demand for heavier trains operating at higher 
speeds in order to take care of the volume of daily tonnage 
on a single track and meet the schedule competition of pos- 
sible parallel lines, it has been necessary to develop steam 
engines having a continually greater weight upon the driv- 
ers. With weight per driving axle of nearly 60,000 lb. it is 
probable that the limit has been reached with present weight 
and composition of track rails and bridge construction. A 
further limit has been reached in the four driving axles 
comprising the 16-ft. rigid wheelbase of a simple engine; 
hence the development of the Mallet type of engine com- 
prising two articulated trucks of either three or four driv- 
ing axles each. All this development of the running gear 
of the engine has been accompanied by an increase in the 
diameter of cylinder to keep pace with the additional trac- 
tive effort demanded, until up to 90,000 lb. may be delivered 
from a single Mallet engine during the starting or accelerat- 
ing period of the run. 

The steam engine, however, is still fired by hand where 
coal is used as fuel, and the limit of continued effort of one 
fireman is still at the rate of not exceeding 5000 lb. of coal 
thrown per hour. The use of two firemen alternating in 
short shifts of say twenty minutes may result in throwing 
a somewhat greater quantity of coal beneath the boiler than 
indicated above, but at best the steam engine has reached 
limits in its horse-power output by reason of the amount of 
coal which can be fed to the grates. The introduction of 
the mechanical stoker may effect a considerable increase in 
the amount of coal fired, but such improvements have yet 
to show that the increased locomotive output so obtained is 
not purchased at a decreased coal efficiency that largely im- 
pairs the gain effected. Oil is used as fuel in favorable lo- 
calities with resulting marked increase in the service ca- 
pacity and hence speed of the locomotive on mountain 
grades. With the continually increasing demand for oil 
products, it is probable that the economic operating zone 
for this kind of fuel will become very restricted; in fact, a 
return to coal has already been made on certain single en- 
gine divisions owing to recent advances in the price of 
fuel oil. 

While the weight upon the drivers and tractive effort of 
steam engines has therefore kept pace more or less with 
the requirements of mountain-grade railroading, the in- 
creased tractive effort so provided has been purchased at the 
expense of speed. The simple engine of four driving axles 
and a total of 200,000 lb. on drivers may haul its rated ton- 
nage on the maximum grade at 12 m.p.h., while the Mallet 
engine with its greater weight on drivers and increased 
tractive effort available will haul a correspondingly greater 
rated tonnage at speeds, however, not greatly exceeding 7 
to 8 m.p.h. If greater speeds are required upon ruling 
grades, the demand can be met with the Mallet engine only 
by hauling less than its rated load or by providing more 
engines per train. 

It is just in this connection that the electric locomotive 
offers all the advantages of the high tractive effort de- 
manded without being penalized by the correspondingly re- 
duced speed of its steam competitor. Just what this may 
mean in the operation of a mountain-grade division is best 
appreciated by a brief analysis of the inherent character- 
istics of modern steam engines and the type of electric loco- 
motive just completed for operation upon the Butte, Ana- 
conda & Pacific Railway- These figures are shown in 
Table I. 

Both the Mallet and the electric locomotives have been 



built in units larger than listed in this table, but for gen- 
eral conditions the size quoted may be taken as typical for 
both. 

LOCOMOTIVE PERFORMANCE 

While fuel economy is not the most important considera- 
tion, there is generally a certain saving to be effected in this 

Table I, Showing General Characteristics of Simple Mallet Com- 
pound and Recent Electric Locomotive. 

Mallet 

Simple. Compound. Electric 

Number of driving 

axles 4 6 8 

Weight on drivers 200,000 1b. 300,000 1b. 300,000 1b. 

Total weight locomo- 
tive and tender 400,000 1b. 530,000 1b. 300,000 1b. 

Weight per driving 

axle 50,000 lb. 50,000 lb. 37,500 lb. 

Length of engine and 

tender 70 ft. 85 ft. 75 ft. 

Length rigid wheel base. 16 ft. 10 ft. 9 ft. 

Diameter drivers 57 in. 57 in. 46 in. 

Cylinder, diameter 23 x 28 21 x 32,33 x 32 .... 

Rated tractive power.. 44,000 1b. 66,000 1b. 66,000 1b. 

Coefficient of adhesion 22 per cent. 22 per cent. 22 per cent. 

item by the substitution of the electric for the steam loco- 
motive. The cost of coal and its quality, as well as the 
cost of electric power, will vary so greatly in different local- 
ities that no comparison is of any more than general inter- 
est. The coal consumption of a steam engine is, however, 
of the greatest interest from the standpoint of indicating 
its service capacity. In order not to confuse the issue being 
discussed, the data shown in Table II have been tabulated, 
based upon the coal burned by the steam engine itself, 
while working at full output, although of greater interest 
are the total amount and cost of coal purchased, including 
the wastage and cost of handling between purchase point 
and engine tender. 

The tonnage rating of a locomotive is based upon its per- 
formance on ruling grade, and in many instances the ruling 
grade may extend over a considerable distance, thus calling 
for the continued development of maximum output and de- 
manding the best efforts of the fireman. While delivering 
the large tractive effort required on ruling grade, the steam 
engine must necessarily operate at a considerable propor- 
tion of its full stroke, a fact that should not be lost sight 
of in determining its coal and water economy, and hence 
horse-power output, as derived from the amount of coal 
that can be fired per hour. 

Table II, Showing Typical Steam Engine Performance. 

Mallet 

Simple. Compound. 

Steam consumption per i.h.p. 

on ruling grade 30 1b. 23 1b. 

Mechanical efficiency 85 per cent. 85 per cent. 

Steam per hp at rim of 

drivers 35.5 1b. 27 1b. 

Evaporation per pound of 

coal* 5 — 8 5 — 8 

Coal per hp -hour at rim of 

drivers 7.06 4.42 5.4 3.38 

Hp available at rim of 

drivers at coal rate of 

5000 lb. per hour 709 1130 926 1480 

Tractive effort on basis of 

rated tonnage 36,000 lb. 54,000 lb. 

Coefficient of adhesion.... 18 per cent. 18 per cent. 

Speed at rated tractive effort 7.35 m.p.h. 11.7 m.p.h. 6.39 m.p.h. 10.20 m.p.h. 

*Evaporation will depend upon the heat units per pound of coal ranging 
from 10,000 b.t.u. for Western lignite to nearly 15,000 b.t.u. with Eastern 
bituminous. This points out that the limitations in locomotive output 
and speed, as determined by the amount of coal which a fireman can 
throw per hour, are more keenly felt on the Western mountain grades 
where inferior coal must be used. 

SLOW SPEED OF STEAM LOCOMOTIVE ON RULING GRADES 

A careful study of Table II is most instructive, as it 
points out one of the great weaknesses of the coal-burning, 
hand-fired steam engine, and that is its low speed when op- 
erating on ruling grade. The values, of steam consumption 
and evaporation taken are fully representative of good per- 
formance, but it must be also admitted that considerable 
latitude should be allowed in such values as pounds of 
coal burned per horse-power hour output at driver rims on 
account of the boiler condition and the efficiency of the 
crew. Hence the average performance of all the engines 



January 4, 1913. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



assigned to one grade division may quite possibly fall below 
the figures quoted above. 

The table shows why the heavier Mallet must necessarily 
haul its larger rated tonnage at a lower speed than the 
simple engine. There are admitted large economies re- 
sulting from the movement of heavy unbroken trains over 
a mountain-grade division; hence the usefulness of the Mal- 
let. But the question of operating speed must not be lost 
sight of, and with a congested single track a possible marked 
increase in speed may eliminate the necessity of construct- 
ing a second track with the large capital outlay which this 
would entail in the mountain districts. 

Turning again to what relief from these conditions is 
offered by the electric locomotive, there is presented a ma- 
chine entirely separate from its power supply and compris- 
ing electric motors, running gear and superstructure, all 
suitably proportioned to best advantage. The motor arma- 
tures may be mounted direct on the axles, as in the New 
York Central design, or may transmit their power through 
twin gearing, as is the case with the Great Northern, De- 
troit tunnel and Baltimore & Ohio tunnel locomotives, or 
may even connect with side rods or combination of gear 
and side rods. The several types of gearing present a rad- 
ical difference in appearance but a comparatively small fun- 
damental difference in actual efficiency from electrical to 
mechanical power. 

The main point to be considered at this time is that, how- 
ever different in type of construction, the electric locomo- 
tive, as such, is a highly efficient machine, can be maintained 
at a lower cost and is capable of giving a sustained output 
greatly exceeding that of a steam engine. With good- 
quality bituminous coal, the steam engine may operate its 
rated tonnage calling for a tractive effort corresponding to 
18 per cent coefficient of adhesion of its drivers, at a sus- 
tained speed of not over 12 and 10 m.p.h. respectively, for 
hand-fired simple and Mallet engines. With Western lig- 
nite the speed may fall as low as 8 and 6 m.p.h. for 
the two types of engines working under the same maximum 
conditions. 

The electric locomotive, however, having access to un- 
limited power, is restricted in its tractive effort only by the 
weight upon its drivers and has no reasonable speed limits 
other than those imposed by the curvature of the track. 
Moreover, several locomotive units may be coupled to- 
gether and operated as a single locomotive under the con- 
trol of one operator. The ability of the electric locomo- 
tive to furnish both large tractive effort and high speed is 
best brought out by the comparison shown in Table III 



Table III, Showing Comparative Hauling Capacity Steam and Elec- 
tric Locomotives. 

Mallet 

Simple. Compound. Electric. 

Total weight, including 

tender 400,000 lb. 530.000 lb. 300,000 lb. 

Weight on drivers 200.000 1b. 300.000 1b. 300,000 

Cofficient of adhesion 

at rated tonnage.... 18 per cent. 18 per cent. 18 per cent. 

Tractive effort at rated 

tonnage 36,000 lb. 54,000 lb. 54,000 lb. 

Tractive effort 2 per 

cent grade 40 lb. 40 lb. 40 lb. 

Train and curve resist- 
ance 7 lb. 7 lb. 7 lb. 

Total resistance 47 1b. 47 1b. 47 1b. 

Rated tonnage, total.. 776 tons 1,150 tons 1,150 tons 

Rated tonnage, trailing 576 Ions 885 tons 1,000 tons 

Per cent of electric 

trailing, tons 57.6 88.5 100 

Speed at rated tonnage* 7.35 m.p.h. 6.38 m.p.h. 14 m.p.h. 

*Speed based upon using Western lignite at approximately 10,000 b.t.u. 

applying to the locomotive constants given. A typical ruling 
2 per cent grade division is taken as representing general 
mountain-grade conditions. 

A study of steam engine practice discloses the fact that 
engines receive a tonnage rating on ruling grade that will 
require a tractive effort of approximately 18 per cent co- 
efficient of adhesion of their drivers. 



SERVICE CAPACITY 

The hauling capacity of the electric locomotive having 
the same weight upon its drivers is shown as being but 13 
per cent greater than that of the Mallet, but the speed at 
which this tonnage is hauled is over double that possible 
with the steam engines. The "service capacity," or the 
product of trailing tonnage and speed upon ruling grade, is 
therefore a truer measure of the comparative performance 
of the several locomotives and is given in Table IV. 

Table IV. Showing Comparative Service Capacity of Steam and Elec- 
tric Locomotives. 

Simple. Mallet. Electric. 

Trailing tons, 2 per cent 

grade 576 886 1,000 

Speed 7.35 ni.p.h. 6.38 m.p.h. 14 m.p.h. 

.Speed multiplied by trail- 
ing tons 4,235 5,660 14,000 

Per cent of electric "serv- 
ice capacity" 30.2 40.5 100 

This table shows that the electric locomotive "service 
capacity, " or its ability to move tonnage per hour, is three 
times that of the simple and two and one-half times that of 
the Mallet engine, while its total weight is less than either. 

As compared with hand-fired coal-burning steam engines 
of either the simple or Mallet types, the electric locomotive 
may be looked upon to furnish the much-needed increased 
capacity of motive power for mountain-grade divisions. 
Such grade divisions are not only a heavy expense in opera- 
tion but introduce a very slow schedule in a trunk-line 
service, besides greatly congesting the traffic on a single 
track, when steam engines are depended upon. Many di- 
visions comprise ruling gradients of such a nature as to re- 
quire the breaking up of through trains or at least a partial 
rearrangement of the train tonnage delivered by the ad- 
joining low-grade division. The delay thus introduced, to- 
gether with the lost time incident to steam engine haulage 
on a heavy grade, amounts to a considerable total. 

ELAPSED TIME 

A mountain division of 220 miles, comprising ruling 
gradients of 2 per cent, showed the results published in 
Table V of elapsed time under existing steam engine con- 
ditions compared with the time that could have been made 
with suitable electric locomotive equipment. 

Table V, Showing Elapsed Time with Steam Engine on Given Run 
and That Possible with Electric Locomotive on Same Run. 

Steam, Electric, 

Hours. Hours. 

Actual running time 15.15 13.02 

Taking water ■. . . .90 

Cutting in and out helpers 1.00 .50 

Testing air brakes 20 .20 

Changing engines and rearranging tonnage 1.40 

Total elapsed time 18.65 13.72 

The run of 220 miles shown in Table V comprised two 
steam engine divisions, entailing the necessary delay in 
changing engines, while the schedule of the electric loco- 
motive is based upon its making the through run of 220 
miles, changing crews, however, at the division point. 

The electric locomotive run is further based upon making 
a maximum speed of not over 35 m.p.h. on level track, the 
speed attained in the steam engine run, but, however, mak- 
ing a much higher speed on the ruling grades than the 10 
m.p.h. reached with the steam engine. The delay due to 
taking on water is best appreciated by having knowledge 
that the water supply in the tender is sufficient to last only 
from one to one and one-half hours of continuous running 
at maximum output corresponding to a possible distance 
covered of from 10 to 15 miles. With a complement of 
three steam engines per train, taking water involves a de- 
lay of from twenty to thirty minutes, all of which time is 
saved with electric locomotive operation. Aside from the 
economies resulting from replacing the steam with the 
electric locomotive, the providing of increased hauling ca- 
pacity at increased speed comprises operating advantages 



r 

20 

that will be fully appreciated in these days of track con- 
gestion and competition. 

COAL CONSUMPTION 

In previous tables values of from 3.38 lb. to 7.06 lb. of 
coal per horse-power hour at the driver rims have been 
quoted. Such figures, however, apply only to the coal used 
while the steam engine is working at full output. 

In addition, there is much coal burned from which no re- 
turn in mileage is made. Commencing with firing up and 
ending a run with fire banked, coal is continuously being 
burned during the time that the train is in motion as well 
as when standing still. 

Some idea of the coal wastage inherent to steam engine 
operation is gained by study of Table VI, which has been 
compiled from observed operating conditions. 

Table VI, Showing Coal Records of Simple Engine. 

Firing up preparatory to run 1000 lb. 

Standing on sidings 500 to 1000 lb. per hour 

Coasting down grades: 950 lb. per hour 

Fire banked in roundhouse 150 lb. per hour 

The steam engine is actually working but a small part of 
the twenty-four hours, and to the coal consumed during 
working periods must be added that burned in making up 
fire, coasting down grade, standing on sidings, banking fire, 
etc. A series of readings extending over a period of thirty 
days and covering two engine divisions of a Western moun- 
tain road where lignite coal of less than 11,000 b.t.u. was 
used showed that nearly 12 lb. of coal was purchased for 
each useful horse-power hour expended at the driver rims. 

In some instances nearly 10 per cent of the tonnage 
moved over the division consists in the coal required to 
move the trains. 

The price of such coal may vary from $1.50 to $3 per 
ton upon the tender, and in this item of fuel the electric 
locomotive holds promise of material saving. While this 
article is largely devoted to a consideration of the Western 
mountain-grade problem, there is an even greater saving in 
fuel to be attained in operating electric yard locomotives. 
The average demand for power is less than 100 kw in yard 
shifting service, as given by Mr. Murray, while the coal 
consumption per horse-power hour of steam yard engines 
is even greater than the figures given above for road en- 
gines on grade divisions. 

OTHER OPERATING ADVANTAGES 

Electrification promises much in the way of increased 
hauling capacity, higher speed on ruling grades and relief 
from track congestion. Other operating advantages result 
with the use of the electric locomotive. In certain railway 
systems it is the practice to pool the engines, while in others 
best results appear to be obtained when an engine is as- 
signed to its own crew. The greater reliability, ruggedness 
and uniform operation of electric locomotives make it en- 
tirely feasible to pool them and secure the benefits of a 
lesser outlay without risking any marked increase in the 
cost of locomotive maintenance. Moreover, it is entirely 
possible to operate an electric locomotive continuously dur- 
ing the twenty-four hours with no reference to coaling or 
watering stations or roundhouse and no delays incurred 
thereby or in cleaning fires and washing out boilers. The 
freedom of action which the electric locomotive enjoys 
should prove a valuable asset in the operation of a complete 
engine division. Many other advantages are offered such 
as electric braking on down grades, thus relieving the 
brakeshoes and wheels and eliminating possible delay and 
derailments due to overheating these parts. Freedom from 
cinders may be a consideration in passenger train opera- 
tion, but is also of value as reducing the fire risk. 

Few comparisons of steam and electric operation are 
made upon the same basis of schedule and train tonnage 
moved, showing in itself that electrification is primarily 
considered from the standpoint of improvement in the 
service that can be accomplished by steam. It is difficult. 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 

therefore, to express any economic value of motive power 
substitution, as such benefits as, for instance, decreased 
running time are difficult to put into figures. Such direct 
savings as are evident, however, indicate a very attractive 
return upon the capital investment required after paying 
all the increased fixed charges incurred. In fact, perhaps 
one of the most effective causes contributing toward the 
present electrification movement lies in the acceptance of 
existing proofs that the electric locomotive can be econom- 
ically as well as reliably operated. 

BUTTE, ANACONDA & PACIFIC LOCOMOTIVES 

The foregoing data apply to the electric locomotive as 
such, with no particular reference to any one type of con- 
struction. Characteristics of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific 
locomotive have been quoted as being typical of the per- 
formance required for mountain-grade service. This in- 
stallation will be in operation in the very near future and 
test data made available. The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific 
locomotive is of interest in this article in that it is the 
most powerful machine thus far constructed for its weight, 
comprising an eight-motor equipment capable of giving a 
sustained output of 2200 hp in continuous operation with 75 
deg. C. rise, and the complete locomotive weighing 150 
tons, all on drivers. When it is realized that this large sus- 
tained output is delivered at a speed of approximately 15 
m.p.h., the fitness of this locomotive for heavy grade haul- 
age will be admitted. 

The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific motors are connected to 
the driving axles through twin gearing, following the con- 
struction of the Cascade, B. & O. and Detroit tunnel loco- 
motives, as affording the greatest possibilities of large 
horse-power output at low operating speed. The locomotive 
motors differ from any now in operation in this country only 
in the voltage, which is 2400 volts d. c. between trolley and 
rail. The rugged qualities of the direct-current motor are 
fully known, and the greater radius of action secured by the 
use of 2400 volts is made apparent by the statement that 
the 26 miles between Butte and Anaconda will be fed 
from two substations located at either end, with trains of 
3400 tons trailing against a gradient of 0.3 per cent operat- 
ing at a speed of 14 m.p.h. The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific 
Railway comprises approximately 114 miles of track, of 
which 90 miles are being electrified at present. 

ELECTRIFICATION OF TERMINALS AND OF MOUNTAIN GRADES 

The causes underlying the movement toward terminal 
electrification in our large cities are so apparent and well 
founded that this important class of work has received but 
passing mention in this article. The installation of electric 
locomotives to operate through tunnels is also a matter 
beyond question, and this fact is not lost sight of in future 
plans for mountain-grade divisions, as in some favored 
localities a very few miles of tunnel can replace many 
miles of surface grade, with its attendant higher elevation, 
high cost of maintenance and operation. The fact, however, 
that is just being appreciated is the value of the electric 
locomotive characteristics when applied to the haulage of 
the heaviest trains at the highest speeds feasible on moun- 
tain-grade divisions. 

The introduction of the electric locomotive robs the 
dreaded "ruling grade" of half its terrors, as the heaviest 
trains can be moved up such grades at double the present 
operating speeds with steam engines and can be safely con- 
trolled down grade with electric brakes without having 
recourse to air brakes except as an emergency resort. 

Moreover, the operating advantages which the electric 
locomotive introduces can be secured with adequate return 
upon the capital investment called for. In these conditions 
and in the availability of cheap power, with the present 
state of development of electric locomotives and auxiliary 
apparatus, we find the main causes underlying the present 
earnest movement toward the electrification of mountain- 
grade divisions. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



21 



The Development of the Electric Railway Motor 

The Electric Railway Motor Has Now Reached the "Age of Economy" — Dangers in Too Great Reduction in • .1 

Weights Are Cited — -Possibilities in Field Control Are Discussed 

BY N. W. STORER, GENERAL ENGINEER RAILWAY DEPARTMENT WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



The evolution of the modern railway motor began in the 
early eighties and is practically all confined to a period of 
thirty years, which may be divided into about five stages 
as follows: 

First — The period embracing the experiments of the early 
inventors such as Field, Hopkinson, Henry, Daft, Edison, 
Van Depoele, Farmer, Bentley, Knight and Sprague. 

Second — The period covering the exploitation of the 
double reduction motor between the years 1886 and 1891. 

Third — The period from 1891 to 1907, covering the de- 
velopment of the single reduction motor of the straight 
series type. 

Fourth — The period from 1907 to 191 1, covering the de- 
velopment of the commutating-pole motor. 

Fifth — The period beginning 191 1, which is not yet 
completed, covering the age of economy in operation. 

Of the first and second stages it is unnecessary to say 
anything at this time as they are a matter of history which 
is already well written in numerous articles in the Street 
Railway Journal and elsewhere. 

The third stage has not been so completely described. 
It begins with the introduction of the first really successful 
single reduction motor — the Westinghouse No. 3 — and cov- 
ers the entire range of motors built by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company down to the No. 101- 
B-2, the motors built by the General Electric Company 
from the S.R.G. to the G.E.-80, and the various motors 
built by the Short Company, the Walker Company, the 
Lorain Company, the Stanley Company and the Allis- 
Chalmers Company. Some of these companies, such as 
the Short, Walker and Lorain companies, were strong com- 
petitors in the early days and made some very good mo- 
tors. For one reason or another the companies abandoned 
the manufacture of electric railway motors. However, the 
good points of the motors were largely retained and trans- 
mitted to the later designs. The motors at the end of the 
third stage may be said to have embodied in them practi- 
cally all of the improvements which were developed prior 
to that time. The Westinghouse No. ioi-B-.e .motor, for 
instance, had the following features, many of. , which are 
now common to all railway motors: ■' 

1. Inclosed type with cast-steel frames. 

2. Four laminated radial pole pieces bolted into the 
frame. 

3. Mummified strap-wound field coils insulated with as- 
bestos paper between adjacent turns, the entire coil im- 
pregnated in a vacuum. 

4. Large armature shafts carried in bearing housings ex- 
tending inside of the armature at the pinion end and inside 
the commutator at the front end. 

5. Bearings well lubricated by the use of oil-soaked 
waste. 

6. Separate oil well for gaging depth of oil and for re- 
ceiving fresh oil. 

7. Efficient oil throwers as a protection against the oil 
reaching the interior of the motor. 

8. Spring packing of field coils to counteract the effect 
of shrinking insulation, and thus prevent loosening. 

9. Improved methods of holding motor leads to prevent 
vibration and breaking. 

10. Two-point suspension of gear cases. 

11. Commutator cover with simple and reliable cam- 
locking device. 

12. Slotted drum-wound armature. 



13. Ventilated armature. 

14. Form-wound armature coils assembled in sets of 
three coils each. 

15. Armature core and commutator assembled on spider. 

16. Armature bands laid in grooves in the armature core. 

17. Coils protected by asbestos hoods on the commutator 
end. 

18. High-grade insulation. 

19. Commutators with mica extending beyond the cop- 
per, both on the inside of the commutator and at the end 
next to the windings to prevent short-circuits. 

20. Improved brush holders with insulation consisting of 
high-grade insulating tubes protected by brass shells where 
clamped and by porcelain sleeves to give creepage surface. 

21. Brush holders with adjustable tension and frictionless 
springs. 

22. High-grade carbon brushes. 

23. Many other small details which contribute to the 
success of the motor but can scarcely be enumerated. 

Each one of the features mentioned has its own history 
which, if completely written, might cover a good many 
pages. It is, however, not necessary to give this in detail, 
and only a few comments will be made. 

It is, of course, understood that these special features 
above given did not all originate with the No. 101-B-2 
motor. They were carefully selected after a study of the 
previous types in service and were based upon the com- 
ments and suggestions of a great many operating men. 
The earlier railway motors were almost entirely the product 
of the manufacturers' designers. It was natural that this 
should be so since there was so little actual experience in 
operating motors and so few people in the business who 
actually knew anything about them. Even after there were 
thousands of equipments in service, it was rather difficult 
to get concrete suggestions from operating men for im- 
proving the design of motors. At the time the No. 101-B-2 
motor was designed, however, a systematic effort was made 
to make the operating men thoroughly understand that the 
motor designers were in earnest in asking for their opinion 
and advice, and the result was that a great many valuable 
suggestions were obtained and some of the most valuable 
features in the modern motors were due to suggestions 
from operating men. The close touch between the operat- 
ing men and the designers, which has been brought about 
through association largely in the American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association, has been of incalculable value 
in the design of railway motors. 

INCLOSED TYPE OF MOTOR AND LAMINATED POLES 

The inclosed type of motor resulted from the large 
amount of trouble experienced from mud and water splash- 
ing into the early types and causing them to break down 
their insulation. The No. 3 Westinghouse motor had the 
lower half of the frame inclosed, but the top half was more 
or less open over the commutator. The General Electric 
W.P. motor went still further and had the motor completely 
inclosed. The use of the four radial poles followed the at- 
tempt to get the most compact as well as the lightest design 
for street car motors. The Westinghouse No. 3 was the 
first commercial motor with this feature. It had the four 
radial poles and four equal field coils. 

Laminated pole pieces were introduced to decrease the 
loss from eddy currents in the pole faces, which, with the 
high inductions introduced with the slotted armature and 
small air gaps, greatly increased the total loss in the motor. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



The earliest motor having laminated poles was the West- 
inghouse No. 38-B. The poles were cast into the steel 
frame. The writer well remembers testing the first No. 38 
with solid steel poles and finding such an astonishing loss 
in' the pole face that laminated poles were at once decided 
upon. The pole pieces were bolted in on later motors, diu 
whether first by the Lorain Company or the General Electric 
Company, the writer is unable to say. This was done in 
order to make the motor more compact and to utilize all of 
the space to the best advantage. It has ever since been 
standard practice. The induction in the air gap and the 
pole face is considerably less than the economical induc- 
tion for working in sheet steel, so that it was quite possible 
to reduce the section back of the pole face and use the pro- 
jecting tips to hold the field coils in position. Later the 
Westinghouse generator practice of saturating the pole tips 
by cutting off alternate pole tips from the punchings was 
introduced. This is still used to some extent. 

MUMMIFIED STRAP-WOUND FIELD COILS 

The use of mummified strap-wound field coils with as- 
bestos insulation has become practically universal, and the 
use of round wire is permitted only on the smallest sizes 
of motors where the section is so small that no gain is se- 
cured by the use of the flat copper ribbon. This type of 
field coil has been a wonderful improvement over the earlier 
types. Insulated as it is with heat-proof insulation in the 
interior of the coil, it is able to withstand a much higher 
temperature, and the external insulation which is so com- 
pletely filled with varnish, etc., makes it practically water- 
proof as well. The G.E.-57 motor and some others had field 
coils of copper ribbon insulated with asbestos between 
turns. They were, however, wound in metal bobbin shells 
or spools and could not be wound tight enough to prevent 
chafing of insulation and grounding. The mummified con- 
struction adopted for the No. 101-B-2 motor eliminated 
this trouble and made a solid coil which when used with 
the spring packing is held perfectly tight. The use of 
springs back of the field coils to insure their being held 
firmly at all times has been a great addition to the motors. 
It prevents the breaking of leads and chafing of insulation 
which would result in grounded field coils. 

LUBRICATION 

Probably no improvement has been more marked and 
has done more to keep the motor cars out of the repair shop 
than the introduction of the type of bearing housing and 
the method of lubrication used with the No. 101-B motor. 
With the old grease lubrication, it was no uncommon thing 
for armature bearing shells to be replaced after 3000 miles 
of service. The life of the bearing on the No. 101-B-2 
motor may be almost anything up to 300,000 or 400,000 
miles. This extraordinary result is due to the excellent de- 
sign of the bearing, which has the waste packed against 
the shaft on the low-pressure side, with pressure of a col- 
umn of waste over it, and the oil fed from below, coming 
from the well, which may be gaged at any time to see that 
the oil is kept at the economical level. This type of bear- 
ing is now universally adopted. It is scarcely necessary 
even to add oil to the bearings more than once a month, so 
that not only is the cost of lubrication reduced to a neg- 
ligible quantity but the cost of maintaining the bearings 
and the loss due to the armature getting down on the pole 
pieces, which was a fruitful source of expense with the 
old bearings, have been practically eliminated. 

OTHER ARMATURE IMPROVEMENTS 

The modern armature is a very different piece of ap- 
paratus from that of twenty or twenty-five years ago. 
Then the armatures were either hand-wound, as in the 
W.P. and S.R.G., or the coils were wound on a form and 
driven down on the ends of the armature with a mallet in 
the process of winding them, as in the Westinghouse No. 3. 
The evolution from that type to the one used at present 
has been gradual. The early motors, like the No. 3, had 
only one armature coil per slot; the Westinghouse No. 12-A 



had two coils per slot; the No. 38-B had three coils per slot. 
The No. 12-A introduced the barrel-shaped armature wind- 
ing with the ends left open to provide circulation of air 
through the coils. The G.E.-57 had form-wound coils with 
sloping ends bound firmly on a coil. The modern type has 
the coils projecting straight out banded to the coil support 
and completely covered with canvas or asbestos cloth caps. 

The asbestos hoods on the front end of the armature 
windings were introduced to prevent the damage incident 
to flashing which may occur from any reason and is liable 
to set fire to a canvas covering. 

The modern brush holders are a great improvement over 
the earlier form, not only in accuracy of adjustment but in 
simplicity of the insulation, substantial design and the use 
of adjustable frictionless springs. Sluggish brush holders 
and inaccurate adjustments used to be fruitful sources of 
bad commutation and flashing, but they have been almost 
entirely eliminated. 

Another scheme that was introduced with the No. 12-A 
and the No. 38-B motors was the use of longitudinal holes 
through the armature core that served the double purpose 
of paths for circulation of air and of saturating the iron 
beneath the armature slots, which thereby improved commu- 
tation. The saturation has been largely abandoned on later 
motors, but the air ducts are continued. 

Introduced with the No. 101-B for small motors was the 
armature spider, which carries not only the armature core 
but the commutator and thus permits the easiest possible 
renewal of bent or broken armature shafts. It also stiffens 
up the shaft in the spider and gives a much larger diameter 
for carrying the armature punchings and thus holds them 
tighter. There is less liability of relative motion between 
armature core and commutatior, as both are keyed to com- 
paratively large diameters on the same spider. 

COMMUTATING-POLE MOTORS 

Coming at a time when the straight series motor had thus 
reached its high state of perfection, it is little wonder that 
the commutating-pole motor introduced in 1907-08 was an 
immediate and unqualified success. It had the benefit of all 
of the experience gained in the design and operation of the 
earlier motors, and added to that the use of the commutat- 
ing pole, which eliminated the last serious objection to the 
direct-current street car motor, namely, the troubles inci- 
dent to the commutation of the current. It is probable that 
no class of apparatus ever designed had a greater measure 
of success than the commutating-pole railway motors intro- 
duced at this time. However, the commutating pole was 
not the-nrty-new feature. The close association of the de- 
signers with' the operating force and the intensive study of 
the subject led to still further minor improvements in the 
motors, arid some very valuable features were introduced. 
Among them was the two-turn strap-wound coil with the 
Westinghouse No. 310 motor, which was a triumph in the 
art of armature winding. The method of forming the coils 
used in this motor obviates all of the difficulties which had 
previously been experienced with that type of coil. It per- 
mits of increased efficiency, larger capacity, better insula- 
tion and more substantial construction than with the ordi- 
nary wire winding. 

The high-grade carbon brushes which came into exten- 
sive use about the same time, added to the undercutting of 
the mica on the commutator surface and the sparkless 
commutation due to the commutating pole, have practically 
eliminated wear on the commutator and greatly increased 
the life of the brushes. The amount of carbon and copper 
dust originating in the motor, which would tend to reduce 
the efficiency of the insulating surfaces, is, therefore, very 
small. This feature is of the utmost importance in the 
motor to be used on high-voltage circuits and greatly in- 
creases its reliability. Without it the high-voltage motor 
would have been a difficult if not a commercially impossible 
problem. With it the motor operates better on 1500-volt 
circuits than the old motor did on 600 volts. 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



23 



THE AGE OF ECONOMY 

The first interruption to the course of the commutating- 
pole motors came with the fifth stage in the history of the 
railway motor, namely, the age of economy. 

One of the most notable signs of the times in the last 
two or three years has been the demand for economy and 
efficiency in every field of human endeavor. .This has been 
due in great part to the training of the thousands of 
engineers who have been working in every possible way to 
increase the outputs of factories, mills and mines, to 
reduce operating expenses for a given output, to reduce 
the losses in generating plants, to increase the efficiency of 
transmission lines by the use of higher voltages, and so on 
through the entire field, trying in every way to reduce costs 
and increase dividends. This craze for efficiency — for such 
it has become in some quarters — reached the electric rail- 
ways two or three years ago when someone called emphatic 
attention to the fact that it costs good money to carry 
around dead weight on street cars. This cost is variously 
estimated at from 2 cents to 10 cents per pound — a favorite 
figure being 5 cents per pound per annum. The exact 
amount, of course, depends on the cost of power at the car, 
the mileage and the class of service in which each car is 
engaged. Undoubtedly there are some classes of city serv-- 
ice where the cost of hauling 1 lb. for a year is as much 
as 5 cents and possibly more. 

REDUCTION IN CAR WEIGHT 

Of course, this was not a particularly new idea, as 
it had been preached in some places for a good many years ; 
but, be that as it may, it was brought out strongly at a 
very opportune moment — at a time when all parts of a car 
equipment had reached their maximum weights as a result 
of the demand for safety and reliability. It cannot be 
denied that there was reason for the complaint about excess 
weights, for the reduction in weight consequent upon the 
demand of operators for light-weight cars was prompt, and 
the reduction was so large as to leave no room for doubt 
that the previous weights had been excessive. However, 
as is usually the case, the reduction in weight has been 
carried to such an extreme in some cases that it has in- 
creased rather than decreased the cost of operation. It is 
always a question where to stop in such changes, and it is 
always a mistake to have only one idea in mind, especially 
if this idea consists simply of the possible fact that it costs 
5 cents per pound per annum to haul the weight around on 
the cars. 

Other things being equal, a reduction in the weight of a 
street car will effect a proportional reduction in the power 
required to move it. However, one should always be cer- 
tain that the reduction in weight is not accomplished at 
the price of decreased operating efficiency or of increased 
cost of maintenance. Either of these can easily far more 
than offset any saving effected by decreased weights. 

The prime idea should be a broader one. The reduction 
in cost of operation is the most comprehensive idea, but 
the demand for a reduction in the energy required to move 
the cars is a far safer and saner idea to inculcate in the 
minds of the operating men than the sole idea of the reduc- 
tion of weight to save money. It should be understood that 
the lightest equipment is not necessarily the one which will 
have the lowest energy consumption per car mile.* 

OTHER METHODS OF IMPROVING OPERATING EFFICIENCY 

Ample proofs have been offered to show that the energy 
consumption can be greatly decreased by other methods 
than by decreasing the weight of equipment. This is espe- 
cially the case where a decrease in the weight of the railway 
motor means an increase in the speed and consequently 
gives a lower efficiency in operation. A light-weight, high- 

* Under the subject of "Economies in Railway Operation," F. E. Wynne 
has very ably discussed this matter in a paper presented before the Balti- 
more Section of the A. I. E. E. last spring and published in the Electric 
Journal, October, 1912. He shows clearly the effect of higher armature 
speed, corresponding to small gear reduction, on power consumption in 
city service. He also takes up the methods for securing the greatest 
efficiency in operation. 



speed motor may have a very good efficiency when operat- 
ing at full voltage, better possibly than that of a heavier 
motor which runs at 20 per cent lower armature speed. 
In service, however, it is very frequently the case, and is 
nearly always the case in city service, that the motor with 
the lower speed will give a higher operating efficiency. This 
is due to the fact that the motor with higher speed will 
necessarily have a much greater resistance loss in accel- 
erating, which is far more than enough to offset the power 
saved by reducing the weight. 

In general, it is dangerous to make radical reductions in 
the weight of railway motors. It must be remembered that 
the motors built ten years ago were lighter in weight than 
the standard motors of to-day, but they were not nearly 
so reliable. For instance, a reduction in the size of arma- 
ture shafts, which have been brought to their present gen- 
erous proportions by years of hard experience, even though 
accompanied by the use of heat-treated material, is dan- 
gerous. Heat-treated materials have not yet reached the 
stage where they can be considered as standard, and until 
the methods of heat-treating of steel are much better 
understood by the general run of manufacturers and it is 
possible to obtain more uniform results by such treatment, 
we believe it will be better to make shafts strong enough 
to stand the service required of them without a resort to 
heat treatment. An extremely careful redesign of railway 
motors is, of course, producing some reduction in weight, 
but a radical reduction is sure to be followed by increased 
cost of maintenance, which will render the equipments 
less reliable and will more than offset any saving that can 
be made on account of the reduced weight. 

The use of a coasting-time clock and of similar devices 
has drawn attention to the tremendous waste of power due 
to inefficient handling of equipment. It is said that the 
coasting-time clock, by putting a premium on rapid accel- 
eration and on the maximum amount of coasting, has 
resulted in a saving of power consumption in some places 
of 20 per cent to 25 per cent or even higher. For the 
benefit of those who are seeking to reduce weights it is 
well to call attention to the fact that efficient handling of 
the cars may in some cases result in so much less heating 
in the motors as to permit the use of a smaller size of 
motor, which will thus effect a reduction in weight without 
a decrease in the mechanical strength of the motor. 

Another scheme for reducing the weight of the equipment 
is by the use of ventilated motors. For some years back 
the use of forced ventilation has been common on loco- 
motive motors and some motors for car service as well ; 
notably, the motors on the Long island Railroad have 
been operated for several years with forced ventilation 
secured by the use of small motor-driven blowers. The 
circulation of the external air through the internal parts 
of the motor is very effective in carrying off heat and will 
very largely increase the continuous capacity of the motor. 
This same result may be brought about by the use of per- 
forated covers on the motor or of a fan on the armature 
shaft arranged so as to draw air through all parts of the 
motor. Either method is very effective and is quite satis- 
factory where the dust and dirt do not offer a serious 
obstacle. In cases where the danger from dust and mois- 
ture is serious, the air should simply be circulated about 
inside of the motor with no connection to the outside air, 
as has been the practice for many years. Any method that 
will cause the air to circulate inside the motor is helpful, 
because it brings the heat to the surface much more quickly 
than if the air were to remain stagnant in the motor. 

FIELD CONTROL 

Undoubtedly the most positive power saver which has 
been introduced with the interpole motors in the last two 
years has been the use of field control for the motors. 
This, as is well known, is simply a revival of the old-time 
control system, which was used in some of the earliest 
railway motors. The Sprague double-reduction motor made 



2 4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



the most extensive use of this, since the control was 
entirely by commutating the field and employed no ex- 
ternal resistance at all. It was used to a greater or less 
degree in the early double-reduction motors and in one or 
two or the single-reduction motors. However, the commu- 
tation with slotted armatures was not good enough, and 
the selection of equipments and operation of motors were 
not well enough understood at that time to make the system 
a success. It was dropped nearly twenty years ago and 
was not revived to any great extent until it was applied 
on the locomotives of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad, which were supplied in 1906 and 1907. These 
were single-phase motors of the series compensated type 
and permitted a wide range of variation in the field strength 
without impairing the commutation. The system in this 
instance worked with marked success. Its later application 
to the commutating-pole motors on the giant Pennsylvania 
locomotives used for the New York terminal was also an 
entire success, so that the engineers of the company which 
had furnished both of these types of locomotives were satis- 
fied that this system of control could be used safely with 
any size of motor. The trial equipment placed in service 
on the Metropolitan Street Railway in New York City 
nearly two years ago met with just as great success as that 
of the locomotives, and the decrease in the energy consump- 
tion of this car equipment over the standard type of equip- 
ment in use was quite remarkable. A motor of very slow 
speed was used, and the resistance was normally cut out 
of circuit before the car reached a speed of 8 m.p.h. Higher 
speeds were obtained by weakening the fields of the 
motors. The maximum speed obtained was hardly as high 
as that of the standard equipment so that a part of the 
saving of power is due to the lower speed, but the larger 
part of it is undoubtedly due to the use of field control. 

The table given in Mr. Wynne's paper before referred 
to shows that the energy consumption of the standard equip- 
ments of double 60-hp motors was 152.26 watt hours per 
ton mile, while that of the equipment of double 40-hp field 
control motors was 124.41, or a total reduction of over 
16 per cent in energy consumption per ton mile. This, 
added to the fact that the equipment weighs considerably 
less, effected a total saving of over 20 per cent in the 
energy consumption. There is no doubt that similar sav- 
ings can be effected in other places. 

When we consider what a large part of the work done 
by the railway motor in city service, consisting chiefly in 
storing energy in the moving car, is done at speeds under 
10 m.p.h., and we realize that most of this work with 
ordinary control is done with resistance in series, we can 
begin to understand how very important it is to cut the 
resistance out at the lowest possible speed. The standard 
type low-speed motor operates efficiently in the slow service, 
but the maximum speed is too low to maintain most sched- 
ules. Field control both cuts out resistances at the mini- 
mum speed and gives the maximum speed desired. It is 
almost ideal. 

Practically the entire advantage of the use of field con- 
trol in city service is in securing a lower energy consump- 
tion. On interurban railways, however, there are addi- 
tional reasons for using it. The energy consumption is, 
of course, reduced a certain amount for each acceleration, 
the peaks on the line are decreased, and the maximum 
demand from substations is correspondingly reduced, but 
possibly the most important advantage for interurban work 
lies in the fact that the field control equipment is suitable 
for both limited and local service. There are a great many 
instances where cars equipped with standard motors have 
been geared for the high speed required for limited service 
and are operated in both limited and local service. The 
high-speed gearing renders the cars unfit for local service, 
since either the acceleration will be very poor and the 
schedule extremely low or the motors will be badly over- 
worked. As it is the almost universal custom of railways 



to maintain the fastest possible schedules at any cost, the 
natural result of this is that motors have been generally 
overloaded where used for both classes of service. The 
use of field control enables the motor to be equipped with 
a comparatively large gear reduction which fits it for the 
local service, while the operation with the short field en- 
ables the car to attain the high maximum speed which is 
necessary for the limited service. It has been demonstrated 
that the motor with field confrol has great advantages on 
locomotives, on street cars and on interurban cars. The 
question may be asked : Is there a twilight zone where it 
is not good? The opinion of the writer is that its advan- 
tages should bring it into use in every known class of 
railway service. Its advantages are positive. Its disad- 
vantages are almost negative. It requires one extra motor 
lead and a slightly more expensive and complicated control 
equipment. 

We believe that in most classes of service the use of 
properly designed field control equipment will effect a sav- 
ing of not less than 10 per cent in the total power consump- 
tion required for operating the cars. When it is considered 
what a vast amount of power this would save in the course 
of a year if all the railway motors were operated in this 
way, one feels justified in believing that it will be only a 
very short time before every one will demand field control 
equipments. Already many inquiries have come from roads 
operating large equipments to know if field control can be 
applied to their existing motors. In most cases, in city 
service, it is impossible to do this and effect any considerable 
economy. This is especially the case where the motors are 
already provided with the maximum gear reduction. 

ADAPTATION OF FIELD CONTROL TO EXISTING MOTORS 

In such a case the possibility for saving is very limited 
since the standard motors are usually worked at a fairly 
high induction at normal accelerating loads and the induc- 
tion can be increased very little by the addition of extra 
turns on the field coil. There will, therefore, be very little 
decrease in the accelerating current and a correspondingly 
small decrease in speed. Consequently, the saving in rheo- 
sta'tic losses would be very small and not enough to pay 
for a change in the equipments. The use of fewer turns 
on the field for obtaining higher speed would be of no 
advantage whatever where the equipment is already geared 
for speed as high as is required. To get the advantage 
from field control in slow city service, motors must be 
wound for slozver armature speed than is ordinarily used 
for standard motors. This will in most cases require new 
armature windings. Where interpole motors are now used 
with large pinions the advantages of field control can be 
secured in most cases by an increase of the gear reduction, 
a change in the field winding and by making the 
necessary changes in the control equipment. These changes 
in most cases cost so much as to be prohibitive unless made 
at a time when gears are to be changed and motors over- 
hauled. It should be kept in mind, however, when new 
equipments are bought and when all the advantages may 
be secured at a minimum cost. 

Field control with non-commutating-pole motors cannot 
be recommended, as it will result in most cases in trouble 
with commutation. 

Any well-designed commutating-pole railway motor may 
be adapted for field control by a proper arrangement of 
its field windings. To get the full benefits, however, the 
gears must be properly selected. For interurban work the 
benefits of field control may be secured by the use of 
standard high-speed armatures with a larger gear reduc- 
tion than usual. In most cases, also, sufficient space is 
available to permit the extra field winding to be used.' 
Special armatures for use with field control are necessary 
only for cases where the slowest speeds and the maximum 
gear ratio are required. 

It will usually be found that where a motor of a given 
size is used in city service with the maximum gear reduc- 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



25 



tion and the usual scries parallel control a slower-speed 
armature may be used with the same motor frame and will 
make the same schedule with a lower energy consumption 
when field control is employed. The motor will have a 
lower horse-power rating, but the current used will be 
correspondingly less, and, consequently, the motor will 
have no more loss in it than with the motor.of higher speed 
with a larger rating. In other words, the use of field con- 
trol permits the use of a motor of a smaller rating for a 
given service. Where the maximum gear ratio is used in 
both cases, the same size of frame must be used. How- 
ever, where the gear reduction can be increased for the 
field control motor it will frequently be found that a smaller 
size of motor can be used at a lower first cost and with less 
weight to be carried around. A double saving will thus 
be effected. 

The question frequently arises as to what range of speed 
may be covered by field control. For car equipments it is 
usually from 15 per cent to 25 per cent, which may be 
secured by cutting out 20 per cent to 40 per cent of the 
field turns. This amount may usually be secured by one 
step on the controller. On the Pennsylvania locomotives 
the field turns are reduced 50 per cent in three steps on the 
controller. It will generally be found most economical to 
have the speed of the motor with the short field 20 per cent 
to 25 per cent higher than with the long field. This will 
reduce rheostatic losses at least one-half and will give the 
simplest arrangement of control. The limit to the amount of 
variation in speed which is possible by a variation of the field 
of the commutating-pole motor depends to a large extent 
on the number of commutator bars. If the average voltage 
between bars is low, the field may be weakened very greatly 
without materially affecting the commutation, but where 
the number of bars is small, so that the average voltage is 
relatively high, a small change in the field strength may 
result in an increased distortion of the field, and this will 
cause a corresponding increase in the maximum voltage 
between bars and will result in flashing over. 

Why do we not use a shunt on the motor field instead of 
having two separate windings? Simply because a shunt 
on the field makes the magnetism sluggish and renders the 
motor liable to flash over in case of sudden applications of 
current resulting from a jumping trolley or contact shoe. 
It is always preferable to cut out a certain portion of the 
field and have neither short-circuited turns nor a non- 
inductive shunt around the field or any part of it, and 
though it costs more to do it in that way, it should always 
be done in railway work. 

A number of the possible economies in the operation of 
railway equipments are dependent to a large extent on the 
control. Fortunately, the development of controllers has 
kept pace with that of motors, so we can at once secure the 
benefits that have been pointed out — at least in new equip- 
ments. 

It has been stated that the use of the coasting-time clocks 
put a premium on rapid acceleration. To get the best re- 
sults, therefore, the rate of acceleration should be fixed 
beyond the control of the motorman. Various schemes 
have been devised for checking the speed of operating the 
hand controller, but undoubtedly the best arrangement is 
a purely automatic control with the steps dependent on the 
current in the motor. Multiple-unit control has now reached 
the point where an automatic field control equipment is in 
operation that will permit the control to be stopped on any 
notch and requires only five or six train-line wires and 
an extremely small number of interlocks. Space will not 
permit a description of this control, and it is mentioned only 
to show that the advantages secured by the offer of a bonus 
for the maximum amount of coasting can be secured with- 
out risk of injury to equipment and discomfort to passen- 
gers due to bad acceleration. The control is so simple that 
anyone can take care of it. It has also the advantage of 
being very light. 



PRESENT OUTLOOK 

The outlook is extremely hopeful. There never was a 
time in the history of electric railroading when develop- 
ments came more rapidly than at present. It has been 
rather disconcerting to the railway manager to find im- 
provements coming so fast that he cannot keep absolutely 
up to date unless he buys new equipments every year. For- 
tunately, however, one docs not have to be up to the minute 
in railroading. The more modern of the old equipments are 
giving as good service as the new ones can do. The only 
thing is that they are not quite so economical in energy con- 
sumption. The advantages of the most modern equipment 
should be secured in new equipments, so that in time they 
will he universally obtained, but the old equipments should 
be worn out in service. 



THE TREND OF PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATION 

In an article in the Nczv York Commercial for Dec. 14 
H. M. Byllesby has reviewed the conditions which are now 
confronting the public as well as the public service corpora- 
tions. Mr. Byllcsby's statements are in part as follows. 

"A community which by accident, design or misfortune is 
poorly served by any of the so-called public service corpora- 
tions is a community which necessarily is behindhand in 
its material development. A community suffering from 
faulty equipment 01 management of the public service cor- 
porations likewise endures a consequent loss of material 
advancement with attendant inconvenience and dissatisfac- 
tion. Xo one questions the occurrence from time to time 
of mistakes, errors, hardships and frauds in the past on the 
parts of both parties to these enterprises, viz., the projectors 
and owners of the enterprises and the citizens, communi- 
ties, governments and municipalities served. The net result, 
however, has been a service on the part of all such corpora- 
tions in the United States of America which has not its 
equal in the world. 

"Up to a comparatively recent period the public service 
official was justified in extending the operations under his 
charge on the general doctrine of averages — that if a given 
extension proved unprofitable for the time being or perma- 
nently, it would be compensated for by the greater profit to 
be reached from some other contemporaneous, subsequent 
or existing branch of or extension to the service. Under 
this condition of affairs enterprise was fostered and devel- 
opment went forward actuated by the hope of a reward 
beyond the ordinary fixed small return of the absolutely 
settled and non-hazardous enterprise. 

"To-day throughout the country the unmistakable ten- 
dency by Interstate Commerce Commissions, Public Utility 
Commissions, and by the law-making and legal administer- 
ing bodies, to hamper and curtail and paternalize the con- 
duct of all of these corporations to a point which is rapidly 
destroying the enterprise of the individual officers and 
employees of such corporations is putting a period to the 
further investment of capital for the extension and enlarge- 
ment of such enterprises. The result of this policy, if 
carried along the lines of its present extreme tendencies, 
will be simply a stop to the further energetic development 
of these enterprises, and will destroy the individual initiative 
of these corporations. This policy, if persisted in along 
the program of the political agitators of the present time, 
leads inevitably and logically to federal and municipal 
ownership. 

"A new situation and new conditions are now confronting 
the public and these corporations. It is a time for the 
underlying common sense of our people to take these ques- 
tions out of the hands of the muck-raker and the profes- 
sional politician and to put them before the great tribunal 
of common sense and love of justice of the American 
people. These questions are of such deep and far-reaching 
importance that they should be placed in the hands of 
entirely non-political tribunals." 



26 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



Developments During 1912 in Power Plant 

Design 

An Account of the Progress of the Year in the Field of Power Generation, Including Brief Descriptions of Typical Plants, 
Together with the Author's Comments and His Conclusions Regarding the Tendencies of Modern Practice 

BY HENRY H. NORRIS, PROFESSOR OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



The past year has been unusually productive of interesting 
developments in power plant practice. A number of new 
plants have been put into commission and some evidence 
of standardization, particularly in large steam plants, is 
furnished by these. The number of electric railways pur- 
chasing energy from central stations has considerably in- 
creased, indicating a growing appreciation of this principle 
of power station economics. This is the period when the 
early d. c. plants have become practically obsolete and also 
have reached the stage where they are rapidly wearing out. 
At the same time the number of large, efficient central sta- 
tions is growing, and, through the use of very high volt- 
ages, their tributary areas are widening. Every railway 
company located within these areas must carefully consider 
the advantages to be gained by purchasing rather than gen- 
erating the energy which it needs. 

The principal railway power plants placed in service dur- 
ing 1912 have been described in detail in various issues of 
the Electric Railway Journal and other technical papers. 
It is not necessary, therefore, to mention more than the 
salient features of a few to prepare the way for some gen- 
eral conclusions regarding the tendencies indicated by latest 
practice. Among these railway plants may properly be 
included the central stations designed originally for light- 
ing and power but now called upon to supply railway cur- 
rent in increasing amount. 

SOUTH BOSTON STATION 

The South Boston station of the Boston Elevated Rail- 
way is a fine example of a plant designed for efficient oper- 
ation with fluctuating loads. In appearance it resembles 
somewhat the famous Fisk Street plant in Chicago, both in- 
side and out. This plant is part of the general scheme of 
improvement which has been under way for some years. 
Ultimately it is to be of 125,000-kw capacity, but at present 
an output of only 30,000 kw is being produced with two 
units. The B. and W. boilers, now sixteen in number, are 
rated at 600 hp on the usual basis of 10 sq. ft. of heating sur- 
face per boiler hp. While these are not large compared 
with the units used by the Detroit Edison Company, they 
are of a popular size which may be considered standard 
at present. The completed turbine room will be nearly 500 
ft. long and about 80 ft. wide, and the boiler room will be 
of the same length and only slightly wider. This is a re- 
markable fact in view of the tendency which has been evi- 
dent for some time to consider the turbine room, as far 
as space is concerned, a mere annex to the boiler room. 
The liberal space allowed in the turbine room in this and 
other recent plants is partly to accommodate the enormous 
condensers, partly to provide room for as many auxiliaries 
on the main floor as possible and to house the increasingly 
elaborate and bulky electrical switching and transforming 
apparatus, and partly to give ample space in which the tur- 
bines and generators may be taken apart for inspection and 
repair. The latter consideration is no small item, as the 
modern machines work under such difficult operating con- 
ditions of high speed, high temperature, dusty ventilating 
air and the like that close watching is absolutely neces- 
sary. Obviously if the parts of a dissembled machine can 
be laid out in an orderly manner without crowding, better 
work can be done on them than under less favorable con- 
ditions. 



In the Boston plant provision is made for taking care of 
variable load by means of forced draft controlled by 
Mason pressure regulators. These regulators, operated by 
variation in steam pressure, automatically adjust the speed 
of stoker engines as well as fan engines to suit the load 
requirements. The forced draft is necessarily accom- 
panied by liberal combustion chamber space in the boilers, 
the tubes of which are set high, giving the fuel opportunity 
to burn before the gases are chilled by the tubes. The 
stokers, of the Taylor seven-retort type, are designed to 
carry several times the rated boiler load, and the fans are 
of similar overload capacity, so that the boilers can be forced 
to generate steam at a rate far greater than their nominal 
capacity. In fact, the present installation of 9600 boiler hp 
is counted upon to supply steam for 45,000 kw of turbines. 
As a few boilers will usually be out of commission for 
eleaning or repairs, the remaining ones must evidently be 
ready for strenuous duty. 

Such forcing for peak loads is now recommended practice 
for railway plants and in no way injures the boilers. At 
the same time the necessary investment is kept down. At 
Boston the result is evident in the small relative size of the 
boiler room, which, unlike those in several recent plants, is 
arranged with the firing aisle parallel to the turbine room. 
This plan has the advantage of convenience in handling and 
in inspection. The steam header, of 14-in. pipe, is placed 
in the boiler room 2 ft. above the floor near the turbine 
room partition and on about the same level as the turbine 
valves. A high-arch connection is made to each turbine and 
excellent flexibility is thus assured. Steam-flow meters 
are connected in the boiler leads. The utility of such meters 
in assisting the firemen to keep each boiler steaming proper- 
ly is recognized, and if the experience of such companies as 
have been using steam meters establishes the ruggedness 
of the device, a wide field of usefulness is open before them. 

Among other interesting features of this plant the use 
of numerous concrete piles under the footings is conspicu- 
ous. The site consists of "made" land on the shore of Bos- 
ton harbor, hence every possible precaution was taken to 
prevent settling. A total of 1500 concrete piles, as well as 
many of wood, was used for this purpose. The electrical 
generators are wound for the moderate voltage of 6600, 
and this is doubled by means of auto-transformers or com- 
pensators which serve also as reactance coils to limit short- 
circuit currents. The generators are ventilated in a some- 
what novel manner, the air being drawn in through large 
ducts terminating above the boiler room roof and down- 
ward through the generator by the usual internal fans. 
The air thus drawn from a considerable elevation is cool 
and free from dust. 

T. H., I. & E. POWER STATION 

The new plant of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company is another good example of up-to-date 
practice, and it, too, has two units installed out of an ulti- 
mate capacity four times as great. This plant, however, 
presents several contrasts to the one just reviewed. The 
boilers, of which sixty will ultimately be required, will be 
divided into three sections, with the firing aisles perpen- 
dicular to the turbine room, somewhat on the order of the 
familiar unit system. A total of twelve boilers of 520 hp 
each is now installed to provide steam for two 6000-kw 



January .4, 1913. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



27 



horizontal steam turbines. This is a much greater provision 
than is made in the Boston plant. The result is a greater 
proportionate space occupied by the boiler room. The ulti- 
mate boiler capacity of 31,200 hp will supply 48,000 kw of 
rated turbine capacity. While this boiler allowance ap- 
pears high, it includes provision for the very large overload 
rating of the turbines, which are expected .to be able to de- 
liver a maximum output of 80,000 kw. The boiler tubes are 
set io'< ft. above the boiler room floor, illustrating again 
the tendency toward liberal combustion space. The boilers 
are equipped with Roney stokers and differential draft 
gages. The absence of the usual coal and ash conveyors 
is noticeable in the Indianapolis plant, the work being ac- 
complished by an industrial railway system. A narrow- 
gage track is located over the coal bunkers and under the 
ash hoppers, and the cars which run upon this track are 
hoisted by means of two electric elevators. 

Each of the horizontal turbo-alternator units of 6000-kw 
capacity discharges its steam into a Wheeler surface con- 
denser hung from the bottom of the turbine frame. The 
basement floor is thus kept clear for the accommodation of 
auxiliaries. These are said to be the first large surface con- 
densers to be furnished with Le Blanc type pumps. The 
steam piping is of open-hearth steel, and the fittings are of 
cast steel, which is approved practice in plants using super- 
heated steam. The header is located in the basement about 
10 ft. below the boiler room floor, and the steam pipes to 
the turbines are brought up from below without conspicu- 
ous arches in the turbine room. The result is a very neat 
appearance of the latter. 

The three-phase alternators generate 13,200 volts, which 
is used on the local transmission system without transform- 
ers. This practice gives simplicity of construction, but is 
somewhat out of line with the tendency, noted in the Boston 
and other stations, toward lower generator voltage with 
step-up compensators. The evil effects of short-circuits 
on these large generators are so great that reactance is gen- 
erally considered necessary to limit the short-circuit current, 
and as this reactance can be obtained in the compensators 
almost as cheaply as in special reactance coils and the 
generator construction simplified by the use of the lower 
voltage, the tendency toward the use of this arrangement 
is logical. 

The Indianapolis station is conspicuous for the neat ap- 
pearance of the turbine room. The enameled brick walls 
with simple ornamentation assist the management in in- 
stilling a sense of pride on the part of the operatives to 
keep the machinery in good order. The glass-inclosed oper- 
ating gallery is free from the noise of the turbine room, in- 
suring strict attention to switching and to the indications 
of the instruments. The simplicity of the turbine room 
is enhanced by the partitioning off of the space occupied by 
all the switch gear, which is located on several galleries, 
one over the other, closely adjacent to the turbine room but 
invisible from it. 

GEORGETOWN POWER STATION 

An interesting plant which shows at a glance the progress 
made in steam turbine development is that of the Capital 
Traction Company of Washington, D. C, at Georgetown. 
There are here two 1500-kw, one 3000-kw and one 5000-kw 
horizontal turbine. Although the smaller machines have 
been in use but a few years, such has been the progress in 
design that the 5000-kw turbine is not noticeably larger 
than the 3000-kw machine or even the still smaller ones. 
The same condition has been shown in other plants using 
vertical turbines where units of 20,000-kw capacity now oc- 
cupy little more floor space, except for the condensers, than 
did the 5000-kw machines of ten years ago. The George- 
town plant is the result of the rapid outgrowing of former 
stations, and much of its equipment has been moved from 
them. This has, however, been so skilfully incorporated 
with the new apparatus that there is no evidence of patch- 
work. The result may be partly due to the fact that the 



engineering work was done by the company's own staff, 
which naturally would be well acquainted with the virtues 
and the faults of each part of the older equipment. The 
turbine room presents a rather unusual appearance on ac- 
count of the auxiliary apparatus galleries, which are unin- 
closed, as is also the operating gallery. The most obvious 
advantage thus gained is ease of inspection. The general 
tendency seems to be toward isolation of the switch gear 
from the turbine room. 

The three-phase, twenty-five-cycle generators at this sta- 
tion produce current at 6600 volts, which seems to be the 
standard toward which practice is tending. Current at this 
voltage is delivered to the transmission system and to the 
lowering transformers used in connection with rotary con- 
verters for local 600-volt d.c. distribution. 

On account of the gradual development of this plant, a 
considerable variety of condensing equipment is found in it. 
The smallest turbines have Alberger jet condensers main- 
taining a 28-in. vacuum. A Wheeler surface condenser on 
the 3000-kw unit holds a 29-in. vacuum, which is about the 
same as in the Le Blanc condenser on the 5000-kw unit. 
The air and circulating pumps for the condensers are of 
the centrifugal type, but the boiler-feed pumps are recipro- 
cating. 

hi the design of the building the architect has been very 
successful in producing a structure which, while it looks 
like a power station, would be an ornament anywhere but 
in a residential neighborhood. Much more attention is be- 
ing given to the architecture of power plants than formerly, 
and it is fitting that in a vicinity containing so many hand- 
some structures the railway power plant should be in keep- 
ing with its surroundings. On account of the danger of 
dampness in the basement of this building, unusual attention 
was given to waterproofing. On top of the piles, which 
are liberally distributed under the entire building, is a con- 
crete cap on which is a five-ply layer of Hydrex felt. On 
this is a floor of 30-in. concrete slabs under the boiler room 
and one of 18-in. slabs under the turbine room. The out- 
side of the basement wall is also covered with a thick layer 
of waterproof concrete. 

NORTHWEST POWER STATION 

The new Northwest station of the Commonwealth Edi- 
son Company of Chicago is possibly the past year's most 
notable addition to the electric railway equipment of the 
Middle West. While but two generating units are now 
installed, the plans are complete for a total of twelve 20,000- 
kw units in twin stations. This project, which will call for 
an ultimate expenditure of $20,000,000, illustrates the prin- 
ciple, mentioned earlier, of planning for the future. Under 
this policy, stations will not be outgrowing their capacity 
and becoming obsolete, but they will be growing naturally 
to meet the demand. While this policy may have been fol- 
lowed in a few cases in the past, it was by no means as gen- 
eral as it is now. 

The unit system is carried out in this plant, each turbine 
having its battery of ten boilers of 560 hp each. The entire 
battery is not necessary to maintain full load on the turbine 
and the firing aisles are perpendicular to the line of the 
turbine room. The turbine room is comparatively small 
because all electrical auxiliaries are placed in separate 
buildings, the total ground area required for that purpose 
being greater than that of the turbine room. Taking all 
of the generating equipment together, it occupies nearly as 
much space as the boilers. 

In the Northwest station the separation of transforming, 
switching and measuring equipment from the turbine room 
has been carried to the extreme, there being separate build- 
ings for the compensators and for the busbars and switches. 
This is to insure absolute reliability, for even if the power 
house should be destroyed its load could be cared for by 
other stations by means of the very complete switching 
arrangements. The switching devices in this plant are 



28 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



very elaborate, and the contrast between the railway power 
station of twenty years ago and this one is striking. Then 
the switchboard was on the engine floor and occupied a few 
panels, on the back of which great busbars were mounted. 
The space occupied by the board was negligible. Now, at 
least in the present case, the switching requires a separate 
building more than half as large as the turbine room, which 
itself is liberal in size. 

KEOKUK HYDROELECTRIC STATION 

The hydroelectric power project at Keokuk, la., will 
soon have a close relation to electric traction in its terri- 
tory. Rapid progress on this great plant has been made 
during the past year, and within a few months the first gen- 
erating units will be in operation. Fifteen units, consist- 
ing of io,ooo-hp Francis vertical turbines and 7500-kw 
General Electric generators, are being installed for the 
present. A considerable part of the output has been con- 
tracted for by the railway and lighting companies of St. 
Louis, 140 miles from the plant. The rest will be sold 
in Quincy, Burlington, Hannibal, Fort Madison, Keokuk and 
other cities within easy reach. The ultimate cost of the 
project has been estimated at over $20,000,000, about the 
same as the cost of the completed Northwest station of the 
Commonwealth Edison Company. The ultimate capacities 
of the two plants are the same, 240,000 kw. Energy is to 
be sold in St. Louis at $18 per hp year at 60 per cent load 
factor, which price is based on the cost of power with 
coal at $1.42 per ton. To obtain this load factor it will 
be necessary for the railways to adopt means to fill in the 
load-curve depressions. The electric power will be pro- 
duced at 6600 volts, three-phase, twenty-five cycles, and 
the transmission voltage will be 100,000. On account of 
the low speed, 56 r.p.m., the weight of the revolving part 
of the unit is very great, nearly 250 tons, probably the heav- 
iest load ever placed on a step or vertical thrust bearing. 

The question of steam reserve for use in case of low water 
or high back water will presumably be taken care of by the 
utilization of existing steam plants in the tributary terri- 
tory. In many cases the steam reserve greatly increases 
the cost of energy, sometimes wholly or nearly offsetting 
the inherent cheapness of the water power. In the present 
case the cost of reserve service is evidently very low, as is 
indicated by the low price of the energy delivered in St. 
Louis. 

MARSEILLES HYDROELECTRIC STATION 

A much smaller plant, utilizing water power at a lower 
head than that at the Mississippi River dam, which has a 
maximum value of 35 ft., was completed last year by the 
Northern Illinois Light & Traction Company at Marseilles, 
111. The head here is but 11 ft. The new equipment con- 
sists of six vertical 74-in. Samson turbines with direct- 
connected umbrella-type Westinghouse alternators of 320- 
kva capacity. These alternators are wound for 2300-volt, 
three-phase current, four being twenty-five cycle machines 
and the other two sixty-cycle. As the umbrella type of 
generator is rather unusual in this country, excepting in 
very large plants, this installation is exceptionally interest- 
ing. The machines rotate at 75 r.p.m., and the rotating 
field magnet is 10 ft. in diameter, the outside diameter of 
the complete generator being about 14 ft. The Keokuk 
generators of the same general type are about 32 ft. out- 
side diameter. This type of generator was selected for the 
Illinois River plant in preference to the horizontal type, 
geared to the turbines, on account of the higher efficiency 
and the lower cost of maintenance. 

In addition to the equipment of this plant described 
above, some old 62-in. Samson turbines were utilized in 
the new plant by gearing them together in two groups of 
three each by horizontal shafts direct-connected to 2300- 
volt generators, one of which has a capacity of 450 kva at 
sixty cycles and the other a capacity of 500 kva at twenty- 
five cycles. The excitation for all of the alternators is 
furnished by two 90-kw generators direct-connected to 40- 



in. wheels and by one 100-kw machine driven by a motor. 

The output of the plant is both twenty-five-cycle and 
sixty-cycle current. The latter is furnished to a number of 
small lighting and power companies, and the relative de- 
mand for each of the two varieties of current varies during 
twenty-four hours. To meet this condition the generators 
producing the two frequencies are connected through a 
750-kva frequency-changing motor-generator set, so that a 
large part of the capacity of the plant is available in either 
form of current. 

This plant is one of several which are operated in parallel 
supplying railway and lighting current for the McKinley 
properties in northern Illinois. The power system includes 
two steam equipments which will furnish reserve power 
for emergency use to take the peaks of the loads and to 
assist in governing. As the Illinois River is the outlet 
of the Chicago Drainage Canal, a steady flow of water is 
practically assured. The new plant has been designed on 
the basis of the minimum flow of the river, and its size is 
conservative. 

TECHNICAL SOCIETY REPORTS ON POWER PLANT PRACTICE 

The two associations most intimately concerned with the 
electric railway power plant are the American Electric 
Railway Engineering Association and the National Electric 
Light Association. Both of these bodies have committees 
charged with the duty of studying and bringing before the 
respective memberships the live questions relating to their 
specialty, power plant practice. The railway association 
report is presented at the October convention in each year 
and that of the other society in June. These reports, be- 
ing based on extended study and correspondence, presum- 
ably contain the latest obtainable information. Their rec- 
ommendations should have great weight in a review of a 
year's progress. The following paragraphs summarize the 
findings reported in 1912. 

Large central stations interconnected with network of 
conductors are to be preferred to isolated ones. These con- 
ductors will in large cities be mostly underground, and they 
form a most important part of the system; hence special 
attention must be given to their maintenance. The prob- 
lem of locating faults and isolating defective cables is de- 
manding careful attention at present. The methods now in 
general use are not satisfactory. A plan involving circuit 
breakers operated by differentially wound relays with the 
two windings carrying current from the two ends of the 
protected cable is satisfactory. For short cables — such, 
for example, as those connecting the Fisk Street and Quarry 
Street stations in Chicago — the expense is not serious, but 
with long cables the cost is prohibitive. H. G. Stott has 
suggested a simple plan for testing which promises well. 
He applies to the supposed defective cable the secondary 
emf of a three-phase transformer of considerable mag- 
netic leak. This emf with the secondary on open cir- 
cuit, as it is when applied to a good cable, has the regular 
working value. If, however, the cable is short-circuited, 
a secondary current is set up and its presence is indicated 
by ammeters in the primary circuit. The magnetic leakage 
prevents the draft of much more than normal current in the 
cable. 

The increase in the size of generating units and the im- 
provement in their voltage regulation have made the ef- 
fects of short-circuits more serious than formerly. The 
result is the introduction of reactance coils to limit short- 
circuit currents. The preference seems to be for reactance 
in outside coils rather than in the generator winding. These 
coils undoubtedly take up space and interfere with good 
regulation, but they seem to be necessary. Reactance coils 
are constructed of stranded conductor wound usually on 
skeleton concrete cores. Their presence in power houses 
is an interesting novelty. Generator design is being in- 
fluenced by the demand for higher steam economy, which 
results in high rotative speed and small diameter. The 
small size makes ventilation difficult. 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



29 



ECONOMIES IN THE 1J0ILER ROOM 

In the boiler room chain-grate stokers are recommended 
for low-grade coal high in ash and volatile matter, but they 
are not adapted to coals with a tendency to coke and run 
without some means for breaking up the coke as it forms 
at the front of the grate. With the aid of most types of 
mechanical stokers which now arc in general use it is pos- 
sible to operate fires practically without smoke after the 
brickwork becomes heated. This is an important conclusion 
in view of the considerable agitation for smoke preven- 
tion. Steam-How meters are being found increasingly use- 
ful but are not yet perfect. 

In steam plants the matter of intelligent purchase of coal 
is important. Both associations gave attention to this mat- 
ter last year. The A. E. R. E. A. committee took up the whole 
matter of chemical testing in connection with power work, 
especially coal analysis. A number of companies sent in 
data regarding their practice in this matter. It is apparent 
that modern methods of coal buying are growing in favor. 
Both ash and heat determinations are made. Attention is 
called to the fact that the heat value of coal from a given 
mine will not vary much, but that the proportion of ash, clay 
and other non-combustible matter will vary a great deal. 
The recommendation, therefore, which agrees with that of 
the N. E. L. A. committee, is that ash determinations be 
made frequently, even by small companies. Chemical labo- 
ratories are useful in analyzing water and oil as well as 
coal, and the committee believes that all three should be 
analyzed in order that these most important materials may 
be intelligently purchased and used. 

TENDENCIES IN PRIME-MOVER DESIGN 

Steam turbine equipment is still in a state of progress, 
and new problems are constantly coming up for solution. 
The general use of superheated steam has brought out the 
superiority of steel pipe and fittings for service in turbine 
plants, as cast-iron fittings fail when exposed to superheated 
steam. Strenuous efforts are being made to improve con- 
denser design in order to reduce maintenance and insure 
reliability. Liberal condensing surfaces are used, and the 
water of condensation is removed from the tubes as quickly 
as possible, thus keeping up their heat conductivity, the 
effort being to create air currents sweeping toward the 
pumps. Some trouble has been experienced in keeping dirt 
out of the tubes, even with careful screening. 

In hydraulic plants horizontal-shaft wheels continue to 
be preferred to the vertical type except for very low heads. 
As is evident in the case of the Keokuk plant, the weight 
of the rotating member of a vertical wheel imposes difficult 
design features, particularly in machines of large size. 
Horizontal bearings present no serious difficulties. The 
roller bearing is proving of service in vertical turbines and 
is obviating one of the main objections to them. There is 
still room for improvement in governing devices. Where 
steam engines and waterwheels can be operated in parallel 
the governing is better, being controlled by the steam 
engine. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY POWER CONTRACTS 

The contract between the Commonwealth Edison Com- 
pany of Chicago and the two surface and one elevated rail- 
road system of that city has now been in operation for 
several years and is giving excellent satisfaction both to 
producer and consumers. The contract is very simple, the 
rate 'consisting of two parts, a service charge and an energy 
charge. The service charge is based upon the investment 
which is assumed to be necessary to have the power plants 
at all times in readiness to supply a demand of an estimated 
amount, and amounts to $1.25 per month per kw of maxi- 
mum demand. In addition there is an energy charge of 0.4 
cent per kw-hr. In a contract of this kind a most important 
element is the manner in which the maximum demand is 
determined. Obviously a swing of load lasting only an 
instant is not a fair criterion of the equipment necessary, 
because any power plant can carry an instantaneous over- 



load without detriment to the equipment. The maximum 
load therefore must be rated in such a way that it really 
necessitates a definite amount of equipment. In this con- 
tract the maximum demand is determined in a peculiar but 
effective manner. The supply company selects from the 
records on three consecutive days in each month the kilo- 
watt-hours of energy consumed in one hour in the morning 
and evening peaks and adds these hourly demands together. 
One-sixth of this total is called the maximum demand for 
the month. The advantages of this contract are its sim- 
plicity and the incentives which it offers for the keeping 
down of the peaks. Unfortunately a railroad company has 
very little control over the form of its load diagram, but 
careful operation of the cars and trains, combined with 
the use of storage batteries, can reduce the peaks some- 
what. That the operation of the contract has been satisfac- 
tory in Chicago is evidenced by the plans for the develop- 
ment of the power plants on the one hand and the apparent 
lack of plans on the part of the consumers to build power 
plants of their own. From this it is not necessarily to be 
inferred that the railway companies consider that they 
could not generate energy as cheaply as the Commonwealth 
Edison Company, but even if they could do so, which is 
questionable, they could not obtain the degree of security 
of service at anything like this cost. During the past year 
the Commonwealth Edison Company has made a new move 
in the matter of power provision for electric railways by 
installing a railway substation which it will operate, selling- 
energy in d.c. form. 

The first new railway contract announced during the 
past year was one between the Cleveland Electric Illuminat- 
ing Company and the Cleveland Railway. The terms are 
more complex than those of the Chicago contract, which 
has been in operation for several years. There are similar 
provisions regarding line losses, installation and mainte- 
nance of transmission lines and of substations. The 
same general theory also underlies the financial features, 
but the details are much more elaborate. In the first 
place, the service charge is graduated, varying from $1,475 
per kw of monthly maximum demand for the first 500 kw 
to $1 for excess above 1000 kw. The average value will 
presumably be somewhat less than the Chicago figure. The 
unit charge is also graduated from 0.95 cent per kw-hr. for 
the first 50,000 kw-hr. per month down to 0.38 cent per 
kw-hr. for excess above 2.300,000 kw-hr. per month. The 
average will be practically the same as in the Chicago con- 
tract. These figures are based upon 90 per cent power fac- 
tor, the railway obtaining the benefit of increased power 
factor by corresponding reduction in rates. A table given 
in the contract shows that with a consumption of 9,000,000 
kw-hr. per month, 50 per cent load factor and 90 per cent 
power factor, the cost is 0.681 cent per kw-hr. The rates 
are based upon a minimum demand of 15,500 kw, which 
may be increased by due notice. 

The monthly maximum demand in the Cleveland contract 
is calculated from the sum of the kilowatt-hour consumption 
during the peak-load hours on three successive days. These 
hours are integral hours, that is 5 to 6 p.m. or 6 to 7 p.m., 
and the sum of the kilowatt-hours during these three peak- 
load periods is to be greater than that of any three similar 
periods during the month. One-third of the total consump- 
tion during the three hours is the maximum demand for 
the month. 

Two new contracts were announced late in the year and 
details of the financial features are not yet available. These 
contracts are between the New York Edison Company and 
the Third Avenue Railway Company in New York City, 
and between the Philadelphia Electric Company and the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. The former con- 
tract presents an interesting contrast to the Chicago con- 
tract. In the Chicago case the old steam plants were not 
taken over by the Edison company but were either shut 
down or are still being operated by the railway companies. 



3° 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



These steam stations will probably not be remodeled but 
will be allowed to become obsolescent and will gradually be 
eliminated. The case of the Third Avenue Railway con- 
tract in New York, however, is quite different. This com- 
pany less than ten years ago put in a very modern plant 
consisting of eight vertical, cross-compound engines of 
5000 hp each, with 6600-volt, three-phase, twenty-five-cycle 
alternators. With the exception of the use of reciprocating 
engines this plant is quite up-to-date at present, and it is 
operating very economically. The New York Edison Com- 
pany has taken over this plant and will operate it in con- 
junction with the Waterside stations, which have genera- 
tors of the same voltage and frequency. 

The latest contract of all is that in Philadelphia, and it 
presents some interesting features in that it is divided into 
several parts. Energy is to be furnished by the Philadel- 
phia Electric Company in a.c. form as well as in d.c. form. 
The electric-light company takes over, at a nominal rental, 
a substantial part of the generating equipment of the rail- 
way company and may operate this as an emergency re- 
serve. The electric-light company has also the privilege 
of utilizing its own equipment if it so desires. The load 
factors guaranteed are 35 per cent in one part of the sys- 
tem and 30 per cent in another. The minimum demand is 
at present 15,000 kw, which will be increased by 5000 kw 
during the fall of 1913. 

The process of central station energy in railway work 
will be watched with great interest during the next few 
years. All of the contracts described have been drawn in 
such a way that a period of about ten years is allowed for 
the solution of the various problems involved. During this 
period, unless some new type of prime mover becomes 
prominent, central station practice will probably have set- 
tled down to a standard construction. During this period 
much attention will be devoted to a study of cost of gener- 
ating electrical energy. At the present time operating costs 
appear to be susceptible of accurate calculations, but over- 
head costs are still problematic. This will not be the case 
when central station construction is standardized and after 
sufficient time has elapsed for the experimental determina- 
tion of the maintenance and depreciation costs of the new 
generating units. 

PROBLEMS AFFECTING MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 

As has been pointed out in the technical press from time 
to time, it is questionable from the standpoint of economy 
whether there is much gain in increasing a plant above a 
certain size unless this plan permits a marked improvement 
in the load factor. Some gain comes from the diversity of 
load obtained by combining lighting, industrial power and 
railway power in one station, and the purchaser gets at 
least part of the benefit, but the determination of the cost 
of generating energy is so difficult that only in a general 
way can it be estimated. On general principles, however, 
it should be true that a company specializing in the manu- 
facture of electrical energy can generate it more cheaply 
than one to which the power plant is a side issue. Mani- 
festly the advantages of large units favor the central sta- 
tion, and the limit in steam turbine size has apparently not 
yet been reached. 

The Commonwealth Edison Company has under construc- 
tion in England a 25,000-kw unit of the horizontal type, a 
radical departure for this company. The problem of sup- 
porting on a step-bearing the enormous weight of the re- 
volving part of the turbo-alternator in much larger sizes 
than those at present in use is a serious one. There is also 
not much further advantage to be gained by the use of the 
vertical type because the condenser is already larger than 
the turbine in the 20,000-kw size and will be proportion- 
ately larger with increased turbine capacity. It is prob- 
able, therefore, that the still larger units which are sure to 
come will be of the horizontal type. 

The demand for higher rotative speeds in the steam 
turbine brings in other problems for the designer. Aside 



from the question of mechanical strength, there are serious 
difficulties in getting the exhaust steam away from the tur- 
bine, as the high vacuums used result in the expansion of 
the steam to enormous volumes. There is an accompany- 
ing difficulty in ventilating the cores and windings of the 
generators. Several serious hindrances, therefore, stand in 
the way of farther development of the very high-speed tur- 
bines. 

Thrust and step bearings have given trouble both in steam 
and water turbines, but progress has been made. The step- 
bearings of vertical turbines are in general lubricated with 
oil under high pressure, special attention being given to 
its quality and condition. In a few cases water is used. 
In water turbines roller bearings have been used with suc- 
cess. The latest development in high-pressure bearings 
is the Kingsbury thrust bearing, which has been adopted 
for the great turbines at the new Keokuk plant of the Mis- 
sissippi River Power Company and in other important in- 
stallations. In all high-pressure bearings the problem is to 
get the lubricant between the rubbing surfaces. In the 
new bearing the usual stationary collar is replaced by a 
spherically seated collar, on the working surface of which 
are several separated spherically seated bearing blocks faced 
with soft metal. These blocks adjust themselves to the re- 
volving collar and the lubricant is drawn between them and 
the revolving collar as it is not when the stationary collar 
is rigid and continuous. At present the greatest load on 
bearings of this type is in the McCall's Ferry plant at 
Holtwood, Pa., where it amounts to 410,000 lb. In the 
Keokuk plant it will be 560,000 lb. The load on the step- 
bearings of the usual type in the 20,000-kw steam turbine 
units in Chicago is about 200,000 lb. 

TURBO-ALTERNATOR PROBLEMS 

In the electrical end of the turbo-alternator unit the 
heating problem is serious. It is not only a question of 
getting heat away from the radiating surface of coils and 
cores but also one of getting the heat to those surfaces, as 
heat is generated in the interior of cores and coils and 
these have a limited heat conductivity. This heat can come 
to the surface only at a certain rate, depending upon the 
temperature head and the resistance offered to the heat flow. 
This fact is illustrated by the time-temperature curve at the 
surface of any part of an electrical machine after a run. 
A thermometer applied to the surface shows a rise of tem- 
perature for some time after the machine has been stopped, 
indicating a flow of heat to the surface from internal super- 
heated parts. Forced circulation of cold air increases the 
temperature head and thus assists in the removal of heat, 
but even with this help internal temperature must still 
farther increase. Insulation must be developed to stand 
these higher temperatures, and the conventional 50 deg. 
rise cannot hold much longer. With this greater rise of 
temperature will come greater mechanical difficulties due to 
expansion and contraction. Even now the designer has to 
scheme carefully to avoid the loosening of windings due to 
this cause. These problems will be solved as they arise 
as others equally difficult have been solved in the past, but 
they are mentioned to indicate the far-reaching effect of the 
demand for higher speed with smaller and cheaper tur- 
bines. 

The ventilating air for the turbines is ordinarily very 
dusty as well as warm. Washing devices have been de- 
veloped to remove the dust and cool the air, which is passed 
through sheets of water and around sharp bends. The 
water washes out the dust or wets the particles so that they 
are easily thrown out by baffle plates. This matter was cov- 
ered in detail in the 191 1 N. E. L. A. report on prime mov- 
ers, the committee on the subject having made a careful 
study of the washing and cooling of air for buildings. A 
start which was made in applying this principle to a turbo- 
alternator was described. In view of the ventilation diffi- 
culties mentioned above some such treatment of air seems 
quite necessary. 



January 4, 1 9 1 3 . ] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



3i 



Progress in Electric Power Transmission 

Practice 

The Author Discusses the Effect of Interpole Pesign Upon the Development of the Sixty -Cycle Converter and Power Dis- 
tribution to Direct-Current Lines and Makes Suggestions About Improvements in Line Construction 

BY LOUIS BELL, PH.D. 



In examining the recent tendency in power transmis- 
sion practice for railways, one may profitably glance at 
those limitations which have hitherto made themselves felt 
in the adaptation of transmitted power to the service of 
electric railways. Although the utilization of electric 
power transmission for railway work dates far back, the 
hydroelectric plant has not been up to the present a usual 
source of power for the operation of railroads. If the 
writer remembers correctly, he had the pleasure in 1894 of 
installing the first plant using transmitted energy for 
operating a railway, merely a railway generator of the 
type then standard, belted to a three-phase synchronous 
motor. It was not then judged practicable to build a syn- 
chronous converter of the necessary size for fifty cycles, 
much less for the sixty cycles used in most subsequent 
three-phase plants. 

The result has been that on the whole hydroelectric 
plants have been cut off from doing a large business with 
railways on account of the loss in, and cost of, the appa- 
ratus necessary to deliver direct-current energy supplied 
from a transmission service. There have been from time 
to time a small number of twenty-five-cycle hydroelectric 
plants installed which have been able, as in the case of 
Niagara and a few others, to supply railway power through 
synchronous converters, but despite the fact that to-day 
power transmission networks ramify very widely over the 
eastern and western sections of the country, railways have 
been slow to utilize this cheap and convenient source of 
power for the reason stated. 

One of the things which are interesting and altogether 
agreeable changes for the better is the development at last 
of satisfactory synchronous converters for sixty-cycle cir- 
cuits, thanks to the interpole construction which has so 
greatly relieved the difficulties of commutation, the only 
serious difficulties that have stood in the way of the use 
of such machines hitherto. With such apparatus available 
as it is, at least in all except the large sizes, in the present 
state of progress it will be increasingly common for railway 
companies to take power from the transmission networks 
so widely available. 

PURCHASED POWER 

Most electric roads are not big enough from the stand- 
point of necessary output to operate power stations of 
their own with a high degree of economy. Both size and 
load factor are against them, so that it is quite safe to say 
that where a road can reach conveniently an existing trans- 
mission system of large capacity it can buy power cheaper 
than it can make it. This is emphatically true in the case 
of hydroelectric transmissions. It is also true in the case 
of many of the large central station networks fed from 
modern steam-driven stations. 

Those who have read the columns of this journal during 
the past year have a realizing sense of the extent to which 
purchased power is advantageously and economically used 
even in large amounts, thanks to the economies of genera- 
tion possible in our present big central stations. These 
very commonly work at twenty-five cycles and so do not 
require anything special in the way of synchronous con- 
verters. On the whole, perhaps, the most notable tendency 
of the past year or so in transmissions for railway purposes 
has been this increase in the practice of purchasing power. 



It means the replacement of a steam-driven station with 
its considerable cost of attendance by one or more simple 
and easily cared for substations, and the possibility of in- 
creasing the number of these substations without consider- 
able increase in expense, thus lessening feeder costs and 
steadying the voltage along the lines — a matter of great 
importance in the extended electric roads, particularly 
those of light service. And aside from the use of sixty- 
cycle synchronous converters, now making decided ad- 
vance, undoubtedly material progress is being made in the 
development of the beautiful mercury converters already in 
widespread use for other purposes. Recent reports from 
abroad give hope of successful conversion in units per- 
haps as great as several hundred kilowatts. Of their per- 
formance it is too early to speak with certainty, but it goes 
without saying that such apparatus, if it fulfils the promise 
of recent developments, will be of the utmost use in facili- 
tating a cheap and efficient supply of power over wide 
areas from stations now existing. At all events, it is per- 
fectly clear from the progress made during the last year 
that the unification of power supply, with all which that 
implies in the matter of operative and installation econ- 
omies, is going steadily on, to the great benefit of the elec- 
tric railway business. 

DISTRIBUTION TO HIGH-TENSION DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAYS 

Just how far these tendencies can progress depends on 
the direction of advance in the matter of traction motors 
themselves. As the readers of this journal are aware, the 
past year has seen considerable progress made toward high- 
voltage, direct-current motor service, several installations 
of 1200 volts from trolley to track having been in opera- 
tion, and even this voltage has been doubled in one of the 
projects now under way, and that on a large scale. It is 
unnecessary to comment on the great advantage of these 
increased voltages in the matter of distribution, but they 
involve some serious considerations as to apparatus. 
Thanks again to the interpole construction, the motors 
themselves can be worked out with reasonable factors of 
safety, but when it comes to the supply of energy at this 
voltage on a considerable scale there are other things to be 
considered. It is one thing to build a sixty-cycle converter 
for 600 volts; it is quite another to build it for 1200 volts 
or for 2400 volts. Just how this difficulty will be met re- 
mains to be seen. Possibly converters coupled in tandem 
or cascade converters, which practically halve the diffi- 
culty of commutation, may come into play, although some 
of the enterprises requiring high-voltage motors are big 
enough to justify the installation of low-frequency generat- 
ing stations for their special service. Mercury converters, 
on the other hand, lend themselves readily to high-voltage 
work and to installation on locomotives when these are 
used. It will therefore be seen that things are in an ex- 
tremely plastic and formative condition as respects the gen- 
eral features of supply for railway operation in spite of the 
improvements to which reference has been made. 

POWER STATION DESIGN 

Tn minor matters of supply, those pertaining to power 
station design and operation, the most conspicuous ten- 
dency has been toward the use of the horizontal rather 
than the vertical type of turbo-generator and the installa- 
tion of boilers of considerably greater steaming capacity 



32 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



than those heretofore common. The installation of the 
huge boilers of the Detroit Edison Company last year 
taught a much needed lesson. Their very high effi- 
ciency gives promise of great improvement over present 
progress. It is a moot point among steam engineers 
whether such increase in size or a corresponding increase 
in steaming capacity by forced draft is the better plan to 
follow for the future. Several recent railway plants have 
been using forced draft to secure the intensive combus- 
tion necessary for pushing the steaming capacity over the 
peak of the load, with good results in practical economy 
and to the considerable simplification of the plant. Per- 
sonally, the writer believes we are going to have progress 
along both lines, with big boilers worked intensively to 
secure still greater output. At all events it is certainly in 
the boiler and furnaces that the greatest improvements in 
plant efficiency are now to be obtained, and the movement 
during the past year has been conspicuously in this direc- 
tion. 

LINE CONSTRUCTION 

As to transmission line progress, most transmissions 
primarily intended for railway purposes are at compara- 
tively moderate voltages, as befits the usually not very 
great distances of transmission. The line construction 
standardized during the past year or two seems to answer 
perfectly well for most cases, but in several instances it 
has been seriously called in question. It seems probable 
that the suspension insulator and line construction more 
closely approximating that of general transmission plants 
will push their way steadily into railway practice. There 
is no use of transmitted power in which interruptions 
occur, because they are never more exasperating than in 
railway service, and considering the fact that one seldom 
has to deal with very high voltages it would appear the 
part of wisdom to take advantage of modern constructions 
to increase very considerably the factor of safety in trans- 
mission circuits. This tendency has already been felt as 
the work of the last year or so plainly shows, and it should 
consistently increase in the work of next year and the 
years to follow. 

Attention should here be called to the advantages of 
steel construction for important feeder lines, a practice 
which is beginning to appear here and there in isolated 
spots and is altogether commendable. A steel transmis- 
sion line with suspension insulators, giving at least double 
the factor of safety now common on railway transmissions, 
need not be unreasonably expensive and in the long run 
will very likely make up in decreased maintenance the 
modest increase in initial expense. If American construc- 
tors would investigate thoroughly the light latticed "A" 
poles in large use on the Continent, they would get a new 
light on line construction. A few steel "A" poles have 
been used for railway work in this country, but so far as 
the writer is aware they are very much heavier than those 
used for corresponding work abroad and are consequently 
more expensive. 

NECESSITY FOR DURABLE CONSTRUCTION 

Certainly no serious work of electrifying a long line 
should be undertaken without following the best precedents 
of general transmission practice in the construction of the 
supply circuits. Incidentally the increase in the factor of 
safety of the insulators means greater security against 
lightning, on the whole the most troublesome thing with 
which the transmission engineer has to contend. Closely 
allied with these matters of line construction is the matter 
of voltage on the working conductors. Where large 
amounts of energy are required for the rolling stock, 
high voltage, either direct or alternating current, is a 
necessity in order to secure proper current collection from 
overhead conductors, and this in turn requires for srnall 
collection accurate alignment of the conductor and first- 
class mechanical support. Here again steel construction 
is the obvious remedy for mechanical difficulties, and on 



recent important lines it is coming into play, although far 
less than sound forethought would indicate. The design 
of feeder lines and supports for the working conductor on 
sound engineering principles is the particular thing on 
which the success of large electric traction is going to 
turn. Such design has heretofore only been touched in 
spots, and one of the encouraging things about very recent 
work has been the greater attention paid to workmanlike 
and permanent construction. If asked to level a general 
criticism at transmission for railway purposes as commonly 
carried out, the writer would be inclined to say that the 
average railway line is built only for year after next, with 
too little regard for the matter of maintenance and for 
the secure permanence of the investment represented. 
Few conservative railway managers would be willing to 
buy power from transmission circuits no better than those 
along their own right-of-way. Within the last year or two 
these conditions have improved, which is one of the encour- 
aging things about the growth of the art. And yet, as one 
rides along beside a railway transmission line, in nine 
cases out of ten he is roused to instinctive wonder that 
it meets the necessary demands for continuous service. This 
comment is by no means intended to "knock" the designers 
of these lines, who have commonly had to cut their coats 
acccording to their cloth, but is merely meant to emphasize 
the increasing necessity for reliable and permanent types 
of construction. 



PROGRESS TOWARD GENERAL MERGER OF CHICAGO 
TRACTION INTERESTS 

The sub-committee appointed by the local transportation 
committee of the Chicago City Council, in compliance with 
instructions, has examined the books of the Chicago Ele- 
vated Railway Companies and submitted a report to the 
parent body. 

In the work of preparation of this report the subcom- 
mittee was assisted by representatives from the Corpora- 
tion Counsel's office, the comptroller's office and James 
J. Reynolds of the Harbor and Subway Commission. While 
no definite steps have been taken toward a satisfactory valu- 
ation of the elevated companies, the sub-committee ques- 
tioned certain items contained in the original figures of 
$86,086,623 presented by the representatives of the elevated 
railway companies. Among items in question are the fol- 
lowing : 

Chicago Tunction bonds $2,327,000 

Working capital J,336,09 

Brokerage (reduction urged amounting to) 1,500,000 

Value of company's lines outside city limits 3,000,000 

Oak Park income bonds, 51 per cent oo^'li 5 ? 

Oak Park accrued interest obligation, 51 per cent 283,314 

Oak Park 5 per cent notes, 51 per cent 530,400 

$10,420,964 

In making up report of progress to the general commit- 
tee, the chairman of the sub-committee said that it had 
verified the figures presented by the company, item for item, 
with slight corrections, and that, although it had found the 
figures approximately correct, the total contained certain 
items which could not be considered as the value of the prop- 
erty to the city. 

The sub-committee did consider, however, that the time 
had arrived when satisfactory settlement could be made, as 
the new proposition submitted by the elevated companies 
was approximately $11,000,000 under the valuation their 
experts presented at the time the first negotiations were dis- 
continued. Owing to the absence from the city of the rep- 
resentatives of the elevated companies, it was decided to 
postpone a general discussion of the verified valuation until 
such time as all parties interested could be present. 



Plans are under way to electrify the present mule line in 
Merida, the capital of the State of Yucatan, Mexico. 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



33 



Heavy Electric Traction on the Continent 

A Review of Recent and Proposed Heavy Electric Railway Work in Germany, Switzerland, Raly and Other Continental 

Countries 



AUSTRIA 

Among recent important electrifications of Austrian rail- 
ways are the St. Polten-Mariazell Railway (narrow-gage), 
66 miles long, described in the Electric Railway Journal 
for Aug. 3, 1912, and the Mittenwald Railway, 63 miles long, 
on which 800-hp locomotives are operated over grades of 
3.6 per cent by means of 15,000 volts single-phase current 
at 16 2/3 cycles. The Vienna-Pressburg electrification now 
under way will use 10,000-volt, 16 2/3-cycle single-phase 
current on 42 miles of right-of-way track and 600-volt 
direct current over 9 miles of terminal track. This line will 
be. furnished with 800-hp locomotives for freight service. 
By the end of 1913 at least 191 miles of track in Austria 
will be operated by means of single-phase motors. 

Independently of the foregoing undertakings, the Austrian 
State Railways have made studies covering the possible 
electrification of 613.8 miles of route. The administration 
has now reported to the Ministry of Finance that it would 
be desirable to proceed as soon as possible with the electri- 
fication of 66.34 miles between Attnang, Puchheim, Stainach 
and Irdning. The maximum grade on this section is 2.5 
per cent. The average daily load on this line is 2500 gross 
metric tons. 

FRANCE 

The largest a.c. installations in France comprise the 
Lyons single-phase suburban tramways, which have been in 
service for about four years; the first electrification of the 
Haute Vienne network of narrow-gage lines about Limoges, 
as described in the Electric Railway Journal for July 

6, 1912, and the installation of the Midi railway. In 1908 
the Midi company equipped 10 miles of track between Ville- 
franche and Perpignan with 4000-volt, 16 2/3-cycle, single- 
phase equipment. After experimenting for a couple of years 
it was decided to electrify about 175 miles of single track. 
This will consist of 70 miles of main-line track between 
Pau and Montrejean and 105 miles of intermediate branches. 
A 12,000-volt instead of 4000-volt overhead line will be used. 
In 191 1 an order was placed with the French Westinghouse 
Company for all of the line equipment and for thirty dou- 
ble-truck motor cars, each equipped with four 125-hp mo- 
tors. An order for one trial locomotive each was also 
placed with the French Westinghouse, French Thomson- 
Houston, Brown-Boveri, Schneider, Allgemeine and Jeu- 
mont companies respectively. The Allgemeine locomotive 
was described in the Electric Railway Journal for Oct. 

7, 191 1. The experimental catenary construction of the 
Midi Railway was described in the issue for July 6, 1912. 

The Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean Railway has not yet lie- 
gun any important electric operation, but has been experi- 
menting with a permutator locomotive, described in the 
Electric Railway Journal for Sept. 21, 191 1. 

The western division of the French State Railways has 
ordered for its Paris suburban lines 130 motor cars, twenty 
of which are to be equipped with two 220-hp and no with 
four 150-hp motors. The smaller cars weigh 65 tons and 
the larger cars 70 metric tons. The maximum speed for 
the suburban service for which these cars will be used will 
be 49.6 m.p.h. There has also been ordered equipment for 
two substations, each containing four 500-hp, 25-cycle, 650- 
volt rotaries, and for three other substations, each contain- 
ing three 2000-kw rotaries. About $1,000,000 worth of 
three-phase, 15,000-volt cables have also been ordered. Two 
power stations, one with about 25,000-kw and the other with 
about 50,000-kw capacity, are to be built by a private con- 
tractor who will operate these stations and sell the output 
to the railway at a special price. The power station con- 



tract will include provision for the purchase of the power 
station by the State at any time in accordance with a cer- 
tain schedule. At present the management is considering 
the purchase of eight 1000-hp to 1200-hp electric locomo- 
tives for freight service on the Versailles electric line. 
The average weight of the freight train, including the loco- 
motive, would be approximately 300 metric tons, and the 
maximum speed would be 37 m.p.h. 

GERMANY 

The Prussian State Railroads now have in hand three 
large electrification projects. The first is the Dessau-Bit- 
terfeld electrification, which will be completed in 1914 be- 
tween Magdeburg, Leipzig and Halle. This installation was 
described at length in the issues of May 27, Nov. 4, Nov. 
11, Nov. 25, Dec. 2, 191 1, and March 2, April 20 and May 4, 
1912. The second electrification project is the Lauban- 
Konigszelt line, of which a map and electrification costs 
were published in the issue of July 6, 1912. The third is 
the Berlin Stadtbahn, the electrification of which is still in 
abeyance. The Lauban-Konigszelt lines are in a mountain- 
ous country where the ruling grade is 2^2 per cent. The 
trackage consists of the following divisions: Lauban- 
Konigszelt, 80 miles of double-track main line; Niedersalz- 
brunn-Halbstadt, 21.7 miles single-track main line; Ruh- 
bank-Liebau, 2.7 miles of double-track and 6.8 miles of sin- 
gle-track main line; Hirschberg-Grunthal, 33 miles single- 
track branch ; Hirschberg-Landeshut, 24.8 miles single- 
track branch. This district is of a mining and industrial 
character, and the greater part of the business is freight 
haulage. There is, however, a heavy summer passenger 
business on the Niedersalzbrunn-Halbstadt division, which 
serves a number of mountain pleasure resorts. The latter 
line is therefore being furnished with five three-car trains, 
comprising a central motor car and two "control" trailers. 
The motor truck will carry two motors meshing with a 
common gear and driving the wheels with the aid of con- 
necting rods. The joint output of the motors on the hour 
basis will be 500 hp and on a continuous rating 300 hp. The 
cars will be operated at a maximum speed of 37.2 m.p.h. 

A total of seventy-two locomotives, of which forty-four 
have already been ordered, are to be used on the various 
lines named. The initial order has been distributed as fol- 
lows : Siemens-Schuckert Company, twenty freight locomo- 
tives, type B + B + B, namely, locomotives with three pairs 
of driving wheels on separate trucks ; Bergmann Company, 
fourteen passenger and express locomotives, type 1-D-1, 
namely, trailing axle, four driving axles and one leading- 
axle; Brown-Boveri, ten locomotives, type C-f-C, namely, 
two trucks each carrying three pairs of driving wheels. 
The C + C locomotives will be of the same capacity as the 
B + B + B type. The contract for the motor cars went to 
the Allgemeine company. The twenty Siemens-Schuckert 
freight locomotives will have a maximum tractive effort of 
36,300 lb. and a constant tractive effort of 16,500 lb. at the 
circumference of the wheels. These locomotives will handle 
trains up to 1200 metric tons, including 1000-ton trains on 1 
per cent grades. They are so arranged that the central 
compartments can be used for baggage. The Siemens- 
Schuckert Company has also built for this line a combina- 
tion passenger and freight locomotive of the 1-D-1 type, 
which is capable of handling 1200-ton freight trains at 21.3 
m.p.h. The initial tractive effort of this locomotive is 39,600 
lb. and the tractive effort for one hour 18,040 lb. The two 
motors are rated at 850 hp each. The weight per driving 
axle is 17 tons, the diameter of the driving wheels is about 
45 in. and that of the pony wheels is 33 in. The drive is 



34 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



by means of a jackshaft and connecting rods. The super- 
structure of this locomotive is fully inclosed at the ends to 
form the cabs. The transformers are open to the air, 
while the motors are carried in sheet-iron cases which are 
also in the open. It is expected that the first section of this 
installation, namely Konigszelt-Dittersbach, will be in oper- 
ation in the fall of 1913, and that the complete network will 
be in service in 1915. Energy will be taken from the high- 
tension busbars of a private company at the rate of 0.69 
cents per kw-hr. 

The electrification of the Berlin Stadtbahn, covering 
about 248 miles of double track, including outlying lines, 
has been approved by the Prussian State Railroads, but at 
this writing the funds for the work have not been granted 
by the Prussian Chamber of Deputies. 

The Prussian State Railroads now have on order with 
the Siemens-Schuckert Company thirteen additional ac- 
cumulator cars. The most interesting feature of the new 
cars is that the battery equipments are large enough to give 
a car an operating radius of 112 miles. 

In addition to the electrification work of the Prussian 
State Railways, the Bavarian State Railways are electri- 
fying at 15,000 volts, 16^3 cycles, a 25-mile section 
which extends between Salzburg, Freilassung and Berchtes- 
gaden and an 18.6-mile section between Landesgrenze, 
Griesen, Partenkirchen and Landesgrenze. The Baden 
State Railways have already commenced trial runs on the 
Wiesental 30-mile railway for which the Siemens-Schuckert 
Company has furnished ten and the Brown-Boveri Company 
two type 1-C-1 combined passenger and freight locomotives. 
Nine of the Siemens-Schuckert locomotives carry two 
625-hp motors each. 

ITALY 

Since the original three-phase electrification of the 67- 
mile Valtellina line in 1902 (see Street Railway Journal 
for May 30, 1903), the same system has been applied among 
other lines to the Busalla-Pontedecimo division of the 
Genoa-Milan line, a distance of 13 miles measured as single- 
track, and the Savona-San Giuseppe division of the Savona- 
Turin line. The Italian Westinghouse Company, as noted 
in the Electric Railway Journal for April 8, 191 1, fur- 
nished the locomotives for both of these lines. Another 
important three-phase electrification now under way is that 
of the Mont Cenis tunnel. The Italian State Railways are 
also considering the electrification of the Turin-Pinerolo 
line, a distance of 18.6 miles, with single-phase current. 

SWEDEN 

Since its experiments in 1905-1907 on the Tomteboda- 
Vartan and Stockholm-Jarfva lines, the administration of 
the Swedish State Railways has adopted high-tension, sin- 
gle-phase distribution at fifteen cycles. Its first large in- 
stallation is the Kiruna-Riksgransen division, an ore-carry- 
ing railway which is the northernmost line in the world. 
The distance between the towns named is about 80 miles, 
but it is proposed to continue the electrification to the sea- 
port of Lulea, making the total length about 300 miles. The 
present equipment consists of thirteen Siemens-Schuckert 
freight locomotives, each equipped with two 1220-hp motors, 
weighing 99 metric tons complete and having a maximum 
speed of 37.2 m.p.h. ; two additional freight locomotives of 
exactly the same design, but constructed by the Allmanna 
Svenska Electriska Aktiebolaget, Vesteras, Sweden, and two 
70-ton passenger locomotives of Siemens-Schuckert manu- 
facture, each equipped with one 1220-hp motor and operated 
at a maximum speed of 62 m.p.h. A preliminary description 
of this electrification was published in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for May 6, 191 1. 

The Swedish State Railways are also building an entirely 
new trunk line called the Inlansbanan (Inland Railway) 
from Gellivare on the Riksgransen-Lulea line southwest to 
Gothenburg, a distance of about 1000 miles. The initial 
section of 68.2 miles between Ostersund and Sund is now 
completed, but is being operated by steam. This line is 



being constructed with the deliberate intention of opening 
up virgin territory for settlement, and it is proposed to 
electrify it as fast as the abundant water powers in this 
territory are developed. 

SWITZERLAND 

The Electric Railway Journal for July 29, 191 1, and 
Oct. 7, 191 1, contained detailed particulars of the first or 
trial equipment for the Loetschberg tunnel single-phase 
line, to be a part of the Simplon line between Switzerland 
and Italy. 

The additional equipment ordered for the operation of 
the complete line early in the summer of 1912 consists of' 
thirteen 2500-hp locomotives, the largest in Europe. All 
of these are of Oerlikon design, but six are being equipped 
by the Brown-Boveri Company. These locomotives weigh 
105 metric tons each and are 52 ft. 6 in. long. The locomo- 
tive is of the 1-E-1 type; that is to say, there are five inter- 
mediate driving axles and one pony axle at each end. The 
central driving axle and those adjacent to the pony axles are 
arranged to have a little side play, but the remaining two 
driving axles are rigidly mounted. Each locomotive carries 
two 1250-hp compensated series motors with separate trans- 
former and other unit equipment to permit each machine 
to be operated independently if necessary. The motors are 
designed to give their maximum output for one and one- 
half hours without dangerous heating. The normal speed 
of the locomotives is 31 m.p.h. and the maximum speed 46.5 
m.p.h. The drive is through a combination of single re- 
duction gearing, countershaft, crank pin and connecting 
rods following the original Oerlikon locomotive for this 
line. This drive was chosen largely because of its superior- 
ity in starting. Speed regulation is obtained through steps 
on the transformer secondaries, and a motor-operated con- 
troller is used instead of contactors. The normal drawbar 
pull of 22,040 lb. was fixed by State regulations covering 
Swiss railway equipment. 

The next large electrification will probably be the Chiasso- 
Lucerne division of the St. Gotthard line, a distance of 93 
miles. The hydroelectric rights for this purpose have al- 
ready been obtained. An early decision is expected because 
a large amount of the steam equipment on this road will 
soon require replacement. In the event of electrification 
any steam equipment which was still in serviceable condi- 
tion would be turned over to branch lines. The Swiss Study 
Commission estimates that the total cost of the St. Gotthard 
electrification would be approximately $13,500,000, divided 
as follows: Hydroelectric stations and transmission, $5,800,- 
000 ; rolling stock and shops, $4,400,000 ; overhead system, 
$1,900,000, and annual cost of maintenance, $1,400,000. The 
estimated maintenance charge is much less than with steam. 
It is further estimated that the operating cost with electric 
traction will be 0.7 centime per ton-km (about 0.224 cent per 
ton-mile), whereas in 1908 the cost with steam traction was 
0.94 centime per ton-km (about 0.3 cent per ton-mile). The 
commission estimates that a total output of 500,000 hydro- 
electric hp would be required if all Swiss railways were elec- 
trified. The two plants for the St. Gotthard project alone 
would total 95,000 hp. Ample water power is available for 
complete electrification. 

The Rhaetian Railway, which is a 10,000-volt, iC^- 
cycle, single-phase, narrow-gage line, comprising in all 38.5 
miles of single track, has recently ordered two 52-ton loco- 
motives from the Oerlikon Company, each carrying two 
620-r.p.m. motors which are geared to the same shaft and 
develop 600 hp at the wheels for one hour when the loco- 
motive is operated at 17.3 m.p.h. The maximum locomotive 
speed, however, is 31 m.p.h. Each locomotive is about 35 
ft. 6 in. long over all and is of the 1-D-1 type, the four 
driving axles being so arranged that those next the pony 
axles have a little side play. Details of the original loco- 
motive orders for this line were published in the Electric 
Railway Journal for March 4, 191 1, in an article entitled 
"Single-Phase Railways Abroad." 



January 4, 1913.] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 35 

Gas Rate Decision in New Jersey 

The New Jersey Public Utilities Commission Issues Important Decision on Rates Charged by Public Service Gas Company, 
Reduces Valuation of Intangible Property and Says Price Fixed Will Permit Return of Approximately 
8 per Cent on Value of Property as Found by the Board 



The Board of Public Utility Commissioners of New Jer- 
sey handed down a decision last week involving the rates 
charged by the Public Service Gas Company in the Passaic 
district. As this decision considered the valuations to be 
allowed for good will, going value and franchises, the con- 
sideration to be allowed for the amount of securities issued 
by the original public utility companies in the district which 
were merged to form the Public Service Gas Company, and 
the rate of return to be allowed on the valuation as found 
by the board, the decision is of special interest, although it 
does not affect the railway properties. The company has 
not yet announced what it intends to do in the matter. A 
summary of the decision follows: 

THE DECISION 

The board determines the existing rate of $1.10 per 1000 
cu. ft. of gas with a discount of 10 cents per 1000 cu. ft. 
for prompt payment to be unjust and unreasonable. It fixes 
in place of the rate of $1.10 per 1000 cu. ft., with a discount 
of 10 cents per 1000 cu. ft. for prompt payment, a charge of 
90 cents per 1000 cu. ft., as just and reasonable, and re- 
quires the company to put such charge into effect in the 
"Passaic Division" on and after Feb. 1, 1913. It also rec- 
ommends that the company set the same reduced rate 
throughout all of the other divisions of the State where now 
it is exacting the rate of $1 net per 1000 cu. ft. It makes 
this recommendation as to territory not embraced in the 
"Passaic Division" because under the statute it can only 
issue an order fixing rates "after hearing, upon notice." 
It is also recommended that the schedule for quantitative 
discounts be readjusted in accordance with the proposed 
rate. 

REJECTS COMPANY'S PROPOSITION 

At the outset of the proceeding initiated by the board the 
Public Service Gas Company and Public Service Elec- 
tric Company submitted a proposition to the board.. This 
proposition contemplated in the case of the gas company 
the putting into operation of a uniform flat rate of $1 as 
of Jan. 1, 1912, and on Jan. 1, 1914, the reduction of this 
rate to 95 cents and on Jan. 1, 1916, the further reduction 
to 90 cents. It further contemplated in the case of the 
electric company as of Jan. 1, 1912, the adoption of the 
same schedule of discounts from the base rates put into 
effect in New York by the Edison company. The proposi- 
tion was submitted as an entirety with regard to the two 
properties — gas and electric. The board did not act upon 
the proposition because it tied up two rates, one for gas 
and the other for electricity, having no relation, and because 
to accede to it meant the fixing, without investigation, of 
rates for a period of five years. 

VALUE OF PROPERTY 

The board finds the value of the tangible property of the 
company in the "Passaic Division," as of Oct. 1, 191 1, to be: 



Land $111,160 

Manufacturing plant 1,161.550 

Distributing system 2,465.270 

Working capital 250,000 



$3,987,980 

Less sum required to adjust figures to July 1, 1911 62,000 



$3,925,980 

Less depreciation 200,980 



$3,725,000 

For these items a value of $5,818,940 was claimed by 
the company. 

The board allows for organization, franchises, cost of 
establishing business, etc., $1,025,000. The company claimed 



allowance for these items amounting in all to $3,090,551. 

The total value as found by the board is $4,750,000. The 
total value as claimed by the company was $8,909,491. 

NO ALLOWANCE FOR "GOOD WILL" 

As to "good will" the board says: "For good will we 
allow nothing whatever. The company, we understand, 
makes no claim for good will. It seems well settled also 
that where a particular service is furnished by only one 
company within a given area, the option of patronizing a 
rival public concern is absent and that under such circum- 
stances good will, or the value of voluntary patronage 
where a competing service is available, does not exist." 

"GOING CONCERN" VALUE ALLOWED 

With respect to "going concern" value the decision says 
that however the various conceptions of going concern 
value may fail of precise coincidence, they all have a com- 
mon core. This is the value a utility property has, or may 
have, over and above the value of its tangible belongings. 
In this connection the board puts two questions. First, 
can a public utility have any excess in value over and above 
the value of its tangible belongings? This, moreover, pre- 
supposes that the excess value, if any, is wholly distinct 
from any capitalized earning power predicated on a future 
setting of rates higher than required to afford a just return. 
To this question the board answers there is such a thing 
as "going concern value" and continues: "A plant with a 
business attached has a value greater than the value of the 
mere plant without the business attached," and concludes : 
"The going concern value will then be largely represented 
by the cost of developing the business as distinct from the 
cost of securing the physical structure." 

Next, the board puts the question : "In case it transpires 
that such excess value, known as 'going concern value,' 
exists, and in case the costs involved in the acquisition of 
such value have been met out of rates exacted from con- 
sumers, should such excess value, known as 'going concern 
value," enter into the base upon which public utilities are 
entitled to earn a fair return?" 

This question, too, the board answers in the affirmative 
so far as it does not appear that the rates exacted from 
consumers were legally challenged and says: "We see no 
escape from the necessity of recognizing the intangible 
property designated as 'going concern value' as well as 
actual physical structures similarly obtained as constituting 
part of the present lawful possessions of a public utility, 
even though both these tangible and intangible values were 
built up in the past out of rates exacted from consumers, 
it being always assumed that the rates exacted were not 
legally assailed or assailable . . . The business thus 
acquired must be regarded as a legitimate part of the prop- 
erty of the company. We cannot equitably project back 
into the unregulated past a form of prices that might to- 
day be regarded as fair and adequate and assume that ac- 
tual rates exacted in the past, in so far as they exceed what 
are now deemed fair, have not lawfully become the property 
of the company. If these high rates in the past have been 
employed by the company to acquire intangible property in 
the shape of extensive patronage, that expectation of pat- 
ronage in theirs, and on its fair value the company is en- 
titled to a return. It may or may not be a subject of 
regret that regulation was so long deferred, but deferred 
regulation is no excuse for refusing at present to allow a 
fair return upon what is the lawful property of the com- 
pany." 



36 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



company's contention as to value of franchises denied 
The company claimed allowance of $1,392,235 as the value 
of its franchises. This claim the board denied. The board 
finds the value of all intangible property of the company, 
including franchises, to be $1,025,000, and says: 

"It is the public policy of the State of New Jersey at 
present not to allow the capitalization of franchises for an 
amount in excess of the actual cost involved in obtaining 
said franchises. That this is a wise and equitable policy 
we think is incontestable. One of the characteristic fea- 
tures of a public utility such as a gas company is that it 
does not possess and ordinarily cannot afford to purchase 
the land requisite for the location of its distributing ap- 
paratus. When by its secondary franchises such permits to 
locate are granted to a company without other expense than 
the necessary business and legal costs of securing municipal 
consents, it seems unthinkable, as a matter of equity and 
public policy, that the easements gratuitously granted should 
be made the basis for an additional charge to be imposed 
upon the grantor." The board further says: "It is quite 
obvious that our finding as to the total amount of intangible 
property ($1,025,000) is tantamount to including the fran- 
chises of the company at a moderate rating — at a value 
comparable with the cost of obtaining these or similar fran- 
chises. It amounts therefore to a practical denial of the 
company's contention as to the value of its franchises. The 
figures claimed for the franchises by 
the company ... of $1,392,235 considerably ex- 
ceed our appraisal of the company's entire intangible 
property." 

SECURITIES ISSUED IN MERGER NOT PROPER BASIS FOR RATES 

The company contended before the board that the par 
value of securities originating in the merger of six different 
gas and electric concerns in the district concerned in 1899 
determine an amount below which the board's aggregate 
valuation could not fall. This contention is expressly de- 
nied by the board. Dealing with this contention the board 
points out that in the consolidation of the six gas and elec- 
tric companies creating the Paterson & Passaic Gas & Elec- 
tric Company in 1899, the capitalization of the latter com- 
pany was fixed at $5,000,000 in stock and a like amount in 
bonds. Of this amount approximately all of the stock and 
$4,100,000 of the bonds were used in effecting the consoli- 
dation. The board finds that the capitalization resulting 
from the consolidation was in excess of the real assets. 

In confirmation of this conclusion it says that it appears 
that, over and above $2,224,100 issued to the United Gas 
Improvement Company for "sundry claims and franchises," 
the excess of par value of stocks and bonds issued over 
the par value of stock and bonds received was $3,893,691, 
and while it points out that no evidence of the value of the 
"sundry claims and franchises" of the company was pro- 
duced, yet that "as the company under the arrangement re- 
ceived in bonds $764,000 it may perhaps be surmised that 
not all of the $1,460,100 in stock received by that company 
was represented by its extant property of an equivalent 
value. If this stock was all bonus, and if the excess in 
securities received by the six merging companies was simi- 
larly bonus, it would seem that the consolidation involved 
a total of $5,353,791 in securities based on anticipation 
rather than of solid assets, and of the capitalization here 
involved it is agreed that approximately two-thirds is ap- 
plicable to the gas properties." 

In further confirmation the board points to the terms of 
the lease of 1903 of the property of the Paterson & Passaic 
Gas & Electric Company to the Public Service Corporation. 
This lease provided for payment as rental of interest on 
the bonded debt and of an amount equivalent to dividends 
on the stock of the Paterson & Passaic Gas & Electric Com- 
pany for the first year of \V 2 per cent, for the second of 2 
per cent and for each subsequent year of an additional one- 
half of 1 per cent, until eventually 5 per cent was reached. 

In this connection the board puts the question: "If, at the 



time of the lease, the property taken over by the Public 
Service Corporation in excess of the bonded indebtedness 
was represented by assets of value equivalent to the stock 
created by the consolidation, why was so low a return ac- 
cepted by the constituent companies, or how was the Public 
Service Corporation able to induce the lessors to accept 
so meager a return as rental upon the stock of the newly 
created company?" It makes like comment upon the later 
lease of the Ridgewood company to the Public Service Gas 
Company, which, while guaranteeing 5 per cent on the 
bonds, guaranteed only 2 per cent on the stock. 

The decision states the claim of the company to be that 
whatever the precise amount of water that was injected 
into securities resulting from the consolidation, yet that 
since the securities were issued under due form of law, are 
widely scattered "and people have paid for them in honest 
money," the board, while it should not allow any rate like 
10 per cent thereon, should "stamp 5 per cent on the bonds 
and 5 per cent on the stock" and treat the money behind 
that (i. e., cash subsequently invested in the property) as 
"genuine money." 

To this claim the board, adopting the language of Smyth 
vs. Ames, 169 U. S. 466, answers that if a utility corpora- 
tion has bonded its property for an amount which exceeds 
its fair value, or if its capitalization is largely fictitious, it 
may not impose upon the public the burden of such increased 
rates as may be required for the purpose of realizing profits 
upon such excessive valuation or fictitious capitalization. 

The board states its conclusion "that both at common 
law and now in this State by statute a public utility assumes 
the responsibilities of furnishing safe, proper and adequate 
service at reasonable rates and that it undertakes its busi- 
ness with explicit knowledge of the State's right and power 
to set reasonable rates, that any capitalization it effects is 
effected subject to the State's reserved power in the prem- 
ises and that it cannot plead its capitalization nor any con- 
tracts it may have undertaken as barring the State's exercise 
of its power as to rates. When, moreover, the capitaliza- 
tion, albeit legal, is demonstrably in excess of the value of 
its assets at the time of capitalization, the public utility can- 
not cite its unchallenged capitalization as a bar to the 
State's exercise of inherent prerogative." 

RATE OF RETURN 

As to the rate of return, the board states that it does not 
wish to go on record as favoring any particular rate of 
return applicable to all cases. It declares, however, that the 
return must be sufficient to attract the large amount of 
capital required each year in making the additions and ex- 
tensions to plant and distribution system which the growth 
in communities demands. The price fixed, 90 cents per 
1000 cu. ft., will afford a return of approximately 8 per 
cent on the value of the property as found by the board. 

GENERAL EFFICIENCY GOOD 

The board finds that the general efficiency of the company 
is at least as good as, and probably better than, the average 
of the companies with which comparisons have been made. 

CHRONOLOGY 

The case was called to the attention of the board on 
June 9 through a complaint by Mayor Andrew F. McBride, 
of Paterson, relating- to gas, electric, water, trolley and 
railroad commutation rates. After a separation of the com- 
plaint was required by the board it issued on July 25 a 
call for a hearing "as to whether the existing schedule of 
rates of Public Service Gas Company for gas is just and 
reasonable." Later a petition was received from the 
city of Passaic for inquiry as to the reasonableness of the 
gas rates charged in that city. 

After the company had submitted its proposition engi- 
neers were engaged by the board to make inventory and 
appraisal of the property in the Passaic division and the 
taking of testimony was begun. Arguments on the case 
were heard on Oct. 11-12 and the transcript of the testi- 
mony taken contained 2541 pages, not including exhibits. 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



37 



Counsel for the company were Thomas N. McCarter, 
Frank Bergen, L. D. H. Gilmour and E. A. Armstrong. 
The accountant employed by board was Marvyn Scud- 
der, and Prof. Edward VV. Bemis represented the cities as 
expert adviser. 



ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR STREET RAILWAY SERVICE 
DISCUSSED IN NEW ENGLAND 

The regular monthly meeting of the New England Street 
Railway Club was held at Boston on Dec. 18, with President 
Lees in the chair. The evening was devoted to an illus- 
trated address upon "The Electric Vehicle," by Day Baker, 
New England manager of the General Vehicle Company. 
Touching upon phases of the subject of general interest to 
electric railway operators, Mr. Baker stated that practically 
all the electric commercial vehicles of to-day are built upon 
the same general lines, with a low-hung battery, single 
series-wound motor, simple chain drive and steering gear. 
The power application is by a simple controller with large- 
sized copper contacts. From 60 volts to 85 volts is used 
on the motors. 

SPECIAL USES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES ON STREET RAILWAYS 

The Philadelphia Electric Company operates a large fleet 
of electric vehicles, including a pole-setting wagon manned 
by two attendants. The wagon is equipped with a derrick 
at its back, and a small winch under the driver's seat hauls 
the pole to the proper height and drops it into the hole 
with great ease. The output of the machine is highly satis- 
factory. In Boston the Edison Electric Illuminating Com- 
pany has a large fleet of electric machines. One wagon of 
this type is used in pumping out manholes, and two men 
with this outfit do the work which formerly required eight 
men, and it is performed in one-half the time. In Boston 
conduits are filled with cable by an electrically driven winch 
located under the driver's seat on the vehicle. The same 
machine that hauls the wire through the conduits can be 
used in setting poles. The Rio Janeiro Tramways Com- 
pany, Ltd., utilizes twelve electric trucks in its service, in- 
cluding six battery-operated tower wagons and machines 
for hauling wire and doing general heavy work about the 
city. 

. The tower wagon is of the Trenton type, and the body 
and tower are mounted on a 2-ton chassis, which will 
carry six men in addition to the driver, with a large assort- 
ment of tools. The New York Railways Company now has 
three electrically driven emergency wagons used for clear- 
ing the streets, for hauling cars around difficult corners and 
for general heavy service. During the snowy season cars 
frequently become stalled at a difficult corner at Madison 
Avenue and Forty-Second Street, on account of the con- 
gestion of vehicles. One of these emergency wagons, rated 
as a 2-ton machine, will pull a horse-drawn vehicle off the 
track or pull a car around a corner with ease. The Third 
Avenue Railway Company is also using electric trucks suc- 
cessfully, three emergency outfits being in service at present. 
A 5-ton electric winch equipment is a recent addition, and 
a number of large trucks and smaller wagons are in use, 
notably in hauling cable, reels and other supplies. Electric 
machines are in use at Washington and Milwaukee in con- 
nection with overhead-line construction, and recent pur- 
chasers are the Lehigh Valley Transit Company and the 
Public Service Railway of New Jersey. 

CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE 

Mr. Baker specially emphasized the point that within its 
field the electric truck and delivery wagon is a highly eco- 
nomical transportation agency and pointed out that the cost 
of supplying it with electrical energy from a street railway 
plant is trifling, since the charging of batteries can be most 
effectually done during the small hours of the night when 
a large portion of the plant capacity would otherwise stand 
idle. Boosting charges can be given from the trolley system 



when desirable during the standing of the equipment on 
the roadside, and in this way the question of mileage per 
battery charge becomes comparatively unimportant. High 
speed is undesirable in the operation of motor vehicles 
through congested sections, and the speeds for which such 
machines are now designed are ample for practically all 
purposes. 

The speaker also emphasized the advantages of an electric 
motor bus service in territory where the density of traffic 
is too light to warrant the installation of track and over- 
head line construction, and he showed views of motor-driven 
battery trucks for use inside shops. The electric crane 
truck is a recent development of value in connection with 
the unloading of freight cars and the handling of material 
around railroad yards. A small size of this type of equip- 
ment is built to operate inside a car as well as outside and 
is of great value in handling express matter. Electric 
runabouts are now available for street railway officers which 
will travel 100 miles at five hours upon one charge of a 
battery, and in the near future a guarantee of 150 miles in 
seven hours is anticipated. The true economic field of the 
gasoline machine is where it can have an uninterrupted run 
of at least 10 miles, whereas the electric truck or com- 
mercial wagon shows its greatest economy on short runs 
with many stops, the absence of transmission gears and 
cranking being important features. 

Responding to inquiries, Mr. Baker pointed out that the 
fire risk has been reduced almost to negligible terms in 
electric trucks by the use of conduit wiring and the provision 
of a safety switch by means of which the driver of the 
vehicle cannot stop in the street and apply his brakes with- 
out cutting off the current. The mileage obtainable with a 
battery-driven Trenton wagon depends upon the number and 
size of the cells used, as well as upon the speed, but in 
general, running the wagon at 12 m.p.h., about 40 or 45 
miles can be secured per charge of the battery. It is seldom 
that a Trenton tower wagon has to travel a distance that 
will use up such a mileage. The average run of the emer- 
gency wagon of the Third Avenue Railway is 4 miles. Good 
results in electric vehicle service are being obtained with 
Motz tires and also with the Palmer-Webb tire. Most com- 
mercial machines are equipped with solid tires. A 3-cent 
rate per kw-hr. on central-station service compares with 
gasoline at 7.8 cents per gallon. Notable improvements have 
been made in the storage battery within the last few years, 
and the life records now being indicated are much "better 
than was possible until within two or three years With 
the newer forms of plates there is no reasonable objection 
to the practice of boosting batteries. Charging at a low 
rate is preferable. 

Frank J. Stone, Electric Storage Battery Company, Bos- 
ton, brought out the point that in charging the Ironclad 
Exide cell recent tests show that as high a current input as 
possible without producing gassing may safely be utilized. 
By keeping just below the gassing point and consequently 
running the charge at a reduced temperature, very efficient 
charging is accomplished. In charging a flat-plate battery 
and getting to the gassing point, the gas which comes off the 
plate has a tendency to disrupt or disconnect the small atoms 
of oxide, which fall to the bottom of the jar as the gassing 
proceeds. The tube and cell construction of the ironclad 
type of battery enables the gas to be disposed of from the 
cells without disturbing the active material, giving about 
three times the life of the old flat form of plate. 

The cost of freight car maintenance on the steam rail- 
ways of the United States was reported at the November 
meeting of the American Railway Association to have been 
24.75 cents per car per day during the year of 191 1. This 
was divided between repairs, replacements and taxes, re- 
pairs costing 16.87 cents, replacements, including the 
charges which were made to renewals and depreciation, 
6.78 cents, and taxes 1.10 cents. 



38 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



INDIANAPOLIS TRACTION & TERMINAL COMPANY'S 
EXPERIENCE WITH OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING 



The employment of the oxy-acetylene process of welding 
and cutting of metals in electric railway shops is compara- 
tively recent. Its practicability in this new field, however, 
has been clearly demonstrated by the results secured by the 
Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company's mechanical 
department. L. M. Clark, master mechanic, who made the 
initial installation of this type of welding apparatus, has 
obtained exceedingly satisfactory results with it in his shops, 
and new work is being found for the equipment almost 
daily. One man is now kept at work with the welding outfit 
continually, and it is expected that a second equipment will 
be purchased in the near future so that two operators may 
be employed to take care of the large amount of work which 
may be handled by this means. 

The original installation was made about two years ago 
and comprised an "Oxweld" ioo-lb. duplex acetylene gen- 
erator, a number of oxygen and acetylene cylinders for 
portable work, the necessary regulators, blowpipes, welding 




Oxy-Acetylene Welding — Motor Frame Worn Through by 
Suspension Bar Between Lugs 



head and welding material furnished by the Ox-Weld 
Acetylene Company of Chicago. In looking around for a 
man to operate the plant a car repairman of average intel- 
ligence was selected. After receiving instructions from one 
of the manufacturer's experts, which extended over a period 
of about ten days, it was decided that the company's man 
could go ahead on his own responsibility. 

EARLY EXPERIMENTS 

At first Mr. Clark gave considerable personal attention to 
the plant in order to determine its adaptability to the re- 
quirements encountered in his own shop practice, and al- 
though he had familiarized himself with the various classes 
of work which were usually handled by this process before 
purchasing the plant, he soon discovered that numerous 
other savings were possible. The convenience of being able 
to repair in a short time truck frames and motor frames 
which under ordinary conditions would have gone to the 
scrap heap resulted not only in a great saving of money, 
but also in the saving of time required to replace parts which 
were not regularly carried in stock. This offered an attrac- 
tive field for experiments, and during the first few months 
attention was directed to the reclamation of different pieces 
of apparatus in order to determine the saving over the cost 
of new duplicate parts as well as the possible saving in time 
during which cars were held out of service. 

After about six months of experience with the original 



equipment the operator became proficient and there seemed 
to be no limit to the variety or quality of work that could be 
done. The money and time saved by reclaiming large 
pieces of equipment caused attention to be turned to smaller 
parts in order to determine whether the same proportionate 
saving could be made, and in some cases similar results were 
obtained with the smaller castings. Other cases showed 
that, even though the repair was made at a loss when the 
cost of a new part was considered, the time required for 
holding equipment out of service for repairs was reduced 
more than enough to offset the additional expense. A re- 
cent experiment has demonstrated that it is economical to 
weld or build up pieces even as small as resistance grids; 

That successful operation of the oxy-acetylene plant does 
not require an expert is evident from the fact that not a 
single weld made at the Indianapolis shops has failed, even 
though the operator was under instruction for only ten days. 
As a matter of fact, it is reported that anyone having a 
practical knowledge of the handling of heated metals will 
become proficient in a short time. Trouble may, however, 
result from a failure to allow a proper amount for expansion 
and contraction, but as this information can be furnished to 




Oxy-Acetylene Welding — Motor Frame with Hole Between 
Lugs Built Up with New Metal 



an operator in tabular form for different kinds of metal the 
element of individual judgment in this matter may be largely 
eliminated. Practically all the metals found in electric rail- 
way equipment may be welded, built up or cut off, the oxy- 
acetylene flame being especially adaptable to the latter. 

The cutting of metal can be handled very quickly by the 
process at a very low cost, and the small working space re- 
quired makes it particularly advantageous in places where a 
hack saw could not be used. For example, Mr. Clark recently 
found it necessary to trim off portions of the platform knees 
on certain cars in order to provide proper wheel clearance. 
Under ordinary conditions it would have been necessary to 
remove the platform knees from the car, but with the plant 
available the work was done with the platform knees in 
place, thus avoiding a considerable item of expense on this 
score alone. 

SAVINGS EFFECTED 

Before the economies possible with this plant had become 
evident it was decided to keep a close check record on 
the work which was done, in order to give an accurate idea 
as to the monthly and annual savings. A form of report 
for this purpose was drafted early in 1912. From April 1 
to Oct. 1 of that year the total net saving was $3,200. This 
amount represents the difference between the actual cost of 
welding and the cost of replacing the repaired part with a 
new one. Tt was impossible to estimate the value of the 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



39 



time which might have been lost by a cir awaiting the ship- 
ment of a part for renewal, but there can be no doubt that 
this would have materially increased the net saving. In fact, 
in many instances the equipment was of an old type and it 
was practically impossible to purchase repair parts for it. 

The two accompanying illustrations showing a motor 
frame before and after welding are representative of a lot 
of five lower half-frames shipped to the Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Company by the Fort Wayne & Northern 
Indiana Traction Company for repair. It will be noted that 
the body portion of the frame has become worn through by 
contact with the suspension bar used in connection with this 
type of motor. This wear was the result of elongation in 
the bolt holes in the suspension lugs of the frames. In addi- 
tion to building up the worn portion of the motor frame, the 
holes in the suspension lugs were filled with new metal and 



new holes were drilled 


at the proper ! 


locations and 


at the 


Indianapolis Traction & Terminal 


Company — Material 


Used and Cost 


of Typical Jobs at 


West 


Washington 


Street Shops. 














Cost of 














Duplicate 


Amount of Material 


Time, 


Cost of 




Net 


Name of Part Oxy. 


Acet. 


Filler 


Hon rs 


Welding 


Part 




Motor axlecap 5 


3 


i 


1 


$0.48 


$5 39 


$491 


Armature housing .... 5 


3 


i 


1 


0^48 


7 OA 


7 Af. 


End bearing for mixer. 190 


104 


5 


10 


9.44 






Cutting anti-climber.. . . 30 


18 




2 


1.43 






1 bumper iron 70 


42 


i 

1 72 


3 


3.02 






1 journal box, 5 x 90. 90 


54 


2 


5 


4.40 


5 00 


U.Ol> 


1 brake valve body. ... 10 




y 2 


1 


0.67 


4 12 


3 45 


1 scissors 5 


3 


72 


1 


0.52 






6 motor axle caps 30 


18 


I 


3 


1.75 


32 34 




1 motor frame 340 


204 


51 

72 


20 


15.92 






1 magnet frame . . 20 


12 


2 


1.23 






1 .v^ x 7 journal box 50 


30 


1 


3 


2.58 


3.55 


0.97 


Peck, truck side frame. 170 


102 


2 


12 


8 40 


47.50 


39.10 


Peck truck frame 150 


90 


1 V, 

72 


10 


7.25 


47.50 


40.25 


6 motor axle caps 30 


18 


1 


3 


1.75 


32.34 


30.59 


5 Lorain compressor 














shells 100 


60 


2 


7 


5.26 






1 5x9 journal box.... 40 


24 


1 


2 


1.95 


'5.66 


V.05 




12 


Brass 


1 


1.04 








21 


1 


3 


1.91 


2o!95 


25!04 


1 Peck, truck side frame. 190 


114 




10 


8.56 


47.50 


38.94 


Cam for stoker engine.. 45 


27 


s 


2 


2.43 






1 armature shaft 280 


178 


3 


11 


11.73 






1 truss rod anchor.... 15 


9 


1 


1 


0.79 








9 




1 


0.72 






Standard truck frame.. 220 


132 


"354 


11 


9.82 








3 




1 


0.52 


V.56 


1.98 


Annealing wheels .... 30 


18 




2 


2.42 






Steam trap 20 


12 


i 


1 


1.02 








24 




3 


2.25 






Side frame on truck... 215 


129 


2V2 


12 


9.84 


47.50 


37.66 


Cut hole in boiler 30 


18 




4 


2.20 






3 coal elevator cams... 140 


84 




5 


6.37 








9 




0.72 






Peck, truck side frame. 175 


105 


"2 


'4 


6.56 


4>".s6 


40.9-4 


Westinghouse top motor 
















240 


4 


20 


17.16 


77.76 


60.60 


I beams cut-off 50 


30 




2 


2.00 






Westinghouse pinion 
















60 


414 


7 


S.25 


6.24 


0.99 


Peckham truck frame. 250 


150 


4 


15 


11.39 


44.25 


32.86 


Peckham truck frame.. 50 


30 


Y% 


5 


2.72 


47.50 


44.78 


Anti-climber castings cut 50 


30 




2 


2.00 






West'g pinion axle cap 100 


60 


"2 


10 


5.74 


6.24 


0.50 


West'g top motor frame. 400 


240 


7 


20 


17.36 


84.24 


66.88 


West'g pinion axle cap. 150 


90 


3 


10 


7.10 


10.05 


2.95 


Peckham truck frame. 150 


90 


3 


15 


8.23 


44.25 


36.02 


Lorain bottom motor 














frame 100 


60 


2 


3 


3.91 


61.56 


57.65 


West'g top motor frame . 400 


240 


4 


20 


17.16 


77.76 


60.60 


West'g top motor frame. 140 


84 


3 


12 


7.24 


105.17 


97.93 


West'g motor frame... 450 


270 


534 


15 


18.48 


33.69 


15.21 


West'g top motor frame. 300 


180 


4 


18 


13.61 


77.76 


64.15 


Anti-climber castings... 50 


30 




2 


2.00 






4 3 34 x 7 Sym'gton fire 
















2.10 


534 


IS 


15.38 


14.20 


—1.18 


West'g compressor gear 
















15 


1 


3 


0.68 


22.50 


21.82 



original dimensions. The cost of repairing this particular 
frame was approximately $35. This cost is considerably 
above the average for the five, as it not only represents the 
cost of repairs but includes the cost of providing a special 
preheating device which was used in the repairs to the 
other motor frames. In proportioning this charge against 
each frame the cost of repairs was reduced to about $25 as 
compared with approximately $125 or $130 for the cost of 
a new duplicate part. It is contemplated that there will be a 
further reduction in the total cost of repairing each motor 
frame, as the preheating device may be used in other repair 
work. 

The net savings for the seven months during which time 



a record was kept ranged from $230 to $860 per month. 
This varying valuation is largely due to the character of 
the parts which are repaired. 

A partial list of the pieces welded, the savings made and 
the cost of welding is given in the tabulated statement 
herewith. Some of the repairs included in this list consisted 
in refilling the tapped holes of railway motor frames the 
threads of which had become stripped and welding on new 
ends to railway motor armature shafts which had become 
damaged at the taper pinion fits and would have otherwise 
required complete replacement. The outfit has also been 
used in correcting errors made in machine work and punch- 
ings in structural steel. In fact, at the present time the 
plant is considered indispensable in the shop and is a source 
of great convenience to the department. 



COMMITTEES OF NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF RAIL- 
WAY COMMISSIONERS 



O. P. Gothlin, Columbus, Ohio, president of the National 
Association of Railway Commissioners, has announced his 
appointments of committees for the ensuing year. Among 
the committees are the following: 

RAILROAD TAXES AND PLANS FOR ASCERTAINING FAIR VALUA- 
TION OF RAILROAD PROPERTY 

Milo R. Maltbie, of New York, chairman; J. C. 
Clements, Washington, D. C. ; Royal C. Dunn, of Florida: 

B. L. Caughman, of South Carolina; W. P. Geary, of 
Arizona; S. P. Watson, of Oklahoma; E. P. Spofford, of 
Maine. 

RAILWAY CAPITALIZATION 

John M. Eshleman, of California, chairman; H. F. Bar- 
tine, of Nevada; Frank J. Miller, of Oregon; George A. 
Lee, of Washington; J. S. Harlan, of Washington, D. C. ; 
William R. Willcox, of New York; J. J. Meredith, of 
Louisiana. 

SAFETY APPLIANCES 

William Kilpatrick, of Illinois, chairman; George W. 
Bellamy, of Arkansas; Sheridan S. Kendall, of Colorado; 
Henry B. Schrieber, of Louisiana; Joshua W. Hering, of 
Maryland; H. R. Oglesby, of Missouri; Edward C. Niles, 
of New Hampshire. 

STATISTICS AND ACCOUNTS 

B. H. Meyer, of Washington, D. C, chairman ; George A. 
Henshaw, of Oklahoma ; H. J. Winnett, of Nebraska ; W. 

C. Wishart, of New York; C. A. Radcliffe, of Ohio; 
Thomas Yapp, of Minnesota ; C. I. Sturgiss, Association of 
American Railway Accounting Officers. 

STATISTICS AND ACCOUNTS OF ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 

George W. Bishop, of Massachusetts, chairman; A. F. 
Weber, of New York; F. K. Lane, of Washington, D. C. ; 
Jesse S. Jones, of Washington, D. C. ; George F. Giddings, 
of Maine; Joseph F. Gray, of Georgia; William F. Ham, 
American Electric Railway Accountants' Association. 

RAILS AND EQUIPMENT 

James E. Sague, of New York, chairman ; E. E. Clark, 
Washington, D. C. ; W. J. Wood, of Indiana ; G. W. Bishop, 
of Massachusetts; Frank Avent, of Tennessee; J. A. Knott, 
of Missouri ; W. H. Mann, of North Dakota. 



To undertake the work of running cars on the Shanghai 
bund a company was started some three months ago under 
the name of the Compagnie Chinoise de Tramways. Its 
capital is $400,000. At present the company is confining its 
activities to laying a track from the southern end of the 
French bund, where the boundary of the concession lies, 
to the station of the Shanghai-Hangchow Railway, but it 
is understood that it is intended to extend the line to the 
arsenal. The contract for the construction of the line and 
for the cars has been placed with Siemens-China Electrical 
Engineering Company. 



40 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



FORT DODGE, DES MOINES & SOUTHERN OILING 
RECORD 



The mechanical department of the Fort Dodge, Des 
Moines & Southern Railroad has devised a scheme which 
not only informs the inspector at any terminal of the exact 
date of the last oiling of any car, but serves as a permanent 
record. The oiling card is of the form shown in the illus- 
tration and space is provided for a thirty-one-day month. 
One of these cards is slipped into a metallic slide attached to 
the side of the car in the baggage compartment. This slide 
has a glass cover which holds the oiling card in place but 




FORT DODGE DES MOINES & SOUTHERN 



OILING CARD 
Month ~r ' Eno. or Car 



J?TL 



H ell 



.a* SSL 



sn v..-; 



J hf- 



2po"% (Pets^v /1/z <*> Cur JjxL- 






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13 




















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11 
















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it 
-,i 


<~.**~^j r. , , , wP , r,, . 


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Front and Reverse Side of Oiling Card 

permits the inspector to read it without removal. Instruc- 
tions have been issued to all inspectors and oilers calling 
attention to the oil card and requesting that each oiling he 
recorded in the proper column opposite the correct date. 

Armatures and axles are oiled every 1000 miles, and 2 lb. 
of grease is applied to each set of gears every fifteen days. 
The journal bearings receive 2 gills of oil every seven days. 
With this set of instructions it becomes the duty of each 
inspector to read the posted record on the oil card and act 
in accordance. At the end of the month the inspector 
removes the card and records the last oiling dates at the 
top of the new card. This makes the record continuous for 
the outside men, and the completed card is forwarded tc 
the office of the master mechanic as a permanent record. 
The back of each oiling card provides space for a record of 
pull-ins and parts repaired or renewed. 

STEAM RAILROAD STATISTICS FOR 1912 

It is interesting to note that statistics for steam railroads 
published in the Railway Age Gazette for Dec. 28, 1912, 
show conditions quite similar to those indicated in the elec- 
tric railway industry by the figures published elsewhere in 
this issue of the Electric Railway Journal. The Railway 
Age Gazette shows that one has to go back for fifteen 
years, namely, to 1897, to find a year in which as small a 
mileage was built as in 1912, and one has to go back six 
years, to 1906, to find a year in which as large a number of 
locomotives and as large a number of freight cars were 
ordered. The marked increase in activity along industrial 
lines during the last part of 1912 is shown by the fact that 
between two and three times as many freight cars were 
actually built in 1912 as in 191 1, and a third more locomo- 
tives were actually built in 1912 than in 191 1. 

Notwithstanding the fact that 191 1 was considered a very 
unsatisfactory year for railroad building, 3066 miles of new 
first track were built in 191 1, while in 1912 only 29.97 miles 
were built. The largest mileage was built in North Dakota, 
in which State 347 miles of first track were built. Texas, 



in which 336 miles were built, had second place in the list. 

The totals for cars and locomotives ordered during the 
year show the heavy demands that were made on railroad 
facilities during the last part of 1912, both for the move- 
ment of extraordinarily heavy crops and for the general 
business resulting from greater industrial activity. The 
new equipment ordered during 1912 was as follows: freight 
cars, 226,195; passenger cars, 3623, and locomotives, 4424. 



AN IMPROVED RAIL GRINDER 



The Goldschmidt Thermit Company, New York, has made 
several important improvements in its well-known grinder 
and corrugation machine. The most important is. in the 
character of grinding, for instead of describing the arc of 
a circle of long radius as it moves backward and forward 
over the joint, the new grinding mechanism is set to follow 
a flat sinusoidal curve, which becomes horizontal at each 
end and therefore tangent to the surface of the rail. 

As in the original machine, the entire weight (about 
5500 lb.) is concentrated over the grinding wheels so that 
the maximum cut can be made without danger of chatter- 
ing. In addition, the possibility of chattering because of 
worn bearings has been forestalled by mounting the emery 
wheel on a shaft which runs in two main bearings and a 
new type of center bearing. This center bearing is drawn 
up by a flat spring from the saddle casting. As the spring 
is always under heavy tension, its effect is to draw the 
emery wheel spindle tightly against the top of the other two 
bearings, thus holding the emery wheel against chattering 
and also preventing any tendency it might have to sway 
unsteadily because of worn bearings. 

The use of motor power and the concentration of weight 
directly over the emery wheels make it possible to take 
deep cuts and to run at most economical speed. Thus, the 
most efficient results are secured by running at 1833 r.p.m., 
which corresponds to an initial peripheral speed of 6719 ft. 




Non-Chattering Rail Grinder 

per minute for a new wheel and proportionately smaller 
peripheral speeds as the diameter of the wheel decreases 
with wear. The power equipment consists of two 5-hp in- 
closed motors, which are belt-connected to the emery 
wheels, and one 3^-hp inclosed motor for traction. 

A third improvement in this machine is the addition of 
a substantial canopy, which will withstand heavy winds and 
shed water at the ends but not at the sides. The latter 
feature permits the crew to work in a heavy rainstorm 
with no discomfort from dripping water. 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY? JOURNAL 



4i 



LONDON LETTER 



(From Our Regular Correspondent) 

The report of the Glasgow Corporation Tramways for 
the half-year shows that 150,000,000 passengers were car- 
ried, an increase of fully 21,000,000, due largely to the 
doubling of halfpenny distances. The receipts for the six 
months were £492,000, a reduction of nearly £10,000 on the 
corresponding period last year. Halfpenny fares repre- 
sent more than 60 per cent of the entire traffic. 

The result of the operation of the Morecambe Tramways 
since the adoption of petrol tramcars has been presented. 
The company operates only a few cars which previously 
had been operated by horses at a considerable loss. The 
directors announce that since the change from horse to 
petrol-propelled cars there has been a profit of more than 
£1,200, and they have declared a dividend of 2V2 per cent. 
The petrol cars cost o.o6d. per mile to operate, or 4-57d. 
less than by horse traction. It is the only line of its kind 
in Great Britain. 

It is expected that by the end of this year the work of 
constructing the experimental electric railway on the branch 
line of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway from Bury to 
Holcombe Brook will be completed. This is the line which 
Dick, Kerr & Company are constructing on the direct-cur- 
rent, high-pressure system. A large staff of men has been 
engaged on the work and the overhead wires for the high- 
pressure power are nearly all erected. Power will be sup- 
plied by the Lancashire Electric Power Company. The line 
is to be worked at a pressure of 3500 volts and the installa- 
tion is the first one at that voltage in Great Britain. 

The Tramways Light & Power Company has been or- 
ganized with an authorized share capital of £600,000 under 
the segis of George Balfour, of the firm of Balfour, Beatty 
& Company, the promoters of a number of successful 
tramway companies in England and Scotland. The direc- 
tors are the Right Hon. Viscount Chilston, director of the 
South Eastern & Chatham Railway Company; Alfred R. 
Holland, chairman of the Mansfield & District Tramways, 
Ltd., and Mr. Balfour. The company has been formed 
to own and work electric supply, tramway and kindred 
undertakings in Great Britain and elsewhere, and partic- 
ularly to produce, supply and distribute electricity for 
power and lighting purposes in the counties of Derby, Not- 
tingham, Leicester and Warwick, to construct the Notting- 
hamshire & Derbyshire Tramways and other works, and 
develop other tramway and lighting properties in the im- 
mediate vicinity. The company will take over the Derby- 
shire & Nottinghamshire Electric Power Company, the 
Nottinghamshire & Derbyshire Tramways, the Leicester- 
shire & Warwickshire Electric Power Company, and the 
Leamington & Warwick Electrical Company, Ltd., all of 
which have rights in that district. The annual net earning 
from these tramways, lighting and power properties are es- 
timated at £46,500. After paying interest on £150,000 de- 
benture stock and a dividend of 6 per cent on 300,000 
preference shares, a surplus of about £21,000 should be left 
for the ordinary shares. 

Additional details are available in regard to the London 
& North Western Railway's electrification scheme from 
London to Watford. Seventy-mine miles of track are con- 
cerned, not including that of the Bakerloo Tube, with which 
the North Western Railway will have a physical connection 
at Queen's Road Station. It has been stated that current 
will be delivered by a third and fourth rail in the same man- 
ner as employed on most of the London tubes, and contin- 
uous current will be delivered to the track at 600 volts. 
Tenders have already been invited for part of the electrical 
equipment, and it is expected that the work of installation 
will be commenced early in the year. The new power 
house will be built near Wembley, with an initial capacity 
of 25.000 kw, but so arranged that large extensions can 
readily be made. Special attention is being paid to the 
matter of coal supply, accommodation being arranged for 
three months' requirements. The rolling stock will be of 
two types — that for use on the North Western Railway it- 
self, where the trains will run from Watford to Broad 
Street Station, and that which will have to be used for the 
trains which have through running on to the Bakerloo. The 
latter type will be of smaller dimensions, owing to the size 
of the tunnels. 



While the Metropolitan Railway has kept out of the 
Speyer group of railways, it is making vast improvements. 
Perhaps one of the most interesting improvements is being 
effected at Baker Street, where a proper junction is being 
made with the company's circle track. Hitherto there has 
only been a single-line junction between the circle and the 
Metropolitan extension lines to the suburbs, and it has 
therefore been decided to construct a "flying junction" at 
this point, which will eliminate many of the possibilities of 
accident. 

The London & South Western Railway has announced 
that it will commence the electrification of its Thames 
Valley route immediately. It is expected that the work will 
take about two years to complete. The first line to be elec- 
trified will be the loop line from Waterloo to Kingston and 
back, via Wimbledon, Richmond and Putney, and the Hamp- 
ton Court lines will be electrified a little later. Ultimately 
246 miles of single track will be equipped, and about 73 
miles will be converted as soon as possible. The company 
has decided to adopt the direct-current third-irail system,, 
using 600 volts on the third-rail, similar to the system in 
use on the London tube lines and the District Railway, the 
trains of which already run to Richmond and Wimbledon 
over the South Western rails. A through service of trains, 
will therefore be made possible. A power house with a 
capacity of 25,000 kw will be built, and substations will be 
provided for the first portion of the work at Clapham Junc- 
tion, Raynes Park, Barnes, Twickenham and Kingston, while 
the existing generating station at Waterloo will also be used, 
for this purpose. Two classes, first and third, will be used 
on the electric trains, but the compartment system will be 
adhered to. The immediate proposals provide for six trains 
an hour in each direction, and afterward electric trains will 
leave Waterloo at an average interval of three minutes 
throughout the day. The new Waterloo Station, which has 
been under reconstruction, has been designed with a special 
view to these electrified lines. Sir Alexander Kennedy and 
his partners are the company's consulting engineers for the 
electrification, but the electrical work will be in charge of 
Herbert J ones, the company's electrical engineer, and the 
permanent way reconstruction will be under the direction of 
J. W. Jacomb Hood. Within the next few years, therefore, 
London will be completely surrounded by a network of 
electric railways working in connection with the various 
main railways. 

A provisional agreement has been entered into between 
the Metropolitan District Railway and the promoters of the 
authorized Wimbledon & Sutton Railway, under which the 
District Company will acquire the Parliamentary powers- 
granted to the Wimbledon & Sutton Railway in 1910, with a 
view to the dissolution of that company and the construc- 
tion of that railway as part of the District Railway system. 
This agreement will require confirmation by Parliament to 
be made effective. 

The North Eastern Railway, with a view to affording im- 
proved facilities for the development of the residential area 
01 the Northumberland coast, served by its Newcastle and 
Tynemouth electrified lines, is arranging to construct a new 
stretch of railway from Monkseaton to Seaton Sluice on the 
Northumberland coast. The new section of railway will be 
of standard gage construction, and traffic will be worked on 
the third-rail system. 

A special meeting was held recently at the Guildhall by 
representatives of the various local authorities in the Lon- 
don area to consider the question of motor omnibus traffic. 
A resolution was carried to the effect that requisite powers 
should be conferred upon the Board of Trade, Local Gov- 
ernment Board, or other government authority, to limit 
and define the routes to be taken by such traffic. Doubtless 
the board of traffic is causing the London authorities a tre- 
mendous increase in the cost of repairing the roads. A 
select committee of the House of Lords has also been ap- 
pointed to inquire into the circumstances which have led to- 
the large number of fatal accidents in the metropolis due 
to the motor omnibus and other power-driven vehicles. In 
1969 the number of persons killed was 52; in 1910, 61; in 
191 1. 95, and this year it would appear as if the number of 
fatalities caused in this way would be more than 100, while 
the number of pedestrians and others who have been injured 
by these vehicles will probably total more than 2500. 

A. C. S. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLI, No. i. 

News of Electric Railways 



Franchise and Terminal Questions in Dallas 



M. M. Phinney, president of the Dallas (Tex.) Electric 
Corporation, addressed a communication recently to the 
Chamber of Commerce of that city in regard to extensions 
and improvements which Stone & Webster propose to make 
in and about Dallas. These improvements will total about 
$5,000,000. Mr. Phinney said in part: 

"Your letter to Mr. Moore refers to three specific mat- 
ters in which Stone & Webster are directly interested, 
namely, the Terrell interurban, the interurban terminal and 
the extension of street railway lines. As to the Terrell 
interurban, a contract has been signed by which we have 
bound ourselves to build the Terrell line, beginning as soon 
as the right-of-way is provided in accordance with the 
terms of the contract. 

"The interurban terminal project has been advanced to 
the extent of the purchase of the necessary land. The 
work of preparing plans for the structure is under way. 
A difficulty will arise, however, concerning the tracks to the 
terminal within (Jie city limits. Tracks of the existing 
Dallas companies to the terminal would be subject to the 
existing franchises. This disadvantage would, of course, 
be removed if the franchise extensions were to be cleared 
up. 

"The third matter is that of the extension of our street 
car lines. Our street railway franchises were granted when 
Dallas was a comparatively small city, long before Stone 
& Webster had any interest in the properties in Dallas. 
The franchise of the Dallas Electric Light & Power Com- 
pany will expire in 1922, of the Dallas Consolidated Electric 
Street Railway in 1922 and 1923, of the Rapid Transit Rail- 
way in 1923, of the Metropolitan Street Railway in 1922. 
By reason of the short time which these franchises have to 
run they no longer furnish a satisfactory security for the in- 
vestment of new money by Stone & Webster or by those 
who look to Stone & Webster for guidance in making their 
investments. 

"The Terrell interurban investment is based upon the sub- 
stantial rights granted under the law to interurban prop- 
erties, including permanent ownership of the right-of-way. 
The interurban terminal investment is based on the perma- 
nent ownership of the land, without restrictions or qualifi- 
cations. But the large sums of new investment required 
for extension of the local lines and new equipment have no 
other security than that of the expiring franchises referred 
to. That is not a sufficient security. It is, therefore, im- 
possible for us to consider the construction and operation 
of extensions until the people of Dallas deal with the 
franchise situation. 

"The kind of a new franchise Stone & Webster would 
accept is a matter of negotiation, for we do not know what 
terms the people of Dallas would wish to impose. All the 
terms of a franchise are interdependent and must be con- 
sidered in the light of all other conditions. As to the 
length of the term provided for in a new franchise, how- 
ever, I can say this: Our present difficulties with an ex- 
piring franchise naturally lead us to want to avoid similar 
conditions in the near future. We have, therefore, earnestly 
desired a forty-year franchise; that is, an extension of thirty 
years beyond the time our present franchises have to run. 
This has been objected to. The charter fixes twenty years 
as a maximum grant. While still believing that it would 
be more advantageous to Dallas to grant us the longer 
term, we are ready to accept a twenty-year extension of 
our present franchises, making, with the ten years our 
present franchises have to run, a thirty-year franchise for 
the properties. In a broad sense relief as to the franchise 
situation in Dallas would materially advance all the projects 
we have in view in this vicinity. In reaching an agree- 
ment with the city, the management will deal honorably, 
frankly and justly. It will not neglect to safeguard the in- 
terests of the Dallas properties, but it will at the same time 
act with an intelligent recognition of the fact that the 
Dallas properties are engaged in a public business, not a 
private one." 



Mr. Whitridge Complains About the Burden of Taxation 
in New York 

Frederick W. Whitridge, president of the Third Avenue 
Railway, New York, N. Y., and affiliated companies, has 
addressed a letter to the State Board of Tax Commissioners 
of New York in which he complains of the excessive assess- 
ments tentatively placed upon the special franchises of the 
various properties under his control. In his letter Mr. 
Whitridge says in part: 

"I have this day filed with you formal complaints against 
the tentative assessments placed by you upon special fran- 
chises of the several surface railways in Manhattan and 
the Bronx which are under my control. I desire to supple- 
ment my formal complaint by this brief history of the 
experience of these companies and to make a final appeal to 
you for relief from what is obviously a glaring case of in- 
justice. 

"The special franchise tax law was passed in 1899 and the 
first assessments were placed on these companies in the 
year 1900. Since that time they have, with one exception, 
either remained substantially stable or show slight in- 
creases, although with the electrification of the elevated 
railways and the operation of the subways everyone knows 
that street railway franchises in New York City are not 
of great value, and their value has, speaking generally, 
fallen since 190 1. You have now announced practically the 
old figures as the tentative assessments for 1913. 

"From 1901 to 1909 the companies did not pay any 
special franchise taxes. In 1901 the companies were sol- 
vent. In 1907, together with all the other surface railways 
in New York City, these companies all became financially 
involved, and at the beginning of 1908 they were placed 
in the hands of myself and others as receivers, and the 
receiverships continued for several years. In spite of this 
insolvency, your predecessors in ofifice never made any re- 
duction in their valuations. 

"When I took charge of these companies in 1908, I found 
that very little intelligent effort had been made on behalf 
of the companies or the State to settle the correct amount 
of the overdue taxes, although certioraris to review the 
assessments had been taken out each year. In conjunction 
with the other roads, we decided to make the assessment 
on the Third Avenue Railroad for 1901 a test case, and 
had it carried up to the Court of Appeals. The Court of 
Appeals cut the assessment practically in half and laid 
down clear rules for future assessments. 

"With the result of that test case to go by, I then set 
about settling all the arrears of franchise taxes, and I had 
lawyers and accountants working on this matter for 
months. Finally a settlement for all years up to 1910 was 
made which was, generally speaking, on the basis of this 
test case, and I paid up all the arrears. 

"Within the last year there has come a change in the 
personnel of the State Tax Board, and with that change 
I took fresh hope that something would be done. I in- 
structed my lawyers to present fully to you the facts in 
regard to these companies and to try to avoid all the 
trouble of litigation and it was therefore a good deal of a 
shock to me to find that the tentative assessments which 
your board made for the coming year were along the old 
lines. 

"Your assessment for this year aggregates $20,000,000, 
substantially the same figures you fixed thirteen years ago. 
It was, as I state, cut in half for the first ten years; never- 
theless, you have continued to make the assessment of 
about $20,000,000, thus presuming to recall the decision of 
the Court of Appeals and compelling me to begin a separate 
set of actions for each of the three last years. Is this fair 
from any point of view? Especially, is it fair when you 
consider that all our theorists hold, under the Public 
Service Commissions law, that on a reorganization of these 
companies the whole $20,000,000 is lopped off from the 
supposed value of the properties? I submit to you that 
you are doing me a grave injustice and I ask you for 
relief." 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



43 



Changes in Boston Elevated Organization 



Important changes in the executive organization of the 
Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway were put into effect on 
Jan. 1, 11H3, to meet new administrative conditions. C. S. 
Sergeant, vice-president, will continue to perform such 
duties relating to the general conduct of the company's 
business as have been or may be required of him, but will be 
relieved of his duties as chief of the bureau of operation. 
Among other duties, he will take immediate charge of the 
bureau of elevated and subway construction. The bureau of 
operation will be divided into two bureaus — one to be 
known as the bureau of transportation, and the other the 
bureau of maintenance. Matthew C, Brush, second vice- 
president, has been appointed chief of the bureau of trans- 
portation, and Charles H. Hile, for the past seven years as- 
sistant to the vice-president, has been appointed chief of the 
bureau of maintenance. H. B. Potter has been named as 
Mr. Brush's assistant. 

Subject to the approval of the president, the chief of the 
transportation bureau is placed in charge of all matters re- 
lating to car and train service, on both surface and rapid 
transit lines, including the care of motive power, arrange- 
ment of timetables, making of rules and hours of operation, 
and the recommendation for appointment or removal of 
all assistants and employees of the road in his bureau, in- 
cluding compensation. He reports as may be required by 
the president, executive committee or board of directors 
upon conditions in his bureau and upon the general inter- 
ests of the company. 

In the bureau of transportation, the head of the depart- 
ment of surface lines, George R. Tripp, will be in charge of 
the movement of surface cars and of all officials and em- 
ployees engaged in surface car service and in the carhouses 
and subways used by surface cars. He is required to ar- 
range timetables, investigate complaints, receive and care 
for lost articles, provide for chartered cars, etc. 

The head of the department of rapid transit lines, H. A. 
Pasho, is assigned general charge of the movement of all 
elevated, subway and tunnel trains, and of all officials and 
employees engaged in train service, and under his jurisdic- 
tion are also placed the elevated and tunnel shops and 
yards and all stations, tunnels and elevated structures. 

The department of power, headed by James D. Andrews, 
includes the operation and maintenance of all the company's 
power plants and substations, with the exception of mainte- 
nance delegated to the department of wires and conduits. 

Clarence E. Learned, head of the department of inspec- 
tion, has charge of the inspection of the conduct and effi- 
ciency of car service employees, and performs such other 
duties as the chief of the transportation bureau may de- 
termine. 

J. E. Rugg, head of the department of employment, is re- 
sponsible for the hiring of all employees for service, and is 
to report to the chief of the transportation bureau. 

The chief of the bureau of maintenance reports to the 
president, and has charge of the maintenance work required 
by the company, such construction work as devolves upon 
the several departments composing the bureau and all neces- 
sary supplies except those otherwise provided for. 

In the bureau of maintenance, the head of the department 
of mechanical and electrical engineering, Paul Winsor, is 
placed in charge of mechanical and electrical engineering 
work arising within the bureau. The department consists 
of the mechanical engineering drafting room force and the 
electrical engineering division. 

The department of maintenance of way is placed in charge 
■of H. M. Steward, chief engineer, who is required to exer- 
cise general supervision over the civil engineering of the 
company other than that performed by the bureau of ele- 
vated and subway construction, and over the maintenance 
of way of both surface and elevated lines. He is required 
to report to the chief of the maintenance bureau, as do other 
department heads in its organization. The civil engineer 
and the roadmaster of surface lines report directly to 
the chief engineer of maintenance of way. The roadmaster 
of rapid transit lines reports to the chief engineer as in the 
foregoing cases, but through the superintendent of the rapid 
transit lines. Division trackmasters on surface lines are 
held responsible to the chief engineer of maintenance of 
way through their respective division superintendents. 



The department of rolling stock and shops, in charge of 
John Lindall, includes the immediate supervision of the 
Albany Street and Bartlett Street shops, tools and ma- 
chinery, and of all repairs to cars and car equipment, be- 
sides the distribution and collection of coal and supplies 
by car. The immediate care of the buildings, shops and 
rolling stock of the department of rapid transit lines de- 
volves upon the superintendent thereof, and that of the sur- 
face cars in the several carhouses, together with buildings 
and structures, upon the division superintendents. The 
superintendent of rolling stock and shops, however, is re- 
quired to exercise a constant inspection and supervision 
over all work of car repairs. 

The superintendent of wires, J. P. Boyden, is placed in 
charge of the department of wires and conduits, and is 
held responsible for the repair and maintenance of all over- 
head and underground wires and equipment, interior wiring 
and all wiring construction. The immediate care of signal, 
telephone and certain power and lighting wires used in the 
rapid transit line and subway service devolves upon the 
superintendent of rapid transit lines and upon the super- 
intendent of division. 

The department of buildings, under F. F. Low. is con- 
cerned with the inspection, repair, maintenance and con- 
struction of buildings. 

The stores department, in charge of F. T. Lewis, handles 
the receipt and issue of material and supplies. 

The general maintenance force of the department of pow- 
er stations is placed under the superintendent of power, and 
its general foreman is held responsible to the chief of the 
bureau of maintenance through the superintendent. 



Strike in Yonkers 



The trainmen in the employ of the Yonkers (N. Y.) 
Railroad went on strike on Jan. 1, 1913, claiming that the 
terms of the verbal agreement which they had with the 
management had been violated. The men on strike have 
demanded the reinstatement of three employees whom they 
allege were discharged because they refused to meet re- 
quirements of the management which the men as a body 
felt were in violation of the understanding between the men 
and the management. The men also claim that the com- 
pany has violated the promise which is said to have been 
made to them to adhere strictly to the plan of hiring men 
in numerical order from the eligible list. Charles Long, 
representing the men, said on Jan. 1 : 

"We will hold a meeting on Jan. 2 in which to formulate 
our demands. These may include a change in the wage 
scale, together with the elimination of many rules that are 
unjust. I expect that Mr. Whitridge, the president of the 
company, will have a force of strike-breakers here. If he 
does he will find he has a battle on his hands." 

Mr. Whitridge is reported to have expressed himself as 
follows : 

"This is purely a question as to whether the railroad is 
going to be operated by the motormen and conductors or 
by the officials. The union came to me with a preposterous 
agreement which the members asked me to sign. It was 
impracticable, unconstitutional and opposed to the terms of 
the Sherman law, and I refused to meet the conditions 
which it sought to impose. I am not going to fight the men. 
I think that if Yonkers is left without service for a few 
days the public officials will be glad to take the matter in 
hand and bring about a settlement. It is going to be an ar- 
rangement according to my own ideas, however.'" 



Toronto Civic Line Opened. — The new civic line in the 
east end of Toronto, Ont., has been placed in operation with 
a ten-minute service at a 2-cent cash fare. Tickets are sold 
at the rate of six for 10 cents. The new line is operated 
by power from the Hydro-Electric Commission. 

Municipal Road Opened ui San Francisco. — The first 
section of the Geary Street Municipal Railroad, built and 
equipped by the city of San Francisco, Cal., has been placed 
in operation. The road extends from Kearney Street down- 
town to Golden Gate Park, a distance of 4 miles. 

New Companies Incorporated in Ohio in 1912. — Twelve 
street, suburban and interurban railways were incorporated 
in Ohio during 1012, with a capitalization of $2,080,000. 



44 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



Some of the new companies were organized as successors 
of other companies in reorganization proceedings. 

Joint Use of Poles in Winnipeg. — Public Utilities Com- 
missioner Robson has issued an order for the joint use and 
ownership of poles between the city and the Winnipeg 
(Man.) Electric Railway. The matter has been under con- 
sideration since June 15, 1912, when the first application was 
made. This is said to be the first case in which a munici- 
pally owned utility and a privately owned utility have 
adopted the policy of joint use and ownership of poles. 

Rehearing Refused in United Railways Case. — The Su- 
preme Court has overruled the motion of the United Rail- 
ways for a rehearing in the J. Brooks Johnson case. The 
company must settle Johnson's claim and the claims of 
those with him in the suit, totaling about $63,000. It is 
understood that the company will appeal to the United 
States Supreme Court. The decision holds the company 
liable for all outstanding claims against the St. Louis 
Transit Company, which was absorbed by the United Rail- 
ways. 

Public Hearing on New York Rapid Transit Operating 
Contracts. — The Public Service Commission of the First 
District of New York announced on Dec. 30, 1912, that the 
terms of the agreement of the city of New York with the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the New York 
Municipal Railway Corporation, as the new Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company is called, had been so far determined 
that the statutory public hearings on the form of contract 
for the proposed dual rapid transit system would be held 
on Jan. 14, 1013. 

B. S. Josselyn Honored by Employees. — Employees of 
the Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, 
Ore., on Dec. 24, 1912, presented B. S. Josselyn, president, 
with a scroll containing the signatures of 1000 of their num- 
ber and testifying to their appreciation of his efforts in their 
behalf during the closing year. The scroll was inclosed in 
a frame 4 ft. wide and 5 ft. long. Across the top was en- 
grossed the legend "Christmas Greetings." The text called 
particular attention to Mr. Josselyn's loyalty to the cause 
of humanity and to the precepts of the golden rule. 

Test of Automatic Train Stop on the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western Railroad. — After an examination of the 
mechanism of the device, as shown in a model in the office 
of the International Signal Company, New York, N. Y., 
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad recently 
authorized the signal company to install one of its signals 
on a branch line of its road, the mechanism for the test to 
be put on a single engine of the railroad. The International 
Signal Company is busy in its shops making up parts for 
the apparatus and expects to have it ready for installation 
soon. 

New Traffic Ordinance in Newark. — On Dec. 25, 1912, the 
Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J., posted in its car- 
houses bulletins informing the employees of the notice 
served on the company by the Police Department of New- 
ark of its intention to enforce after Jan. 1, 1913, the traffic 
ordinance as it relates to the stopping of street cars. This 
ordinance requires that cars shall be stopped on the near 
side of all intersecting streets except where trolley stations 
are designated. At the same time lists of the stops that 
will be made in Broad and Market Streets after Jan. 1. 
1913, were distributed. 

Amendment to New York Public Service Commissions 
Law. — Counsel to the Public Service Commission for the 
First District has been directed to prepare a form of amend- 
ment to the Public Service Commissions law for presenta- 
tion to the Legislature, giving jurisdiction over telephones 
and telegraphs within the First District to that commission. 
The First District embraces the territory within the boun- 
daries of Greater New York, and while the commission for 
the First District exercises control over railroads, gas and 
electric companies in that territory, the jurisdiction over 
telephones and telegraphs within the city is vested in the 
commission for the Second District. 

Public Utility Bill Introduced at Washington. — Repre- 
sentative A. W. Lafferty, of Oregon, has introduced a bill 
which calls for the creation of a public service commission 
with jurisdiction over the public utility companies which 
operate in Washington,' D. C. The commission proposed 
by Mr. Lafferty would be composed of three members to 



be appointed by the President for terms of three years. 
The commissioners would receive compensation of $4,000 
a year each. The bill provides for a valuation of the prop- 
erties of the public utilities corporations of the District by 
the commission as a basis for fixing rates. The District 
Supreme Court would have power to review and revoke 
a decision of the commission where compliance with the 
orders of the latter would endanger the property of the 
concern financially. 

Failure of Railroad Stairway with Concrete Treads and 
Risers. — The upper section of the stairway at the east end 
of the platform at the Nostrand Avenue station of the 
Long Island Railroad in Brooklyn collapsed on Dec. 19, 
causing the death of one person. The stairway was built in 
two sections, and was erected in 1905 at the time the station 
was constructed. There was a landing and support at 
about mid-height. The framework was of structural steel, 
with cast-iron columns beneath the landing. The stairs 
were built of reinforced concrete. The individual steps, 
however, were not separately reinforced. A hearing to 
investigate the collapse of the stairway was held by the 
Public Service Commission for the First District on Dec. 
24. Testimony at the hearing tended to show that the 
collapse was due to the breaking of the connection between 
the steel girder forming the side of the stairway and a 
cast-iron post on the first landing, against which the end 
of the girder rested. The commission has directed its 
engineers to examine all similar stairs from all elevated 
railroads, with a view of disclosing any defects which may 
exist in their condition. 

Public Utilities Issue. — The New York Commercial of 
Dec. 14, 1912, issued a special supplement of seventy-two 
pages devoted to public utilities, including light, heat and 
power companies. Notable features of the issue were the 
following articles: "Maintenance and Depreciated Replace- 
ment Values," by John F. Wallace, president of Westing- 
house, Church, Kerr & Company; "The Work of the Public 
Service Commission in Safeguarding the Investor," by 
William R. Willcox, chairman of the Public Service Com- 
mission of the First District of New York; "Valuation of 
Public Service Properties," by L. R. Nash, of Stone & 
Webster; "The Great Problem of the Public Service Cor- 
poration," by H. M. Byllesby, of H. M. Byllesby & Com- 
pany, and "The Interrelation of Traction, Light, Power & 
Heating Companies," by Francis C. Prest. of Meikleham 
& Dinsmore. Operating statements were published of 
representative companies such as the American Light & 
Traction Company, the Portland (Ore.) Railway, Light & 
Power Company, the Electric Bond & Share Company, 
Stone & Webster, California Railway & Power Company, 
Tennessee Railway, Light & Power Company, Henry L. 
Doherty & Company, the LTnited Light & Railways Com- 
pany, etc. Maps showing the territory covered by the 
properties of these companies were also published. 

New Haven Railroad Acknowledges Inspection Report 
of the Public Service Commission. — E. H. McHenry, vice- 
president of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road, New Haven, Conn., has replied in part as follows 
to the letter addressed recently by the Public Service 
Commission to the company in regard to the inspection of 
the tracks of the company made by the engineers of the' 
commission. Mr. McHenry's . reply follows in part: "I 
beg to advise that instructions have been issued to correct 
all of the defects noted by the inspectors and the commis- 
sion may feel assured that the recommendations therein 
contained will receive complete and literal compliance. 
The criticisms concerning the belated renewal of ties are 
well founded, but it should be explained that the ties for 
renewals were ordered in sufficient season and the deliveries 
were made not more than thirty days later than the time 
stipulated in the contract. Through some error on the part 
of the contractor the ties were improperly bored for the 
reception of the screw spikes, and it was accordingly neces- 
sary to reject the entire lot, which correspondingly delayed 
the receipt of new ties in replacement. I note the conclu- 
sion of the commissioner in regard to the possible improve- 
ment in the detailed supervision of maintenance work and 
will give this matter prompt attention. In conclusion I 
beg to express the appreciation of the railroad company 
for the fair and impartial form in which the inspection and 
conclusions of the commission have been presented." 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



45 



Financial and Corporate 



Stock and Money Markets 



Dec. 31, 1912. 

Trading on the New York Stock Exchange to-day was 
more active than on recent days, and the price movement 
was upward. There was unusual breadth to the trading in 
bonds to-day, the total business in the bond department 
being $2,346,000, par value. The stringency in the money 
market has been relieved, and to-day call money opened at 
6 per cent, which was the highest price for the day. Rates 
in the money market to-day were: Call, 5@6 per cent, with 
the last loan at 3 per cent; sixty days, S/2®SVa per cent; 
ninety days, 5J4@5/4 per cent; live and six months, 5@5/4 
per cent. 

The trading in Philadelphia to-day was broad and active. 
The demands for bonds were good. 

In Chicago the market was broad but the volume of trans- 
actions not very large. The bond transactions to-day to- 
taled about $60,000. 

In the Boston market there was very little trading in the 
railroad issues. The market for bonds was quiet. 

In Baltimore the only traction issue dealt in to-day was 
the United Railways. The market for bonds continues 
good, the transactions to-day totaling $46,000. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 



compared with last week follow: 

Dec. 24 Dec. 31. 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (common) 93 54 95 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (preferred) 13254 135 54 

American Cities Company (common) 47 54 47 }4 

American Cities Company (preferred) a98J4 78J4 

American Light & Traction Company (common) 400 400 

American Light & Traction Company (preferred) 107 54 108 

American Railways Company 41 41 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) 40 40 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) 8854 86 

Boston Elevated Railway 113 54 113 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common) 10 10 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) 75 75 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common).... 6% 7 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred)... 40 40 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 92 5 » 92 5-1 

Capital Traction Company, Washington 122 122 

Chicago City Railway 150 150 

Chicago Elevated Railways (common) 30 27 

Chicago Elevated Railways (prefei red) 91 92 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 90 86 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 23 2654 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 -8 54 8 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 4 3J^ 

Cincinnati Street Railway 12354 12254 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (common).. *6Yz *(>Yz 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (preferred) . *34 *34 

Cleveland Railway 104 54 103 54 

Columbus Railway & Light Company 55 55 

Columbus Railway (common) 82 82 

Columbus Railway (preferred) 90 81 

Denver & Northwestern Railway 121 *121 

Detroit United Railway 70 70 

General Electric Company 18214 186 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) 120J4 120 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) 83 83 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (common) 1954 1854 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (preferred) 6454 64 

International Traction Company (common) 39 *39 

International Traction Company (preferred) 92 *92 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common).... 18 1854 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred)... 41 40 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (common) *6 *6 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (1st preferred) *89 *89 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (2d preferred) *25J4 *25 54 

Manhattan Railway 128 129 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) : 1654 17 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) 7 5 54 7 5 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. (preferred) .. *100 100 

Norfolk Railway & Light Company *26 *26 

North American Company 79 79 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (common) 75 80 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (preferred). 105 100 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (common) 50 50 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (preferred) 4354 44 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 2754 2754 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company *66 *66 

Public Service Corporation 119 117 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 40J4 40'^ 

Toledo Railway & Light Company *354 254 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Minneapolis (common). 10254 105 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (common) *6Yz *654 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (1st preferred).. *80 *80 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (2d preferred).- *34 *34 

United Rys. & Electric Company (Baltimore) 24% 24J4 

United Rys. Inv. Company (common) 34 35 

United Rvs. Inv. Company (preferred) 63 63J4 

Virginia Ra'lway & Power Company (common) 51 51 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (preferred) 89 90 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) 88 88 

Washington Ry. &■ Electric Company (preferred) 89 90 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) 80 80 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) *99 96 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company 79 79 54 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st preferred).. 121 54 115 



*I.ast sale, a Asked. 



Hearing on Application of United Railroads to Refund 
Issues of Subsidiaries 

The Railroad Commission of California held a hearing at 
San Francisco, Cal., on Dec. 21, 1912, on the application of 
the United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal., for permission 
to issue five-year serial notes to the amount of $2,350,000 
with which to retire bonds of the Market Street Cable Rail- 
way and the Park & Cliff House Railway which matured on 
Jan. 1, 1913. Patrick Calhoun, president of the United 
Railroads, explained the application of the company and 
reviewed its history in part as follows: 

"There are two applications pending before this commis- 
sion, and I desire to give a correct idea of what they are. 
The first is an application for permission to issue serial 
notes, secured by the bonds of the Market Street Cable 
Railway, with which to retire $3,000,000 in bonds of the same 
corporation, coming due Jan. r, 1913. The second propo- 
sition is to issue other notes of the same description, the 
funds from which are to be used in retiring $350,000 of 
bonds of the Park & Cliff House Railroad, maturing at the 
same time. The sinking fund created at the time these 
bonds were issued will furnish $1,000,000 toward retiring 
them. We ask the commission for permission to secure 
$2,350,000 more, with which to pay our debts. 

"If the commission so desires, we will consent to a reduc- 
tion of our application to $2,150,000, the exact amount of 
our present indebtedness. Since its formation in 1902 the 
United Railroads has increased its assets $15,000,000. The 
debit side of its ledger has been increased only $9,000,000. 
During the terrible times following the fire, when this 
utility was scarcely earning anything, there was never a 
morning when I went to my office that I did not feel the 
possibility of being compelled to place the road in the 
hands of a receiver before night. I was urged to do so, but, 
through the efforts of the holding company which owns 
the United Railroad stock, the company held on, paying 
honest debts as they came due, just as it is now trying to do. 

"The gross revenue per year of the United Railroads in 
1902, the year of its origin, was more than $5,000,000. The 
earnings grew to $21,000 per day the first fifteen days of 
April, 1906. In 1907 there was a deficit of about $1,100,000. 
That shows what stormy times this utility has passed 
through. Yet, at the present time the gross earnings of 
the United Railroads are 6 per cent greater than in 1906." 

Following the hearing the commission ruled as follows: 

"The books of a corporation in which the details of trans- 
actions are at once set down are considered by this com- 
mission the best evidence of its financial condition. Suffi- 
cient information has not been furnished the commission to 
enable it to form an intelligent conclusion concerning the 
financial condition of the United Railroads of San Fran- 
cisco. The information thus far furnished would lead to 
unfavorable action on this application. Hence, until the 
books of the United Railroads are produced, no order will 
be made authorizing the issue and sale of the securities 
asked for in this proceeding." 



Central Park, North & East River Railroad, New York, 

N. Y. — The protective committee of stockholders of the 
Central Park, North & East River Railroad has brought 
suit in the Supreme Court of New York against Thomas F. 
Ryan, August Belmont, Theodore P. Shonts and others con- 
nected with the old Metropolitan Securities Company to re- 
cover the estimated value of the property of the Central Park, 
North & East River Railroad, sold under foreclosure recently 
as noted in the Electric Railway Journal. It is alleged that 
when the road was leased to the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way it was agreed that the new company should refund or 
retire the $1,200,000 of bonds outstanding when they be- 
came due, whereas after maturity the bonds were held alive 
in the investment account of the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way and deposited as part collateral for its bonds. 

Choctaw Railway & Lighting Company, McAlester, Okla. 
— Control of the Choctaw Railway & Lighting Company is 
reported to have passed to other interests, and Russell 
Palmer. Mobile, Ala., has been elected president of the 
company to represent the new owners. 

Cleburne (Tex.) Street Railway.— The Cleburne Street 
Railway, control of which recently changed hands, has 
elected new officers as follows: Daniel Hewitt, president 



4 6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



and general manager; A. M. Morgan, vice-president; John 
F. Floore, Sr., second vice-president; Lawrence Hewitt, 
secretary-treasurer; Daniel Hewitt, J. M. Moore, Brown 
Douglass, Lawrence Hewitt and John F. Floore, Sr., di- 
rectors. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway. — The operating receipts of 
the Cleveland Railway for November, 1912, were $565,426, 
as compared with $519,306 for November, 191 1. The actual 
surplus shown by the statement was $7,461, while the 
ordinance surplus was $25,883. In November, 191 1, there 
was an actual deficit of $30,499 and an ordinance deficit 
of $18,833. The number of' car miles increased 4. 11 per 
cent over November, 191 1, while there was an increase of 
9.82 per cent in the number of passengers and 8.88 in the 
receipts from fares. The number of passengers carried 
during the month was 24,423,531, which was a gain of 2,183,- 
115 over November. 191 1. 

Ephrata & Lebanon Street Railway, Ephrata, Pa. — The 
entire $250,000 of bonds recently authorized by the Ephrata 
& Lebanon Street Railway have been sold to J. A. Vande- 
grift, representing a New York syndicate, which also took 
over 3340 unsold shares of common stock of the company. 
The company expects to finish the line by Sept. 1, 1913. 
Of the 23 miles of proposed line 7^2 miles have been com- 
pleted at a cost of $135,000. The Ephrata plant of the com- 
pany is to be enlarged and a new plant is to be built at 
Lebanon. 

Hendersonville (N. C.) Traction Company. — C. A. Carl- 
son, Red Bank, N. J., is reported to have purchased the 
property of the Hendersonville Traction Company, which 
operates about 4 miles of line in Hendersonville. 

Hoosick Falls (N. Y.) Railroad. — On Dec. 30, 1912, the 
Public Service Commission of the Second District of New 
York heard the application of the Vermont Company, which 
seeks approval of the lease of the Hoosick Falls Railroad. 
For the Vermont Company Attorney J. Garfield and for 
the Hoosick Company Attorney George E. Greene said that 
the lease would result in economy in operation and the 
rendering of more efficient service. Mr. Greene said that 
with the credit of the Vermont Company the Hoosick Falls 
Railroad intended to renew its overhead system and in- 
augurate express service on its line. Decision on the appli- 
cation was reserved by the commission. 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company, New York, N. Y. — 
The collateral trust 6 per cent notes of the Interborough- 
Metropolitan Company have again been extended for six 
months, to July 1, 1913. These notes, which now amount 
to $2,039,520, were extended in 1908, 1910, 191 1 and 1912, the 
last time until Jan. 1, 1913. 

International Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y. — The In- 
ternational Traction Company has announced that the 
coupons on the $18,335,000 of fifty-year 4 per cent collateral 
trust bonds of the company due on Jan. 1, 1912, July 1, 1912, 
and Jan. 1, 1913, will be paid at the office of J. P. Morgan 
& Company, New York. Pending the readjustment of the 
finances of the International Railway, interest on these 
bonds was deferred, but the financial reorganization of the 
subsidiary corporation having been completed the past due 
interest can be paid. Steps will be taken to replace the 
present 4 per cent collateral trust bonds of the International 
Traction Company with new collateral trust bonds as pro- 
vided in the agreement of the committee representing the 
bondholders. 

Pawcatuck Valley Street Railway, Westerly, R. I. — The 

property of the Pawcatuck Valley Street Railway was sold 
under foreclosure recently to Harry M. Verrill, Portland, 
Maine, for $10,797, subject to a mortgage of $50,000. Con- 
firmation of the sale by the court is opposed by John W. 
Sweeney and John Champlin. 

Pottsville (Pa.) Union Traction Company. — A special 
meeting of the stockholders of the Pottsville Union Trac- 
tion Company will be held on Jan. 27, 1913. for the purpose 
of voting upon a proposed increase in the company's in- 
debtedness from $1,250,000 to $2,250,000. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, Youngstown, Ohio. 

— The directors of the Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad 
have declared a quarterly dividend of 1% per cent on its 
preferred stock, which will make 4 l / 2 per cent for the year, 
as compared with 4 per cent last year. 



Dividends Declared 



Auburn & Syracuse Electric Railroad, Syracuse, N. Y., 
quarterly, \ l / 2 per cent, preferred. 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, Wheaton, 111., quar- 
terly, i l / 2 per cent, preferred; quarterly, three-fourths of 1 
per cent, common. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 3 per cent, first 
preferred. 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies, Boston, Mass., 
quarterly, $1, preferred. 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Light & Traction Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio, quarterly, 1^6 per cent, preferred; 
quarterly, 1^ per cent, common. 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Company, 3 per cent, preferred. 

Ohio Traction Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, quarterly, 1 per 
cent, common. 

Stark Electric Railroad, Alliance, Ohio, quarterly, three- 
fourths of 1 per cent. 

Thirteenth & Fifteenth Streets Passenger Railway, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., $6. 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric Railroad, 
4 l / 2 per cent, preferred. 

Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction Company, 
Olean, N. Y., 3 per cent, first preferred. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 



BATON ROUGE (LA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY. 







Gross 


Operating 


Net 


Fixed 


Net 


Period. 




Earnings. 


Expenses. 


Earnings. 


Charges. 


Surplus. 


lm.. Oct. 


'12 


$13,315 


*$7,638 
*6,894 


$5,677 


$1,730 


$3,947 


1 " " 


'11 


10,593 


3,699 


1,730 


1,969 


12 " " 


'12 


143,664 


*85,470 


58,194 


20,763 


37,431 




'11 


117,066 


•75,370 


41,696 


20,675 


21,021 



BROCKTON & PLYMOUTH STREET RAILWAY COMPANY, 
PLYMOUTH, MASS. 



lm. 
1 " 

12 " 
12 " 


Oct., 


'12 
'11 
'12 
'11 


$9,595 
9,336 
120,365 
118,743 


*$8,023 $1,572 
*7.818 1,518 
*89,988 30,270 
*90,490 28,253 


$1,028 
1,025 
12,511 
13,112 


$542 
493 
17,769 
15,141 


CAPE BRETON 


ELECTRIC 


COMPANY, LTD., 


SYDNEY, 


N. S. 


lm. 
1 " 

12 " 


Oct., 


'12 
'11 
'12 
'11 


$31,133 
31,650 
353,635 
334,626 


♦$16,340 $14,794 
* 1 5,769 15,881 
♦193,950 159,686 
♦180,176 154,449 


$5,619 
5,653 
68,047 
67,833 


$9,175 
10,228 
91,639 
86,616 






COLUMBUS (GA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY. 




lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


Oct. 


'12 
'11 
'12 
'11 


$54,913 
49,362 
542,593 
545,857 


♦$22,434 $26,332 
♦22,469 21,982 
♦268,726 266,799 
♦233,765 250,135 


$18,952 
18,361 
225.021 
182.701 


$7,380 
3,621 
41,778 
67,435 




HOUGHTON 


(MICH.) COUNTY TRACTION 


COMPANY. 


lm. 
1 " 


Oct. 


'12 
'11 
'12 
'11 


$24,853 
24,250 
303,790 
301,979 


♦$13,203 $11,650 
♦14,597 9,652 
♦173,860 129,930 
♦179,014 122,965 


$5,677 
5,227 
66,270 
62,640 


$5,973 
4,425 
63,660 
60,325 




JOPLIN & PITTSBURG 


RAILWAY, PITTSBURG, KAN. 


lm. 

1 " 
1 2 " 
1 ? *' 


Nov., 


'12 
'11 
'12 
'11 


$47,488 
39,060 
528,136 
464,964 


$28,287 $19,201 
22,160 16,900 
312.742 215,394 
272,255 192,709 


$12,541 
12,911 
153,134 
152,359 


$6,660 
3,989 
62,260 
40,350 



NORTHERN TEXAS ELECTRIC COMPANY, FORT WORTH, TEX. 



lm . Oct., 



'12 
'11 
'12 
'11 



$201,567 *$89,710 

168.512 *82,549 

1,727,037 *916,645 

1,593,749 *875,2S7 



$111,857 
85,962 
810,392 
718,492 



$24,940 $86,917 

20,978 64,984 

258,756 551,636 

244,559 473,933 



PADUCAH (KY.) TRACTION & LIGHT COMPANY. 



lm., Oct., '12 

1 " " '11 

2 " " '12 
2 11 



$24,643 
21,775 
283,399 
260,824 



♦$16,389 
♦13,783 
♦188,298 
♦157.758 



$8,253 
7,992 
95,100 
103,067 



$7,388 
7,399 
85,857 
80.232 



$815 
593 
9,243 
22,835 



PENSACOLA (FLA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY. 



lm., Oct., '12 

1" " '11 

2" " '12 

2" " '11 



$24,759 
24,415 
286,942 
286,794 



♦$15,858 
♦15,409 
♦178,167 
♦178,583 



$8,901 
9,006 
108,775 
108,211 



$6,377 $2,524 

5.014 3,992 

75,184 33,591 

59,189 49,022 



PUGET SOUND TRACTION, LIGHT & POWER COMPANY, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



lm., Oct., 
" ' : 



'12 $715,378 •$396,814 $318,564 $169,366 $149,198 

'12 6,877,898 *3,969,420 2,908,478 1,633,997 1,274,481 

TAMPA (FLA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY. 



lm., 
1 '* 



Oct., 



'12 
'11 
'12 
'11 



$65,640 
59,328 
751,601 
655,118 



*$33,782 
♦33,246 
♦392,919 
♦365,016 



$31,858 
26,082 
358,682 
290,102 



$4,475 $27,383 

4,482 21,600 

53,532 305,150 

59.363 230,739 



•Includes taxes. 



January 4, 191 3.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



47 



Traffic and Transportation 

Accidents on Interstate Electric Railways 



The Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington, 
D. C, has issued a summary for the year ended June 30, 
1912, of the casualties to persons on the electric railways 
which come under its jurisdiction. This statement as issued 
by the commission contains the following statistics which 
did not appear in the quarterly bulletins of the commission, 
the reports from which they are taken having been received 
after the quarterly bulletins were printed: 8 collisions, 72 
passengers and 1 person not trespassing injured; 2 derail- 
ments, 2 passengers injured. Accidents other than those 
to trains and roadway resulted in the following casualties: 
1 passenger and 1 other person not trespassing killed, and 
92 passengers, 7 employees on duty, 7 other persons not 
trespassing and 3 trespassers injured. Industrial accidents 
resulted in injury to 14 employees, making a total of 10 
train accidents, 2 killed and 198 injured. From a state- 
ment of the commission which is appended there have been 
eliminated the columns which give the records of employees 
not on duty who were injured and the records of tres- 
passers who were injured. The record of casualties to em- 
ployees not on duty shows 1 killed and 24 injured, while 
the record of casualties to trespassers shows 100 killed 
and 128 injured. The summary of accidents as contained 
in the bulletin of the commission, with the eliminations 
which have been mentioned, follows: 



Causes. 



Collisions 159 

Derailments 102 

Accidents other than 
collisions, derailments 
and boiler explosions 8 

Total train accidents 269 

Accidents to roadway 
or bridges not caus- 
ing derailment 11 

Coupling or uncoupling 
cars. (Does not in- 
clude accidents with 
air or steam hose).. 

While doing other work 
about trains or while 
attending switches 

Coming in contact while 
riding on cars with 
bridges or other fixed 
structures above or 
at side of track 

Falling from cars or 
engines 

Getting on or off cars 
or engines 

Other accidents on or 
around trains not 
here named 

Being struck or run 
over by engines or 
cars at stations or 
yards 

Being struck oi run 
over Dy engines or 
cars at highway grade 
crossings 

Being struck or run 
over by engines or 
cars at other places. 

Other causes 

Total other than train 
accidents 

Total acc'dents. ex- 
clusive of indus- 
trial accidents 

Industrial accidents to 
employees 1 

Grand total 



<L> 
>> 

O -o 
pi U 



3 

Q 



o <u 

"3. 3 



Pn.S 

■C I 



3 <2 



v 5? 
Ph.S 



5h Oh H 



3"S 



7 


1,208 


13 


96 




1 


20 


1,316 




242 


1 


41 




6 


1 


289 




12 




7 








19 


7 


1,462 


14 


144 




7 


21 


1,624 






2 


18 






2 


18 






6 


124 






6 


124 


2 


14 




22 








40 


6 


67 


8 


49 


1 


1 


16 ■ 


119 


16 


1,002 




47 


1 


19 


24 


1,090 




199 




10 


1 


16 


3 


231 


2 


7 


3 


6 


6 


9 


17 


38 


1 


3 






63 


388 


71 


400 




8 


5 


9 


45 


192 


130 


281 


' i 


100 


3 


10 


1 


27 




147 


28 


1,400 


32 


295 


118 


652 


279 


2,488 


35 


2,862 


46 


439 


118 


659 


300 


4,112 






24 


550 






24 


550 


35 


2,862 


70 


989 


118 


659 


324 


4,662 



'"Industrial" accidents are those which do not involve train operation, 
but occur to railroad employees other than trainmen on railroad premises. 

The bulletin of the commission also contains the follow- 
ing statement of employees in the service of the interstate 
electric railways on June 30, 1912: 



N umber 

Class of Employees. of Persons. 

Employees specially exposed to railway accidents: 
Trainmen, road service (enginemen, firemen, motormen, conductors, 
brakemen, rear flagmen, train baggagemen, train porters perform- 
ing duties of trainmen) 17,501 

Other persons employed on trains (dning-car employees, train 
porters not performing duties of trainmen, etc., when actually 

employed by the respondent carrier) .. 179 

Yardmen (all employees in yard train work and switching — engine- 
men, firemen, conductors, brakemen, foremen, droppers, fieldmen, 

hostlers, hostler helpers, yardmasters, etc.) 718 

Switch tenders, crossing tenders and watchmen 506 

Iiridgemen ana trackmen 13,618 

Other employees specially exposed to railway accidents (station and 
miscellaneous employees, shopmen, etc., excluding all officers, 
clerks, indoor employees, and others engaged in work in which 
they are not specially exposed to railway accidents) 8,777 

Total number of employees specially exposed to railway accidents 41,299 
Employees not specially exposed to railway accidents (includes 
officers and other employees specifically excluded from item No. 

6 above) 9,174 

Total number of persons employed on June 30, 1912 50,473 



Pension System Announced by San Francisco-Oakland Ter- 
minal Railways 



The San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, San 
Francisco, Cal, announced the establishment on Jan. 1, 1913, 
of a pension fund for the benefit of its employees which is 
to extend to all branches of the service. The fund is to be 
administered by a board of directors to be composed of the 
following officers of the company: E. A. Heron, president; 
W. R. Alberger, general manager; Harmon Bell, chief coun- 
sel; F. W. Frost, secretary, and B. W. Fernald, auditor. The 
following rules have been adopted to govern the employees 
who may be retired or pensioned: 

"All officers and employees who have attained the age of 
seventy years shall be retired. Such of them as have been 
continuously in the service twenty years or more shall be 
pensioned. Motormen, conductors, train collectors, tower- 
men, dispatchers, boat captains and other deck officers and 
marine engineers who have attained the age of sixty-five 
years may be retired. Such of them as have been con- 
tinuously in the service twenty years or more shall be 
pensioned if and when retired. 

"Officers and employees between sixty and seventy years 
of age who have been twenty years or more in the service 
and who have become incapacitated for the performance of 
the duties in which they have been engaged and who cannot 
be transferred to other work which they are able to perform 
may be retired and pensioned. Officers and male employees 
under sixty years of age who have been twenty-five years 
or more in the service and all female employees who have 
been twenty years or more in the service and who have be- 
come permanently disabled may be retired and pensioned. 

"Physical examination shall be made of employees recom- 
mended for retirement for disability who are under seventy 
years of age, and a report thereof, with the recommendation 
of some reputable surgeon to be selected by the board of 
directors, shall be transmitted to the board of pensions for 
consideration in determining such cases. Retirement shall 
be made effective from the first day of the calendar month 
following that in which the person shall have attained the 
specified age, or from the first day of a calendar month to 
be determined by the board of pensions. 

"The terms 'service' and 'in the service' will refer to em- 
ployment upon or in connection with any of the railways 
owned or operated by the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Railways, and the service of any employee shall be con- 
sidered as continuous from the date from which he has 
been continuously employed upon such railways, whether 
prior or subsequent to their control, acquisition by or con- 
solidation into the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rail- 
ways." 

The pension allowances authorized are upon the follow- 
ing basis : 

"For each year of service an allowance of i 1 --? per cent 
of the first $50 of the highest average monthly pay of the 
officer or employee during any consecutive ten years of 
service, and in addition, 1 per cent of any excess of such 
highest average monthly pay over $50, provided, however, 
that in no case shall the allowance made be less than $20 
or more than $75 per month, subject to provisions of Rule 
8 hereof. Thus, by way of illustration: If an employee has 
been in the service for thirty years and his highest average 



4 8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



salary or wages for any ten consecutive years was $80 per 
month, his pension allowance would be $31.50 per month. 

"For exceptionally long and unbroken service, with first- 
class record, or for other good and sufficient reasons ap- 
parent to the board of directors, upon recommendation of 
the board of pensions, the board of directors may, at its 
discretion, place any officer or employee on the pension list 
and fix pensions at such amount as may in the judgment of 
the board of directors be equitable and appropriate.- In 
order to preserve direct personal relations between the 
company and its retired employees, and that they may con- 
tinue to enjoy the benefit of the pension system, no assign- 
ment of pension will be permitted or recognized. The 
acceptance of a pension allowance does not debar a retired 
employee from engaging in any other business which is not 
prejudicial to the interests of the company, but he cannot 
re-enter the service of the company. 

"No person inexperienced in railway work more than 
thirty-five years of age, and no experienced person more 
than forty-five years of age, shall hereafter be taken into 
the service; provided, however, that under conditions ap- 
proved by the president or vice-president persons may 
temporarily be taken into the service irrespective of age 
for a period not exceeding six months, and that this period 
may be extended, if necessary, to complete the work for 
which said persons were originally employed; provided, 
also, that, with the approval of the board of directors, per- 
sons may be employed indefinitely, irrespective of the age 
limit, where the service to be rendered requires professional 
or other special qualifications. No person, however, over 
the age of forty-five who shall hereafter be taken into the 
service, shall be eligible to the payment of a pension." 



Additional Cars Recommended for Los Angeles 



As a result of its study of traffic conditions in Los An- 
geles, Cal., the Board of Public Utility Commissioners of 
that city has addressed letters in part as follows to the 
Los Angeles Railway Corporation and the Pacific Electric 
Railway respectively: 

"Our study of the local systems shows that during the 
coming year there should be added to the car equipment at 
least seventy-five additional cars of the present seating 
capacity, also seventy-five cars to be used as trailers 
during the rush hours and on holidays. These cars should 
have the same seating capacity and the same style and 
finish as the cars now in use. These trailers can be bought 
for 50 per cent less than the regular cars and can be pur- 
chased and put in use in much less time than the regular 
cars. In order to get the regular cars in time to take care 
of the constantly growing demand, they should be ordered 
at once, and we therefore wish to inquire if there is any 
reason why the Board of Public Utilities should not order 
you to include in your budget for increased investments for 
next year an item requiring the delivery of the cars men- 
tioned as soon as possible, together with the attendant 
facilities of additional power, power houses, substation 
equipments, etc. We will be pleased to receive a communi- 
cation from you on the subject, and, if necessary, set a day 
for a hearing covering this very important subject of more 
cars." 

"We must call your attention to the crowded condition 
of your cars, as well as of the other line, and the necessity 
of supplying additional car equipment at a very early date. 
The city of Los Angeles is just as vitally interested in se- 
curing good service on the interurban lines as are the sur- 
rounding communities, and any congestion which affects 
the development of its satellite cities in turn hinders the 
growth and prosperity of the central metropolis. Will you 
therefore acquaint this board at an early date with the ap- 
propriation you are making for additional cars and indicate 
the probable date of delivery as well as the size and type 
of cars which you expect to add to your rolling stock 
equipment during the next year?" 



Increase in Wages in Fort Worth. — Trainmen in the em- 
ploy of the Northern Texas Traction Company, Fort 
Worth, Tex., have been granted an increase in pay of 1 
cent an hour. 

Transportation as Prize in Corn Show. — The Indianapolis, 
Columbus & Southern Traction Company, Columbus, Ind., 



has awarded six months' free transportation over its lines 
as the first prize in a corn show and three months' free 
transportation as the second prize. 

Insurance Policies Presented to Employees. — The Pitts- 
burgh, Harmony, Butler & New Castle Railway, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., has posted a notice to the effect that it has presented 
each employee with a life insurance policy for $500 in the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society, without cost, the com- 
pany paying the premiums. The policies went into effect 
on Dec. 24, 1912. 

Accident at Cincinnati. — On the night of Dec. 27, 1912, a 
car of the Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Light & Trac- 
tion Company plunged off the approach of the Central 
Bridge over the Ohio River on the Cincinnati side. It 
dropped 30 ft. and landed on end on the river bank. Ten 
persons, including the crew, were on the car, but only the 
motorman was seriously injured. 

New Transfer Rules in Trenton. — The Trenton & Mercer 
County Traction Corporation, Trenton, N. J., has issued to 
the conductors in its employ a new set of rules to be com- 
plied with in the future in the issuance of transfers to 
patrons of the road. Under the new system the company 
issues transfers from all cars that do not make the entire 
run of any one line or that run partly on the same line 
but to different destinations. 

Record Passenger Traffic on One of Chicago's Surface Sys- 
tems. — All previous records of the company for carrying 
passengers were broken by the Chicago Railways Company 
on Christmas Eve, the report showing the collection of 1,186,- 
135 cash fares and 830.295 transfers. The company's old 
record was broken on Dec. 21, 1912, when 1,967,308 cash 
fares and transfers combined were collected. The record 
of Dec. 24 was 12.89 per cent over that of the same day a 
year ago. 

Increase in Wages in Atlanta. — On Jan. 1, 1913, the 
Georgia Railway & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga., put into 
effect the following wage scale for motormen and conduc- 
tors: First three months, 17 cents per hour, instead of 16 
cents; second three months, 18 cents per hour, instead of 
17 cents; remainder of first year, 19 cents per hour, instead 
of 18 cents; second year, 21 cents, instead of 19 cents; third 
year, 23 cents; instead of 21 cents; fourth year, 24 cents, 
instead of 22 cents; fifth year and afterward, 25 cents, in- 
stead of 23 cents. 

Accidents in Greater New York in November. — Reports 
of accidents on railroads and street railroads in Greater 
New York for November, 1912, as made to the Public 
Service Commission for the First District, show that the 
total number of accidents was 5783, against 5291 in Novem- 
ber, 191 1. Of these accidents 3651 involved injuries to 
persons, against 3221 in November, 191 1. The number 
killed was thirty-two, against thirty-one in November, 1911, 
and the total number of serious injuries was 192, against 216 
in November, 1911. 

Inquiry Into Reasonableness of Milk and Cream Rates. — 
The Public Service Commission of the Second District of 
New York has instituted an inquiry and investigation into 
the reasonableness and justice of rates proposed to be 
charged by the Wallkill Transit Company, Middletown, 
N. Y., on milk and cream. The company filed with the 
commission a tariff increasing rates on milk and cream 
effective Jan. 1, 1913, and a number of complaints have 
been filed with the commission against the proposed rates. 
The hearing was set for Jan. 3, at Middletown. 

Increase in Fare Asked Between Trenton and Princeton. 

— On the ground that the present rate of fare between 
Trenton and Princeton, N. J., is insufficient, Alfred Reed 
and Sydney L. Wright, receivers for the New Jersey & 
Pennsylvania Traction Company, the Trenton, Lawrence- 
ville & Princeton Railroad, the Trenton, Lawrenceville & 
Princeton Extension Railroad and the Princeton Street 
Railroad, are considering a plan to increase the fare to 15 
cents. The fare between Trenton and Princeton has been 
10 cents. 

Heating Question in Wilmington. — The members of the 
Board of Public Utility' Commissioners of Wilmington, 
Del., conferred on Dec. 21, 1912, with R. W. Crook, general 
manager of the People's Railway, Wilmington, about the 
heating of the cars of the company. Mr. Crook agreed at 



January 4, 191 3.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



49 



the request of the board to place thermometers on a few 
cars for experimental purposes. Mr. Crook said that all 
the cars were equipped with electric heaters and that the 
company had always tried to meet the requirements of the 
traveling public. The board suggested that the tempera- 
ture in the local cars in Wilmington should be kept between 
50 deg. and 60 deg. Fahr. during the winter months. 

Fare Questions on the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Railways. — The Hayward Chamber of Commerce has filed 
a complaint against the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Railways, San Francisco, Cal., charging excessive and ir- 
regular rates between Oakland and points as far as Hay- 
ward. H. G. Walker filed a complaint against the company 
charging that illegal conditions had been inserted in the 
commutation book contract issued for transportation be- 
tween San Leandro and Hayward. On the other hand, 
the company has applied to the commission for permission 
to increase the rate of fare between San Leandro and Hay- 
ward from 10 cents to 15 cents. The company has col- 
lected 15 cents instead of the published rate of 10 cents. 
It asserts that the rate of 10 cents as published was a 
clerical error. 

Children Who Ride Free Not to Occupy Seats. — The 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, Minn., is 
enforcing the rule against children occupying seats while 
older persons stand. Heretofore an adult has been allowed 
to take three children of six years and under on cars of the 
company without paying fare. The rule which is now being 
enforced is as follows: "Children under six years of age, 
when accompanied by parent or guardian, provided not 
more than three such children are in the care of one per- 
son, will be allowed to ride free. Should more than three 
children be in charge of one guardian, a full fare will be 
collected for each child in excess of that number. Should 
conductor see free-riding children occupying seats while 
other passengers are standing, he will ask the 'parent or 
guardian either to take the child on his or her lap, have the 
child stand, or else pay full fare on account of each occupied 
seat." 

Reduction in Fare Ordered. — The Public Service Com- 
mission of the Second District of New York has ordered 
the Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern Railroad to reduce 
the fare per passenger for one-way transportation on it 1 - 
line between Stop 31 and Fulton from 10 cents to 5 cents per 
passenger. This action by the commission followed a hear- 
ing held in Fulton by Commissioner Martin S. Decker on 
Dec. 15, 1912. The company is also ordered to stop it ^ 
limited train which leaves Oswego at 8:15 a. m. at Stop 31 
on signal until the further order of the commission, or until 
it shall substitute therefor a local service at approximately 
the same time between Stop 31 and Fulton. The request 
of the complainant for the running of hourly trains between 
Fulton and points north of Fulton is denied without preju- 
dice to the filing of new complaints by interested parties. 
The distance from Stop 31 to the business portion of Fulton 
is 1.9 miles and the distance from Stop 31 to the southerly 
end of Fulton is 3.1 miles. 

Street Car Delays During Winter. — At the close of last 
winter, just after the snow had disappeared, the Detroit 
(Mich.) United Railway published the second of its service 
of advertisements in the public press prepared for the pur- 
pose of acquainting its patrons with some of the problems 
that have to be met and overcome by the company in keep- 
ing up its service. The advertisement referred to was de- 
voted to the topic "Why the Street Cars Sometimes Pass 
You By." The company has recently deemed it expedient 
to republish in connection with other matter the following 
statements made in the previous advertisement which re- 
ferred to the rule which prohibits cars from passing by 
those who wish to board them: "The unpleasant feature 
of street railway transportation is that these exceptions crop 
out most frequently in the cold and dreary months of the 
year and this despite the best efforts of the conscientious 
and hard-working force of superintendents, foremen and 
car operators. The winter now closing has been the se- 
verest upon the employees and property in its existence, 
with a record of interruptions varying from a half-hour 
stop, due to trolley wire breaking from the intense cold, 
to a similar lengthy gap at grade crossings, the result of a 
steam train becoming stalled." 



East Boston Tunnel Tolls Upheld. — Corporation Counsel 
Corbett of Boston has sent an opinion to Mayor Fitzgerald 
stating that in his judgment the exaction of a i-cent toll by 
the Boston Elevated Railway from patrons using the East 
Boston tunnel is a legal procedure. A movement has taken 
shape lately among citizens of East Boston to refuse to 
pay the toll, and the matter has been brought before the 
Mayor and the police commissioner. Mr. Corbett says that 
the evasion of the toll is not a criminal offense before the 
law, as no penalty is specified in the statute, fn a letter to 
Police Commissioner O'Meara the corporation counsel says 
that any concerted action by a number of persons deter- 
mined to evade the tolls established by law would undoubt- 
edly result in disturbances and breaches of the peace. He 
joins with the officials of the company in requesting the 
detail of a sufficient number of police officers to preserve 
order in the tunnel and its stations and to prevent any 
breach of the peace dangerous to the safety of the traveling 
public. Mayor Fitzgerald has announced that in his opinion 
every citizen of East Boston owes it to the honor of the 
city to pay the toll. The cost of the tunnel was about 
$3,000,000 and the tolls during the year ended June 30, 1912, 
aggregated about $150,000, the cost of collection being 
about $21,000. The sinking fund to meet the cost of the 
tunnel had reached $468,178 on June 30. 

Nine-Hour Day in Force at Boston. — The directors of the 
Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway placed a new schedule 
of wages and working hours in effect on Jan. 1, 1913, in 
accordance with the terms of Chapter 533, Acts of 1912, 
which provides for a working day of nine hours in eleven 
as against ten hours in twelve. The management has an- 
nounced its intention to give the same pay for a day of 
nine hours as it formerly gave for ten hours of service, 
with an allowance of overtime pay for all platform time in 
excess of nine hours. Beginning with Jan. 1 transportation 
employees will be paid by the hour and will receive when 
beginning service 25.6 cents as compared with 22.5 cents 
as formerly. The company continues the practice of min- 
imum pay, considering eight and one-half hours as a day's 
work on Sundays and certain holidays, and paying stripe 
money, except that in the future stripe money, instead of 
being paid separately, will be included in the regular rate 
per hour. Motormen and conductors on the surface lines 
will receive a rate varying from the above minimum to a 
maximum of 28.9 cents per hour, depending upon the length 
of service, and on the elevated lines motormen will receive 
a rate per hour varying from 26.2 cents to 31.7 cents in 
accordance with the years of service. The company will 
permit the selection of runs on the basis of seniority. 

Announcement of Initial Bank Deposit in Christmas 
Greeting. — Just before Christmas the Chicago, Ottawa & 
Peoria Railway, Peoria, 111., mailed to each of its employees, 
together with a bank pass book showing a deposit of $2 in 
each man's favor, a Christmas greeting over the signature 
of W. B. McKinley, president; H. E. Chubbuck, vice-presi- 
dent executive, and F. E. Fisher, general superintendent. 
The hope of the company is that the initial deposit made 
by it will have a tendency to induce the men to acquire the 
habit of saving a part of their earnings. Nearly all of the 
banks along the line of the company where these deposits 
have been made have indicated their approval of the ar- 
rangement, agreeing to add 50 cents additional to each ac- 
count which is left on deposit for a year. The Christmas 
greeting of the company to the men was as follows: "It 
having been the custom of this company for years to extend 
to its employees a small annual remembrance in recognition 
of their loyal efforts in furthering the interests of the 
property, the offering this year, herewith inclosed, is in 
the form of a savings account opened in your favor with 

the Bank of The initial 

deposit is $2, and we trust that you will accept it in the 
same spirit in which it is offered, and that when another 
year has rolled around you will have added to the account 
all you consistently could considering your working condi- 
tions. A bank account, no matter how small, is always a 
source of comfort and satisfaction to the owner. If you 
already have one this can be transferred to same, and if 
not — 'get the habit.' Thanking you for your assistance 
and co-operation during the year of 1912, and asking for a 
like service during 1913, we extend to you and yours the 
compliments of the season." 



50 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i.. 



Personal Mention 



Mr. Russell Palmer, Mobile, Ala., has been elected presi- 
dent of the Choctaw Railway & Lighting Company, Mc- 
Alester, Okla., to succeed Mr. William Busby. 

Mr. Howard Fravel has resigned as auditor of the Scran- 
ton & Binghamton Traction Company, Scranton, Pa., on 
account of ill health. Me will make his future home at 
Cranbury, N. J., where he will engage in manufacture. 

Mr. Joseph D. Evans, who has been chief engineer of the 
Montreal (Que.) Tramways since June, 1911, severed his 
connection with that company on Jan. I, 1913, to become 
construction manager of the Electric Bond & Share Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y. No announcement has yet been 
made as to who will succeed him at Montreal. 

Mr. Claude O. Weidman, connected with the Otsego & 
Herkimer Railroad and its predecessors for the past four- 
teen years and for the past five years superintendent of 
transportation, has resigned from that company to accept 
the position of superintendent of the Western Division of 
the Morris County Traction Company, with headquarters at 
Dover, N. J., vice Mr. George H. Ross, Jr., resigned. Mr. 
Weidman's resignation and appointment are both effective 
on Jan. 1, 1913. 

Mr. C. L. Murray has resigned as general manager of the 
Northwestern Pennsylvania Railway, Meadville, Pa. Mr. 
Murray was formerly general manager of the Schuylkill 
Railway, Girardville, Pa. He has had an extended experi- 
ence in managing electric railways. He was connected with 
a number of properties controlled by the Railways Com- 
pany General and was assistant superintendent of construc- 
tion for J. G. White & Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., 
for two years and was assistant for two years to Mr. D. A. 
Hegarty when Mr. Hegarty was general manager of the 
Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, Ark. 

Mr. Charles H. Hile, who became chief of the bureau of 
maintenance of the Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway on 
Jan. r, 1913, has acted as assistant to the vice-president of 
that organization since 1905. For about eight years previ- 
ous to that time he was superintendent of wires for the 
same company, and prior to that was for three years in 
charge of underground conduit construction. Mr. Hile was 
graduated from the Pennsylvania State College in 1892 as a 
mechanical engineer. He then took a post-graduate course 
at the University of Wisconsin, making street railway work 
the chief subject of his studies. He later joined the staff of 
the Philadelphia (Pa.) Traction Company as an engineer 
in connection with the electrification of the existing horse- 
railroad system, and after one year's service entered the 
employ of the West End Street Railway, Boston, continu- 
ing with that organization when it was taken over by the 
Boston Elevated Railway. He is a past president of the 
New England Street Railway Club and is well known in 
American Electric Railway Association circles. 

Mr. Dean Treat has resigned as superintendent of Dis- 
trict D of the Illinois Northern Utilities Company to be- 
come superintendent of the railway department of the Wis- 
consin Public Service Company at Green Bay, Wis. Mr. 
Treat entered railway work as a timekeeper with Westing- 
house, Church, Kerr & Company, New York, N. Y., during 
the construction of the Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & 
Muskegon Interurban Railway, which company he served 
as substation operator, on the car equipment, in the power 
plant and as train dispatcher. He was appointed to the 
last-named position with the company in July, 1903, and 
continued in that capacity until July. 1907, when he became 
assistant to Mr. John St. John, constructing engineer for 
the Comstock-Haigh-Walker Company, which was then 
building the Milwaukee Northern Railway. On the com- 
pletion of the Milwaukee Northern Railway, Mr. Treat was 
appointed chief train dispatcher and a few months later 
was made operating superintendent in charge of interurban 
operation. He resigned from the Milwaukee Northern Rail- 
way in August, 1910, to become superintendent of the Ster- 
ling, Dixon & Eastern Electric Railway. On Jan. 1, 1912, 
Mr. Treat was made manager of the Lee County Lighting 
Company in addition to superintendent of the railway. 
LTpon the purchase of the property of the Lee County 



Lighting Company and the Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Elec- 
trie Railway by the Illinois Northern Utilities Company, 
Mr. Treat was made district superintendent of District D 
of the Illinois Northern Utilities Company, which includes 
all of the company's holdings in Whiteside and part of Lee 
County. 

OBITUARY 

Hugh Grant, roadmaster of the Flint division of the De- 
troit (Mich.) United Railway, died at his home in Orion, 
Mich., on Dec. 25, from cancer of the throat which is be- 
lieved to have originated from a severe bruise received 
while in the employ of the old Northern Railway, now a 
part of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Mr. Grant was born 
in Scotland fifty-five years ago and had been roadmaster 
of the Flint division ever since the line was built. Previous 
to becoming connected with the Detroit United Railway he 
helped to build the Pontiac, Orion & Northern Railway 
between Pontiac and Caseville. 

Col. D. B. Dyer, who was president of the Augusta Rail- 
way, now part of the Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric 
Corporation, Augusta, Ga., died at his home in Kansas 
City, Mo., on Dec. 22, 1912, after a lingering illness. Col. 
Dyer had been soldier, pioneer, frontiersman, journalist 
and capitalist. For many years he was United States 
Indian agent in Kansas and the Indian Territory. The 
street railway system in Augusta which he financed is said 
to have been the first in that section of the country to be 
operated by electricity generated by water power. Col. 
Dyer was born in Joliet, 111., on March 21, 1849. At the age 
of fifteen years he entered the United States Army. It 
was through his association with the Indians and the Indian 
police, however, that he acquired his title of colonel. He 
became connected with railway work in Augusta in 1889. 
In 1891 he built the first modern office building in the city. 
In 1901 he bought the gas property at Augusta and did 
much to improve it. A few years ago Col. Dyer and his 
associates bought the Augusta Chronicle, and he was elected 
president of the company which publishes the paper. His 
other interests, however, demanded so much of his time that 
two years ago he disposed of his holdings in the paper to 
the present management. 



Metropolitan Railway of London to Be Operated 
Independently 

Since the consolidation of the Central London Railway 
with the Underground Railways much interest has been 
shown in regard to the future of the Metropolitan Railway. 
The directors of the Metropolitan Company state that 
after long and careful consideration of all the circumstances 
they have concluded that the interests of the company will 
be best served by the maintenance of a position of complete 
financial independence. The negotiations that were pro- 
ceeding with the Underground company have therefore 
been discontinued, although an understanding exists be- 
tween the Metropolitan company and the various companies 
controlled by the Underground company that they should 
co-operate in order to eliminate unnecessary competition 
and to afford the public, as far as possible, all the advan- 
tages that would have accrued from the working of the 
two systems as one. The Metropolitan company has also 
acquired the Great Northern & City line, a tube railway 
which extends from Moorgate to Finsbury Park Station, 
immediately under the main line of the Great Northern 
Railway. It is proposed to extend that line to connect with 
the Waterloo & City Railway, a short tube connecting 
Waterloo Station with the City, at the Bank, and with the 
existing Metropolitan line in the neighborhood of Liver- 
pool Street. This consolidation of interests ought to in- 
crease traffic for the Metropolitan Railway, and the electri- 
fication of the East London line ought to give valuable 
through connections between the Metropolitan system in 
the northwest and all the stations of the South Eastern 
and the Brighton Railways in the southeast. The junction 
with the Great Northern & City Railway will afford 
a through route between Finsbury Park, in, the northern 
portion of London, and New Cross, on the South Eastern 
Railway. The fact that the underground lines of the Great 
Northern & City Railway are so constructed that they will 
accommodate ordinary railway rolling stock is an advantage. 



January 4, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



5i 



Construction News 



Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 
ported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 
California Railway & Power Company, San Francisco, 

Cal. — Chartered in Delaware to take over the property of 
the United Railroads, San Francisco, the Sierra & San Fran- 
cisco Power Company, the Coast Valley Gas & Electric 
Company and the San Francisco Electric Railways. Cap- 
ital stock authorized, $60,000,000. Offices, San Francisco and 
New York. [E. R. J., Dec. 14, '12, page 1210.] 

*Wisconsin Railway, Light & Power Company, Chicago, 
111. — Incorporated in Illinois to take over the properties of 
the La Crosse Water Power Company, the La Crosse City 
Railways and the Winona Light & Railway Company. 
Capital stock, $1,200,000. 

Indiana Railways & Light Company, Kokomo, Ind. — In- 
corporated in Indiana to take over the Kokomo, Marion & 
Western Traction Company, the Kokomo, Frankfort & 
Western Traction Company and the Kokomo Public Utility 
Company. The company plans to extend its lines into 
Wells, Huntington, Miami and Carroll Counties. Capital 
stock, $3,000,000. Directors: George J. Marott, John H. 
Holliday, A. R. Holliday, Henry Kahn, Lee Hall, T. C. 
Reynolds and L. J. Kirkpatrick. [E. R. J., Dec. 14, '12.] 

^Southern Interurban Company, Terre Haute, Ind. — In- 
corporated in Indiana to build electric railways and carry 
on a general construction business. Capital stock, $25,000. 
Directors: W. L. T. Rawlins and S. B. Boggs. 

*Inter-Ocean Railway, New York, N. Y. — Application for 
a charter has been made by this company in Delaware to 
build electric railways and operate other public utilities. 
Capital stock, $5,000,000. Incorporators: Ludwig de Leo- 
pold, Paul J. Huelser and Walter E. O. Schultz, all of New 
York City. 

*Brazil, Devil's Lake & Minneapolis Electric Railway, 
Devil's Lake, N. D. — Incorporated in North Dakota to 
build an interurban line east and west from Devil's Lake. 
The company has bought the Devil's Lake & Chautauqua 
line and plans to build to Minneapolis on the east and 
to Williston, N. D., on the west. The company will operate 
gasoline-electric cars. 

*Fairmont & Veblen Railway, Veblen, S. D. — Incorpo- 
rated in South Dakota to build a 50-mile interurban railwa}' 
from Fairmont, N. D., south to Veblen, S. D. Capital stock, 
$25,000. Incorporators: Julius Roshall, L. R. Roshall and 
C. A. Paulson, Minneapolis, and George H. Anderson and 
P. S. Hanson, Veblen, S. D. 

FRANCHISES 

Birmingham, Ala. — The Kelly Company has asked for a 
new franchise from the Council in Birmingham. The plans 
of the original franchise have undergone considerable 
change. [E. R. J., Nov. 16, '12.] 

Birmingham, Ala. — The Highland Lake Land Company 
has received a franchise from the Council for a line from 
the terminus of the Owenton line of the Birmingham Rail- 
way, Light & Power Company in Birmingham southwest 
to Tuxedo. The line will be constructed by the Birming- 
ham Railway, Light & Power Company. [E. R. J., Dec. 
14, '12.] 

Phoenix, Ariz. — The Salt River Valley Electric Railway 
has received an extension of the time fixed in which to 
begin the construction of its line in Phoenix. It will con- 
nect Phoenix, Scottsdale, Tempe, Mesa, Chandler, Alham- 
bra, Glendale and Peoria. S. C. Lewis, president. [E. R. J., 
Dec. 21, '12.] 

Antioch, Cal. — The Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Electric- 
Railway has asked the Council for a franchise in Antioch. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — Emmet H. Wilson, Los Angeles, has 
received a twenty-one-year franchise for an electric railway 
on Vernon Avenue from Dalton Street to the westerly city 
limits. [E. R. J., Dec. 14, '12.] 

Richmond, Cal. — The Southern Pacific Company, San 



Francisco, has asked the Council for a fifty-year franchise 
in Richmond. 

Riverside, Cal. — The Pacific Electric Railway has received 
a franchise from the Board of Supervisors over the north- 
erly driveway on Magnolia Avenue from the Riverside 
city limits westward. The company plans to extend its 
Riverside Magnolia Avenue line as far as Corona in the 
direction of La Habra. 

Stockton, Cal. — The Tidewater & Southern Railroad has 
received a franchise to cross several other lines in Stock- 
ton. This company has entered into an agreement with the 
Central California Traction Company whereby it is to se- 
cure half the use of the Central California Traction Com- 
pany's Pilgrim Street and Weber Avenue lines in Stockton. 

Killingly, Conn. — The Attawaugan Street Railway has 
asked the Council for an extension of two years in which 
to begin the construction of its line in Killingly. It will 
connect Dayville, Attawaugan, Williamsville, Ballouville and 
Pineville. E. L. Darble, president. [E. R. J., Aug. 19, '12.] 

New Britain, Conn. — The Connecticut Company has asked 
the Council for a franchise to build a line through the Fifth 
Ward in New Britain. 

Norwalk, Conn. — The Connecticut Railway & Lighting 
Company will ask the Council for a franchise for a number 
of extensions in Norwalk, South Norwalk, New Britain, 
Berlin and Ansonia and a line from Bridgeport to Nichols. 
The company asks for a revival of rights to build north- 
ward from Milford to the tracks of the New Haven & Der- 
by Railroad. 

St. Augustine, Fla. — T. R. Osmond, St. Augustine, gen- 
eral manager of the St. Johns Light & Power Company, 
has received a thirty-year franchise to build a new line in 
St. Augustine from Bernard along Rivera Street extension 
to De Haven Street. The line will connect Jacksonville and 
St. Augustine. 

Martinsville, Ind. — The Capital Circuit Traction Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, has asked the City Council for a three- 
year extension to its franchise in which to build its line in 
Martinsville. It is the intention of the company to build 
an electric line encircling Indianapolis and taking in all the 
towns within a radius of 30 miles. [E. R. J., April 13, '12.] 

Cheboygan, Mich. — The Cheboygan Electric Light & 
Power Company has received an extension of eighteen and 
one-half years on its franchise from the Common Council 
in Cheboygan. The line will connect Cheboygan and 
Petoskey, via the Mullet Lake and Burt Lake districts. 
|E. R. J., Dec. 14, '12.] 

St. Joseph, Mo. — The Kansas City, Clay County & St. 
Joseph Railway has received a franchise from the Council 
in St. Joseph. 

Freeville, N. Y. — The Ithaca-Cortland Traction Company, 
Ithaca, has asked the Council for a franchise in Freeville. 
The line will connect Ithaca and Cortland, via Varna, Etna 
and Freeville. [E. R. J., Sept. 7. '12.] 

Irondequoit, N. Y. — The Public Service Commission, 
Second District, has authorized the Rochester & Suburban 
Railway to exercise franchises granted by the town of 
Irondequoit for an additional track in and along the Ridge 
Road between Portland Avenue and Woodman Road, and 
upon and across Woodman Road at a point where said 
Woodman Road and the Ridge Road intersect in Rochester. 

Columbus, Ohio. — The Columbus Railway & Light Com- 
pany has received a franchise from the Council to extend 
its Leonard Avenue line in Columbus to Shepard. 

Newberg, Ore. — The Portland, Eugene & Eastern Elec- 
tric Railroad has received a six months' extension of time 
on its franchise in Newberg. 

Fulton, Pa. — The Pittsburgh, Steubenville & Wheeling 
Street Railway has asked the Council for a franchise in 
Fulton. 

Wyomissing, Pa. — The Reading Transit Company has 
received permission to double-track its Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue line through Wyomissing. 

Nashville, Tenn. — The Nashville Railway & Light Com- 
pany has received permission from the City Council to 
allow the Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway the use of 
its tracks in Nashville. 



52 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol: XLI, No. i. 



Beaumont, Tex. — The Jefferson County Traction Com- 
pany, Beaumont, has received a franchise from the Council 
in Beaumont. This 20-mile line will connect Beaumont and 
Port Arthur. C. W. Kellogg, Jr., Dallas, represents Stone 
& Webster, Boston, who will build the line. [E. R. J., 
Aug. 24, '12.] 

Houston, Tex. — The Houston Electric Company has re- 
ceived a franchise from the Council to lay T-rails on most 
of its lines in Houston and to repave and double-track 
several of its lines. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. — The Utah Interurban Electric 
Company has asked the County Commissioners for a fran- 
chise from the southern boundary line of the county into 
Salt Lake City. The line will connect Salt Lake City, 
American Fork, Pleasant Grove, Provo, Springfield and 
jpanish Fork. W. C. Orem, Salt Lake City, president. 
[E. R. J., Dec. 21, '12.] 

Asotin, Wash. — F. L. Sturm, South Bend, Ore., has asked 
the Council for a franchise in Asotin. He has secured 
franchises in Lewiston and Clarkston. [E. R. J., Dec. 
14, '12.] 

Seattle, Wash. — The Puget Sound Traction. Light & 
Power Company, Seattle, has received permission to re- 
construct its Madison Street line from Broadway to Pike 
Street in Seattle. 

Vancouver, Wash. — The Northwestern Electric Company 
has asked the Council for a fifty-year franchise to build an 
electric line in Vancouver. 

Wenatchee, Wash. — The Wenatchee Valley Railway & 
Power Company has secured a six months' extension to its 
franchise in Wenatchee. The line will connect Wenatchee, 
Leavenworth and Cashmere. A. J. Linville, president. 
[E. R. J., Dec. 21, '12.] 

TRACK AND ROADWAY 

San Pedro Street Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — The Board 
of Public Works has advertised for bids for the construc- 
tion of the first link of this municipal railway in Los 
Angeles on San Pedro Street from Aliso Street to Ninth 
Street. This line is to be a three-rail system, so that it can 
be used by both the Pacific Electric Railway and the Los 
Angeles Railway. Bids are to be opened on Jan. 10. 

*Madera, Cal.— J. S. Harker, Coarse Gold, and the Ma- 
dera Chamber of Commerce are considering plans to build 
an electric railway from Madera to Yosemite Valley. It is 
proposed to store the waste waters of the North Fork water- 
sheds and utilize them for developing electric power for 
this line. Surveys will soon be made. 

Geary Street Municipal Railway, San Francisco, Cal. — 
This company has placed in operation its 4-mile line in San 
Francisco from Kearney Street downtown to Golden Gate 
Park. The company will soon complete the line from 
Golden Gate Park to the ocean beach. 

Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Company, Wilming- 
ton, Del. — This company's line to Hope Farm from the 
Cedars, via Marshallton and Newport Turnpike, has been 
completed and will soon be placed in operation. 

St. John's Light & Power Company, St. Augustine, Fla. — 
This company has placed in operation its line between St. 
Augustine and New Augustine. 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company, Atlanta, Ga. — It is 
reported that this company will spend $1,250,000 in 1913 
for double-tracking some of its lines. Work has been 
begun by the company on the extension of its old Decatur 
line to Stone Mountain, a distance of 16 miles. 

Americus, Tifton & Atlantic Railway, Tifton, Ga. — Pre- 
liminary surveys have been begun by this company on its 
line from Americus through Sumter County to the Flint 
River. I. W. Myers. Tifton, president. [E. R. J., Nov. 23, 

*I2.] 

Valdosta (Ga.) Street Railway. — This company has de- 
cided to change its name to the Valdosta Traction Company 
and to build two extensions of 1V2 miles to 2 miles each. 
The capital stock will be increased from $60,000 to $125,000. 

East St. Louis, Columbia & Waterloo Railway, East St. 
Louis, 111. — This company has placed in operation its line 
in Waterloo. Its railway extends through Columbus, 
Dupo, Prairie du Poe and East St. Louis. 



Kankakee & Urbana Traction Company, Urbana, 111. — 

This company has completed its line between Kankakee 
and Urbana. G. M. Bennett, Urbana, president. [E. R. J., 
March 16, '12.] 

Union Electric Company, Dubuque, la. — This company 
has been asked to consider plans to extend its line from 
Dodge Street and South Locust Street south to South 
Dodge Street, making a loop with the Dodge Street line in 
the lower section of Dubuque. 

*Taylorsville, Louisville & Jeffersontown Railway, Tay- 
lorsville, Ky. — This company has been organized at Tay- 
lorsville and is completing a survey of an interurban line 
from Jeffersontown to Taylorsville. I. F. Jewell, Rowland 
Cox, B. D. Cook and J. A. Stone, Taylorsville, are members 
of the company, which will ask the Louisville Railway to 
undertake the extension. 

Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway. — Plans are being 
made by this company for an extension across the bridge 
in Chicopee Falls. 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railway. — Work will soon be 
begun by this company to double-track its line from Detroit 
to Mount Clemens. 

Saginaw- Bay City Railway, Saginaw, Mich. — This com- 
pany has been asked to consider plans to extend several 
of its lines in Saginaw. 

Electric Short Line Railroad, Minneapolis, Minn. — Pre- 
liminary surveys are being made by this company for its 
line through Dawson. It has secured right-of-way for 36 
miles of line out of Minneapolis. Earle D. Luce, president. 
[E. R. J., Oct. 19, '12.] 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, Minn. — 
It is reported that this company has decided to build an 
extension in St. Paul from the Agricultural College to the 
Belt Line bridge to connect there with the Como-Harriet 
line. The plan is for the university to build the track, 
operate the line and pay the company for the power and 
use of its equipment. 

St. Louis, Lakewood & Grant Park Railway, St. Louis, 
Mo. — This company, which is building a line southwest 
from St. Louis, has secured sufficient funds to extend it to 
Fenton. Rails have been laid ]/• mile west of its former 
terminus at Lakewood and nearly all the right-of-way to 
the Merimec River has been contracted for. 

*Twin Bridges, Mont. — The Waters Tunnel Company 
plans to build an electric line from a point on the Northern 
Pacific Railway midway between Sheridan and Lauri to its 
mines located in Tobacco Root range. It is stated that the 
company has secured financial backing for the project. 

*Seneca Falls, N. Y. — A company has been formed to 
build a power plant in Seneca Falls to provide power for a 
proposed electric railway to connect Lodi, Interlaken and 
Covert, a distance of about 30 miles. Plans are being made 
to secure a private right-of-way for the line, which will 
eventually be extended north to Clyde and Lyons. No 
names have yet been given of those interested in the 
project. 

Hendersonville (N. C.) Traction Company. — The line and 

franchise of this company have been purchased by C. A. 
Carlson, Red Bank, N. J., and the new owner states that if 
he can secure the co-operation of the townships between 
Hendersonville and Asheville he will extend the line to the 
latter point and also encircle the lakes and other points 
near Hendersonville. 

Newbern-Ghent Street Railway, Newbern, N. C. — This 
company has completed and will soon place in operation 
its 5-mile electric line between Newbern and Ghent. E. C. 
Armstrong, Newbern, is interested. [E. R. J.. Aug. 10, '12.] 

Fargo & Moorhead Street Railway, Fargo, N. D. — Plans 
are being considered by this company to extend its lines 
40 miles into northwestern Minnesota. 

Toledo Railways & Light Company, Toledo, Ohio. — 
This company has been asked to consider plans to build a 
crosstown line to connect with the Cherry Street line on 
the north and the Brcadway line on the south in Toledo 
and also to extend its Wayne Street line to the city limits. 

Consolidated Electric Railways, Tulsa, Okla. — This com- 
pany advises that it will begin construction about Jan. 10, 
1913, on its 70-mile line to connect Tulsa, Sapulpa, Broken 



January 4, 191 3.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



55' 



Arrow, Coweta, Porter and Muskogee. Capital stock au- 
thorized, $10,000, to he issued at once. Officers: A. A. 
Small, president, and A. B. Davis, secretary and treasurer, 
all of Tulsa. [E. R. J., Nov. 23, '12.] 

Ottawa & Morrisburg Electric Railway, Ottawa, Ont. — 
This company has received permission from the Ottawa 
Electric Railway to use certain divisions of its tracks for a 
period of fifteen years, so that the Morrisburg cars can 
enter Ottawa. The Ottawa-Morrisburg Electric Railway 
will pay the city at the rate of $450 per mile on unpaved 
streets and $1,000 per mile on paved streets, and also 10 
per cent of revenue on business within the city limits. 
[E. R. J., Dec. 7, '12.] 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Company, Harrisburg, Pa. 
— This company announces that the only extension con- 
templated for 1913 is that from Fort Hunter to Dauphin, 
and this is contingent upon obtaining the necessary right- 
of-way grant of the old canal bed from the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. 

Hagerstown, Greencastle & Mercersburg Railway, Mid- 
dleburg, Pa. — This company has voted to increase its cap- 
ital stock from $100,000 to $600,000 and has arranged to 
mortgage its property to secure an issue of $600,000 of 
bonds to provide funds to complete the construction of 
the railway during 1913. The following officers have been 
elected: John E. Ensign, Cleveland, Ohio, president; C. M. 
Hoffman, Greencastle, vice-president and secretary; Alex- 
ander Hamill, New York, treasurer; James W. Rice, Green- 
castle, and S. A. Roth, Hagerstown, directors. [E. R. J., 
Dec. 21, '12.] 

Pittsburgh, Steubenville & Wheeling Street Railway, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — This company is reported to have com- 
pleted surveys for a route from Pittsburgh through Bur- 
gettstown, Avella, Independence, Bethany, West Liberty, 
Greggsville, Fulton and Wheeling. Construction will be 
begun in the spring. W. H. Hildebrand, Pittsburgh, presi- 
dent. [E, R. J., Dec. 1, '12.] 

Pottstown & Reading Street Railway, Pottstown, Pa. — 
Plans are being made by this company to build three exten- 
sions in Phoenixville. 

*Pottsville, Pa. — Plans are being developed to build an 
electric line in Schuylkill County to connect the Mahanoy 
Valley through Frackville with the Eastern Pennsylvania 
Railways lines south of the Broad Mountain at St. Clair. 
This proposed 9-mile line will unite more than 50 miles of 
electric railway operated by the Eastern Pennsylvania Rail- 
ways with 30 miles of track owned by the Schuylkill Trac- 
tion Company north of the mountain, running through the 
Mahanoy Valley, Shenandoah, Mahanoy City, Girardville 
and Ashland. 

Charleston-Isle of Palms Traction Company, Charleston, 

S. C. — This company has asked the United States Senate to 
authorize the construction of a bridge over the Cooper 
River at Charleston and also another bridge across Shem 
Creek to Mount Pleasant, S. C. James Sottle, president. 
[E. R. J., Nov. 30, '12.] 

Jackson Railway & Light Company, Jackson, Tenn. — Plans 
are being considered by this company to extend its line up 
Porter Street to Winter's Grove. 

Jefferson County Traction Company, Beaumont, Tex. — 
This company has increased its capital stock from $600,000 
to $1,000,000. The line will connect Beaumont and Port 
Arthur. [E. R. J., Aug. 24, '12.] 

Southern Traction Company, Dallas, Tex. — This com- 
pany's reports from the field engineers show 59 miles of 
roadbed completed, ready for ballast, with 39 miles of 
roadbed more than 80 per cent completed. The above is in 
addition to the roadbed graded between Ferris and Waxa- 
hachie. The contractors have completed driving piling for 
thirty-one trestles. They have completed sixteen concrete 
culverts and they have completed masonry abutments for 
the following structures: Ten-Mile Creek, on the Corsicana 
line, and at White Rock, Richland, Mill and Chambers 
Creeks on the Waco line. During the last month the con- 
tract has been awarded for the superstructure for the 
Waxahachie viaduct. About 98,000 ties have been received 
and over 20,000 ties are now in transit. About 170 tons of 
rail have been received. Specifications have been prepared 
and bids are now being received for track laying and for 
overhead material. 



*Houston, Tex. — Announcement has been made by the 
Alderson-Stille-Force Company, Houston, that construc- 
tion will be begun at once on the electric line to extend 
from the end of the Liberty Avenue line in Houston, where 
it will turn into Schwartz Street and run on Odin Avenue 
and east to the Houston Harbor Addition. Arrangements 
have been made with the Houston Electric Company to 
operate this line when completed. A. D. Alderson is in- 
terested. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

British Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver, B. C. — 

This company plans to build a new five-story building on 
the corner of Main Street and Prior Street in Vancouver 
for its trainmen. The company also plans to build a sta- 
tion for the Lulu Island lines at the south end of Gran- 
ville Street bridge. The cost is to be about $10,000. 

San Francisco, Vallejo & Napa Valley Railroad, Napa, 
Cal. — This company has awarded the contract to build its 
new depot at Calistoga to E. W. Doughty, Napa. 

Crescent City Railway, Riverside, Cal. — Work has been 
begun by this company on the construction of three new 
passenger stations. The structures will be of concrete con- 
struction and will be located at points between Riverside 
and Crestmore, namely, at Fairmont Park, at Strong Street 
and at the junction with what is known as the Jurupa ditch. 

Washington-Virginia Railway, Washington, D. C. — This 
company plans to build a new freight station in Alexandria. 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Plans are being considered by this com- 
pany to build a new station on School Street in Clearmont 
on the Ben-Hur route. 

Grand Rapids (Mich.) Railway. — This company has 
opened its new carhouse in Grand Rapids. The structure is 
187 ft. x 200 ft. 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — An addition 
will be built by this company to its office building at the 
corner of North Montello Street and Elliot Street, Boston. 
The structure will be one story in height and 56 ft. x 40 ft., 
with concrete foundations. 

Mesaba Electric Railway, Duluth, Minn. — This company 
has awarded the contract to Augustus Anderson for the 
erection of its new depot in Chisholm. The structure is 
of frame construction and will provide for passengers, 
freight and express. 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway, Kansas 
City, Mo. — Work will be begun at once by 'this company on 
its new express station and ticket office in St. Joseph. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

Washington-Virginia Railway, Washington, D. C. — This 
company plans to build a new substation in Alexandria. 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind. — The Vandalia Coal Company, the Coal 
Bluff Mining Company and the Western Indiana Mining 
Company are reported to have contracted with the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company for cur- 
rent to be supplied by transmission lines for which the 
company has secured a franchise along most of the public 
highways in Vigo County. 

Kentucky Utilities Company, Winchester, Ky. — This com- 
pany plans to build soon a new power plant in Somerset. 
The cost is estimated to be about $75,000. A new filter and 
pumping station is now being constructed by the company. 

East Liverpool Traction & Light Company, East Liver- 
pool, Ohio. — Final arrangements have been made by this 
company and the Ohio Valley Scenic Route Railway to 
build a power plant 1 mile north of Smith's Ferry on Beaver 
Creek at the Island Run mines. The cost is estimated to 
be $2,000,000. 

Eastern Pennsylvania Railway, Pottsville, Pa. — This com- 
pany plans to build a new substation at Frackville, and 
work has been started on a high-tension line from Potts- 
ville to Frackville to feed the substation. 

Southern Traction Company, Dallas, Tex. — This company 
has awarded a contract to the General Electric Company 
for all necessary electrical equipment for all substations 
of its lines. The contract awarded totals between $250,000 
and $300,000. 



54 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. i. 



Manufactures and Supplies 



ROLLING STOCK 
General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has or- 
dered from the Wason Manufacturing Company two CE- 
68-B-io cars. 

Lynchburg Traction & Light Company, Lynchburg, Va., 

has ordered from The J. G. Brill Company one 40-ft. con- 
struction car body with Brill 50-E-1 trucks. 

Oakland & Antioch Railway, Oakland, Cal., has ordered 
from the Wason Manufacturing Company four 56-ft. com- 
bination passenger and baggage cars, and one 58-ft. parlor 
car. 

TRADE NOTES 
Standard Roller Bearing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has 

disposed of its iron foundry to the P. Kennedy Foundry 
Company of Baltimore, Md. 

H. M. Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111., have appointed 
W. R. Thompson, formerly assistant chief engineer, as 
manager of engineering and construction, effective Jan. 1, 
I9I3- 

Pyrene Manufacturing Company, New York, manufac- 
turer of fire extinguishers, has appointed the Gorham En- 
gineering Company, San Francisco, Cal., its representative 
on the Pacific Coast. 

Dearborn Chemical Company, Chicago, 111., announces 
that Warren P. Sayers has joined the sales department of 
the company. Mr. Sayers will assist Daniel Delaney, man- 
ager of the Cincinnati office, in the surrounding territory. 

Pressed Steel Pole Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has dis- 
posed of its plant at Mount Pleasant, Pa., to Pittsburgh 
men. Officers have been elected as follows: W. H. Schoen, 
president; Harry D. McCutcheon, vice-president; John D. 
Wilson, treasurer. 

Ottawa Car Company, Limited, Ottawa, Ont., is adding a 
new machine shop to its present plant at Ottawa. This 
building is 66 ft. x 135 ft., four stories and basement, and is 
of solid brick and fireproof construction. The company is 
now running to its full capacity. 

Jones & Laughlin Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has ap- 
pointed F. B. Hufnagel general superintendent of the Ali- 
quippa department to succeed W. Ff. Lewis, who has re- 
signed to engage in business for himself. Mr. Hufnagel 
has been general superintendent of the South Side works of 
the company. 

A. H. Framhein, who has been connected for about five 
years with the Chicago sales department of the Railway 
Steel-Spring Company, has resigned, effective Jan. 1, to in- 
troduce in that city Latheroil cleaning products, manufac- 
tured by the Heinrich Fischer Company of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Latheroil is a liquid soap, new in that field, which has given 
unusual satisfaction elsewhere, and is especially efficient for 
cleaning railway and street cars. Mr. Framhein will be 
located at Room 440, Marquette Building. Chicago, 111. 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has received 
the following orders for trucks: Lehigh Valley Transit 
Company, Allentown, Pa., six Brill 27-MCB trucks and eight 
Brill MCB-3X trucks: Georgia Railway & Power Company, 
Atlanta, Ga., fifty Brill 39-E trucks; General Electric Com- 
pany, Schenectady, N. Y.. two Brill 50-E-2 trucks; Parkers- 
burg, Marietta & Interurban Railway, Parkersburg. W. 
Va., four Brill 50-E-2 trucks; Washington-Virginia Rail- 
way, Washington, D. C, four Brill 23-D trail trucks; Cum- 
berland County Power & Light Company, Portland, Maine, 
two Brill 27-GE trucks. 

Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, has 
announced a special guarantee for trial orders covering a 
mileage six times as great as from ordinary gearing, four 
times as great as from oil-treated and twice as great as 
from case-hardened material. The company suggests the 
equipment of a car with two grades of material so that 
comparative records can be simply and accurately kept and 
agrees to refund in cash to cover any deficiency in connec- 
tion with the guarantee, the records which it is said to have 
established indicating that the results with the company's 
products will greatly exceed the guarantee. 



Drake Railway Automotrice Company, Chicago, 111., calls 
attention to an error which appeared in the issue of this 
paper for Dec. 21, 1912, quoting the consumption of gasoline 
on that company's motor car during the run from St. Louis 
to Chicago. The run was made on an average of 2^ to 3 
car miles per gallon of gasoline instead of on 2^ to 3 gal. 
of gasoline per car mile. The rest of the trip, from Chicago 
to Kansas City over the Chicago Great Western and from 
Kansas City to Muskogee over the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railroad, was equally successful, there being abso- 
lutely no trouble of any kind. The run from Chicago to 
Kansas City was made on Sunday, Dec. 15. 

H. W. Johns-Manville Company, New York, N. Y., has 
completed its new plant at Manville, N. J., which is to 
begin operations this year. The plant consists of nine 
buildings, which, together with their products, are classified 
as follows: A — textile and packing; B — rubber plant, elec- 
trical specialties and printing department; C — pipe cover- 
ings; D — paper mill; E — magnesia; F — roofing; G — mastic 
and waterproofing; H — roofing coatings, power plant and 
pump house. Each building has an average length of 
1000 ft., and is a separate factory in itself. The total com- 
bined floor area of all the buildings is about 1,000,000 sq. ft. 
About 3000 men will be employed at this new plant, making 
a total of about 7000 who are now employed by the com- 
pany. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 
Dossert & Company, New York, N. Y., have reprinted in 
pamphlet form an article from the Signal Engineer entitled 
"The Use of Dossert Connectors in Signal Work." 

Standard Underground Cable Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
has issued a folder in which attention is called to the various 
brands of Standard rubber insulated wire manufactured by 
the company. 

C. F. Pease Company, Chicago, 111., has printed a thirty- 
two-page booklet entitled "Everything for Blue Printing," 
which briefly describes and illustrates its line of automatic 
blue-printing machinery. 

H. M. Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111., has issued a 
map of the United States showing the cities which are 
headquarters for the principal operating properties under 
its management. A complete list of all towns in which 
service is supplied is given under the heading of "Operating 
Companies," which are listed alphabetically. 

American Vanadium Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has issued 

American Vanadium Facts for December, 1912, which con- 
tains service records, results of drop tests and specifica- 
tions of heat-treated chrome-vanadium steel tires. It also 
contains a list of steam railroads which will use vanadium 
steel in the construction of their new locomotives. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, 111., has is- 
sued several new bulletins which are descriptive of its prod- 
ucts: Bulletin E-22 describes and illustrates heavy duty 
electric drills for alternating current; Bulletin E-26 de- 
scribes Universal electric drills operating on direct or al- 
ternating current; Bulletin E-27 describes heavy duty elec- 
tric drills: Bulletin No. 34 G describes air receivers, after- 
coolers, air line drain traps, reheaters and economizers. 



The London County Council has decided not to proceed 
with the scheme of tramways along Edgware Road from 
the Marble Arch to Cricklewood. It was shown that with 
street widenings the scheme would cost more than £425,000, 
and would require assistance from the rates to maintain. It 
was also shown that as all four local authorities over whose 
roads the tramways would pass opposed the scheme, there 
was not much chance that it would pass Parliament, es- 
pecially as there was ample motor omnibus accommoda- 
tion along the route. In the meantime the returns from 
the London County Council trams are steadily decreasing, 
the receipts for the week ending Dec. 4, for instance, being 
£2,700 lower than those for the corresponding week last 
year, so severe is the motor bus competition. The Council 
is considering the question of enlarging the capacity of its 
generating station at Greenwich by withdrawing four 3500- 
kw reciprocating engines and installing in their place four 
steam turbines of 8000 kw each, with an adequate increase 
in the boilers and condensing plant. 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. XLI 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 11, 101.°, 



No. 2 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

James H. McGraw, President. C. E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treas. 
239 West 39th Street, New York. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. ... Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 



Terms of Subscription 
For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
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Re/quests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
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at the end of which subscription expires. 

Copyright, 1913, by McGraw Publishi^c— &jmpak 
Entered as second-class matter at the pos^^ff^ft jF.Nc-w f^ri^^J. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway/Journal, 8000 copies are priced. 
= ( -ggj^-tW 



LAWS AGAINST 
TRESPASSERS 



One of 'thi? public services \\\ 



the 

National\A^op^a^p.r^ r o(jV^ilway 
Conimissioner^^^o«Tr?''is its ac- 
tion in calling" attention to the correct standing of tres- 
passers on the private right-of-way of railways. A railway 
seeking to operate with a minimum of accidents in a hazard- 
ous business should not be forced to take, as it frequently 
is in the uninformed public mind, the responsibility for acci- 
dents to trespassers on its own property. A railway buys a 
right-of-way and fences it in for the purpose of having 
a controlled thoroughfare for the transportation of its 
passengers at high rates of speed. By fences and signs 
it serves notice that trespassers not only are not wanted 
but that if, in spite of that fact, they go on the right-of-way 
they do so at their peril. At the last meeting of the 
National Association of Commissioners the report of the 
committee which touched on this subject said that tres- 
passers can be kept off only by penal laws rigorously en- 
forced. All that the state commissioners can do to bring 
about a public recognition of this fact and corrective steps 
will help to reduce the total of accidents and in particular 
those accidents for which the railways are not responsible. 



SAFETY VALVE 
MAINTENANCE 



The modern safety valve is one of 
the most delicate parts of the steam 
boiler and demands constant care 
and attention if accurate working is to be assured. Like 
many other pieces of apparatus associated with the "steam 
end" of the station, any neglect of the equipment not only 
opens the door to a possible accident or interruption of 
service but also tends to reduce the operating economy 
through the escape of heat in the form of vapor or ex- 
cessive condensation. Experience has led in one important 
railway plant to the practice of quietly lifting all safety 
valves off their seats at least once in twenty-four hours 
in order to avoid the formation of a so-called skin on the 
spring and seat. If a valve is not lifted for a week, the 



effect of tliis skin is to increase the lifting pressure and 
consequently to expose the boiler to a rlightly larger strain 
in operation than may be desirable. The above method of 
handling the safety valve is that commonly used in practice, 
but for close regulation careful engineers raise or lower 
the cushion seat according to the range within which it i- 
desired to have the valve act. The custom of striking the 
safety valve spindle or any other of its parts in order to 
make it close is a dangerous one and may cause serious 
results. Where station logs provide for regular records of 
the condition of valves, high-pressure and low-pressure 
steam lines, fire-protection systems and water valves, the 
safety valve equipment may well be included and periodical 
entries made as to the setting, the blow-offs which take place 
and the adjustments or repairs required at various times. 
In any case full instructions should be secured from the 
valve manufacturers and these, with the details of construc- 
tion and setting, should be carefully studied before adjust- 
ments are attempted in service. Under no circumstances 
should any attempt be made to change adjustments except 
under direct supervision of the head of the power station 
organization, as the result of setting, even accidentally, a 
safety valve to pop at a pressure higher than that author- 
ized will vitiate the boiler insurance and open the way for 
legal difficulties in case almost anv kind of accident occurs. 



THE NEW JERSEY 
GAS DECISION 



Important questions as to what 
should constitute the value of a pub- 
lic utility when appraised for rate- 
making purposes promise to be brought before the courts 
for adjudication in New Jersey as the result of the gas 
decision by the Public Utilities Commission of that State, 
reported in the issue of this paper for last week. The Pub- 
lic Service Gas Company has accepted the rate established 
by the board, but has reserved the right to test at its con- 
venience the legality and constitutionality of the board's 
valuation of its property. Undoubtedly one of the most 
important matters to be settled during the next few years, 
concerning both public service companies and the public, is 
this question of the proper basis for the valuation of public 
utility properties for rate-making purposes. The statutes in 
nearly all States which grant rate-making powers to public 
commissions authorize them to establish rates which shall 
be "just and reasonable," but these words are meaningless 
without some generally accepted standard as to what per- 
centage constitutes a "fair return" on the investment and 
what assets should be included in a "fair valuation." As 
our readers know, the views on these two points, even among 
the rate-making bodies, are practically as far apart as 
are the poles. A long hearing extending over the past 
three years and involving these points, so far as electric 
lighting rates are concerned, is fast drawing to conclusion 
in the Westchester lighting case, which is being considered 
by the Public Service Commission of New York, Second 



50 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



District. There are other cases before the courts involv- 
ing other public utilities, but none other, perhaps, so far 
as the electric lighting companies are concerned, which is 
being considered so thoroughly. Alter all, the final word' 
in the matter will have to be pronounced by the highest 
court in the land. Until then the financial status of new 
capital in such enterprises will be uncertain, and investors 
will be unwilling to risk much money in public utilities. 



PUBLICITY IN THE CLAIM DEPARTMENT 

That the attitude of publicity in methods and policies on 
some electric railways has been effective in molding public 
opinion and bringing about more friendly relations be- 
tween the public and the managements is evidenced by the 
results obtained by those taking this attitude. There still 
is room, however, for improvement along the same line in 
the claim department. Recently this department of a large 
railway system was made the subject of very strenuous 
attacks by the press concerning what were assumed to be 
underhand methods in caring for injured persons and ad- 
justing their claims. These attacks continued until the 
general claim agent decided that the best policy to pursue 
under the circumstances was one of publicity. A printed 
letter in pamphlet form explaining the methods and policy 
of the railway company in cases of personal injury was 
mailed to the managing editor of each of the papers. The 
result of this open letter was that the attacks were dis- 
continued and friendly relations now exist. 

We believe that this example is an excellent one to fol- 
low. The claim department should have nothing to con- 
ceal and certainly has many things to expose to public 
view. Little does the public know of the methods employed 
by the unprincipled in personal injury cases. The "ambu- 
lance chaser" is ever ready to take up the case of the 
faker and, in many instances, the innocent, asserting that 
others have received large sums for similar injuries. The 
usual result follows; the claimant receives certain dam- 
ages, but it all goes to pay the attorney's fees. We believe 
that many of the legitimate cases for damages would be 
settled out of court to the benefit of both claimant and com- 
pany if the same methods of publicity were pursued in the 
claim department as in other branches of the industry. 
This policy would also bring about a spirit of fairness on 
the part of, the public in its dealings with the railway com- 
pany. 

Without doubt any claim department can cite innumer- 
able cases in which claims were admitted amicably and 
letters were received praising it for its fair methods. These 
recommendations in the form of letters of praise should 
not be filed immediately ; the public should know about 
them. The limelight of publicity is not a cure-all, but it 
is a step in the right direction. At first it will be found 
that the public is suspicious of the company's motives,, but 
in the end it will become educated as to the new condition 
of affairs, and the fruits of the changed policy will be 
apparent to the railway company. As has been remarked 
at meetings of the Claims Association many times recently, 
the modern claim agent must be an educator of public 
opinion. Efforts of the Boston Elevated Railway in these 
directions, described in this issue, illustrate this point. 



WHAT CONSTITUTES A FAIR TEST OF MATERIAL 

Every engineer is confronted by the problem of so con- 
ducting his department as to reduce the amount of waste 
and lost motion to a minimum. To do so he must get the 
best results out of both the labor and the material with 
which he has to deal. As a rule each is as important as the 
other, and an error in judgment in the selection of the 
proper material for repairs may be just as expensive as 
slackness in the conduct of the work. This fact points to 
the importance of testing materials and to the question 
of what constitutes a fair test. Shall the engineer base 
his judgment on the service tests of a sample or shall he 
purchase a small quantity from which an average may be 
obtained under varied service conditions? 

At first thought the solution appears simple enough; that 
is, to request samples from the different manufacturers and 
draw conclusions from the results obtained under actual 
service conditions. This method may serve as the basis 
for the placing of the first order, but it should not be 
conclusive evidence. It may be unfair to the road, as the 
material obtained may not be up to the original sample, 
and again some of the samples of other manufacturers may 
have been tried under more severe conditions than the one 
apparently giving the best results. 

In the purchase of paint or varnish, as an example, we 
believe that one's judgment should not be based on the 
life of a paint as given by a sample on a paddle but should 
be based on a sufficient amount to paint a car or bridge. 
The chemical tests are very good as a means of elimination, 
but where the results obtained from several samples are 
about the same service conditions only should be trusted, 
as a chemical test is only secondary at best. The same 
method holds in the selection of parts of car equipment 
< Jne should base his conclusions on the averages of several 
samples from each manufacturer. We do not believe in 
"snap judgment." It may serve in some instances, but not 
when true economy is desired. One may be able to procure 
information relative to results obtained by other companies, 
but at the same time one should be sure of the other com- 
pany's service conditions and the fairness of the test. 

Another point which must receive consideration is the 
question of price, but not to the extent of eliminating a 
sample from the test. In numerous instances it will be 
found that the material which will give the greatest econ- 
omy will be one costing considerably more than the other 
samples. For instance, we know of a case where paint cost- 
ing one-third more than that already in use not only cov- 
ered one-third more surface per gallon but gave a greatly 
increased life in service. It also decreased the cost of labor 
per square foot of surface covered, as it eliminated one-third 
of the lost motion, namely, that of dipping the brushes 
into the paint and refilling the painters' buckets. Before 
one chooses any material as against another, he must be 
sure in his own mind that the test conditions were abso- 
lutely fair to himself and the manufacturer and that he 
has considered the expected economies from every possible 
angle. Although the net saving effected may be small on a 
single gallon or piece of any material where great quantities 
are used each year, the total saving is worth while and 
will materially assist in adding to the net profits. 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



57 



THE STATUS OF THE INDUSTRY AS SHOWN BY 
STATISTICS 

A great deal has been said during the past few years 
about the condition of the electric railway industry, but no 
descriptive statement could illustrate so clearly and point- 
edly the actual status of the electric railway lines of the 
country as the statistics in regard to miles of track built 
and cars ordered during 1912 published in the last issue of 
this paper. In brief, they show that while the number of 
cars ordered is in excess of those ordered during 191 1 — in 
fact, is greater than during any one of the past five years 
during which the Electric Railway Journal has compiled 
statistics of this kind — the length of new track built or elec- 
trified is practically the smallest during the same period. 

We use the word "practically" because, while nominally 
the miles of track built or electrified in 1912 were more 
than those built during 1909 by 63 miles, the excess is more 
than accounted for by the extensions of two electric rail- 
ways which are not properly either city or interurban rail- 
ways and so should not be considered as being included in 
the class of roads which we are now discussing One of 
these was the electrification of part of the main line of the 
New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, which 
amounted to 58 miles, and the other was a 78-mile exten- 
sion of the Oregon Electric Railway, which is controlled by 
the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railroad, a steam railroad. 
These two extensions alone account for 136 miles, or more 
than 14 per cent of the total. The fact clearly shown by 
these figures is that while the business on existing electric 
railway lines is increasing, owing to the increased popula- 
tion and expanding business of the country, and cars have 
to be purchased by electric railway companies to carry 
these passengers, the construction of new lines and of ex- 
tensions to old lines has almost ceased. 

It should be remembered in this connection that during 
the past year there has been on the whole a marked revival 
of business and that the population of the country has been 
increasing at the rate of about 2 per cent a year. Nor- 
mally one would expect the electric railway lines to increase 
in length in about this proportion, especially because of 
the small amount of track built during the previous few 
years. But in such a state as New York, outside of the 
main line of the New York Central Railroad, already men- 
tioned, and the New York, Westchester & Boston Railroad, 
which was also built practically for steam railroad condi- 
tions, there was only 17 miles of new track, or an increase 
of less than one-half of 1 per cent, although during the 
decade from 1900 to 1910 the population increased at the 
rate of 2^ per cent yearly. Similarly, Massachusetts last 
year reported an increase of only a little more than 13 
miles, also less than one-half of 1 per cent of its trackage. 
Ohio reported only 16 miles and Indiana only 13 miles. 
Several states, including Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Mary- 
land, Missouri, Nebraska and Virginia, reported less than 5 
miles of track each. 

It would be foolish not to attach significance to these 
figures. No one, we believe, will claim that the real needs 
for transportation facilities in the states mentioned in- 
creased only at the trivial rates which this added mileage 
would indicate. We do not intend here to discuss the 



causes, but the facts disclose a condition which is of 
serious import to the public at large, if city and inter- 
urban railways are really as great factors in the prosperity 
of urban and interurban communities as they are generally 
credited with being. The question is not one simply of 
concern to the railway companies. They need not attempt 
to serve any more territory, but can devote their attention 
to the more intensive cultivation of the lines which they 
have. But how will such a plan help those communities 
which are not now served by any existing railway line and 
hence are deprived of the transportation facilities which 
might be a factor in their growth? We bring this question 
and the figures already quoted to the attention of the legis- 
latures which are now meeting in most of the states in this 
country. 

NEW MOUNTAIN ELECTRIFICATION 

The announcement made this week of the decision of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Railroad to electrify 
some 440 miles of its main line between Harlowton,, Mont., 
and Avery, Idaho, proves the correctness of the arguments 
often advanced by electrical engineers on the desirability 
of electric locomotives for service on mountain grades. 
Not only is the available fuel in the far Western mountain 
districts of low grade, but water-power is usually near at 
hand. Finally, the capacity of the locomotive, and hence 
of the track, can be greatly increased by the substitution of 
electric for steam power, as shown in the article on this 
subject by Mr. Armstrong published in this paper last week. 
The proposed installation will be similar in general char- 
acter of service required to that of the Denver & Rio 
Grande proposed electrification, announced a few weeks 
ago, but will be considerably more extensive, as nearly four 
times the length of track to be equipped electrically is men- 
tioned in the dispatches. On neither of these lines has a 
definite selection been made yet of the electric system to 
be used, but in an interview a prominent official of the 
company in Chicago is reported to have said that the 
chances favored the use of 2400 volts. This is, of course, 
the voltage adopted for the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Rail- 
road, which will also be supplied with electrical energy 
from the same power distribution system, and possibly the 
choice for the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific road was made 
in contemplation of the future electrification of the main 
trunk line. Recuperation, an especially valuable factor 
on mountain-grade divisions, is also mentioned as a prob- 
ability, although whether this was, or will be, a factor in the 
choice of the electric system to be used is yet simply a 
matter of conjecture. 

In one respect it seems at first somewhat of an anomaly 
that the superiority of electric power to steam power should 
have been recognized first at what appear to be the two 
extremes of railroading, namely, for rapid transit com- 
muter service near densely populated cities and in the 
sparsely settled mountain districts of the country. But 
these two classes of service have this point of similarity, 
the question of increased track capacity is a very important 
one, and electric power affords the cheapest means of 
securing it. On the whole, the outlook for an increase of 
heavy electric traction lines during 1913 is promising. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



Accident Prevention in Boston 

Special Form of Inquiry Which Follows Accidents in Boston— Campaign of Education to Avoid Accidents Conducted 

with Owners of Vehicles, Trainmen and Public 



BY EDWARD DANA, ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY 



The street car accidents which occur daily are numer- 
ous, and their reduction imposes a task of the first magni- 
tude. Such an end demands the constant application of 
all the intelligence that a company can command. One 
often hears of certain accident "campaigns" being pro- 
ductive of results. These usually are of a temporary na- 
ture, but indicate what is within the range of possibility 
and the goal to strive for. Novel methods are employed 
until the enthusiasm weakens, whereupon a period of rising 
accidents sets in and lasts until such time as the com- 
pany awakes to the need of another "campaign." 

The successful company of the future must plan to exist 
without these sprints. The "campaign" must be a con- 
sistent, perpetual movement productive of results. It must 
strive to prevent rather than cure, for cures are not always 
permanent. The underlying causes of accidents must, 
therefore, be analyzed to the finest degree possible. Proper 
record should be secured to the end that if some condition 
attracts attention it can be traced back, as well as watched 
in the future, without prohibitive expense. 



must receive their proportional share of the growth, and 
even more if possible. 

The narrow streets of the business section of Boston are 
conducive to vehicle collisions. During the autumn the 
company mailed the following letter to as many owners of 
vehicles as it was possible to reach. The tone of the replies 
received indicated an appreciation of the situation : 

CIRCULAR LETTER TO VEHICLE OWNERS 

"Dear Sirs: During the last twelve months the surface 
cars operated by our company have been concerned in 
4087 collisions with vehicles upon the public highways. 
Some have been slight, others have been more serious in 
their consequences. In the aggregate, however, they rep- 
resent a financial loss of no mean proportions to both the 
company and the owners of the vehicles. It is safe to 
say that but a very small percentage were unavoidable. 

"We have exerted ourselves to the fullest degree to 
prevent the occurrence of these collisions. We have 
evolved a thorough method of instruction and system of 
following up our motormen. We find that these efforts 




Boston Safety Campaign — View from Moving-Picture Film 



BLANKS FOR RECORDING CAUSES 

In Boston there has been developed for this purpose a 
series of forms which pertain to the three classes of colli- 
sions, namely, with car, with vehicle and with pedestrian. 
Of these the first and the last are shown on page 60. The 
remaining one contains questions similar to most of those 
in either one or the other of the blanks reproduced, with 
the addition of questions to show the direction in which the 
vehicle was going. The information called for is readily 
obtained in the form of a memorandum at the time a 
superintendent interviews the employees concerned. The 
blanks are then sent to the superintendent of transporta- 
tion, where they are filed and analyzed, and, if called for 
by the claim department or vice-president, they are easily 
accessible. 

It has usually been difficult to show managers that an 
expenditure calculated to reduce accidents was warranted 
because of the fact that it is well-nigh impossible to secure 
tangible evidence which can be attributed thereto. The 
two surest avenues, however, to fewer accidents are com- 
petent instruction and reinstruction and efficient street 
supervision. Modern managers must be liberal in supply- 
ing appropriations for these two items if results worth 
while are to be expected. As a system enlarges these items 



have not been in vain, and that, during the period quoted, 
in 40 per cent of the collisions our men were in no wise 
to blame and in 40 per cent more they were not responsi- 
ble for the collision, but we deemed it wise further to in- 
struct and caution them. In 80 per cent, therefore, of the 
collisions cited the responsibility for them has rested with 
the drivers of the vehicles. In the remaining 20 per cent 
our men have been responsible and have suffered the conse- 
quences of their negligence. 

"The volume of vehicular traffic here in Boston is on the 
constant increase, and the modern tendency is for speed at 
almost any hazard. The conditions, therefore, will be more 
conducive to accidents as time goes on. 

"This, however, is the age of co-operation, and we ask 
you, for your own interests, our interests and the interests 
of the community at large, to co-operate with us in a prac- 
tical, effective manner to reduce the collision account. 

"We recommend to you the practice of having talks given 
to your drivers and the good which bulletins or caution- 
ary instructions might do. A careless driver is in more 
ways than one as unprofitable an investment for you as is 
his counterpart with us. 

"We should be glad of any suggestions, and any informa- 
tion which you may desire concerning the difficulties of car 



January n, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



5') 



operation on bad rails, etc., we should be glad to afford you. 

"We trust you will look upon the matter along the broad 
lines which we endeavor to, and we earnestly hope that 
you will see fit to expend energies along this line." 

This letter was signed by the superintendent of trans- 
portation. 

TALKS IiY SUPERINTENDENTS AND "ACCIDENT CLERKS" 

Much good can result from periodic, forceful talks to the 
men collectively by superintendents and others. If these 
are held too frequently, however, or are too protracted, the 
results secured are much lessened. 

Within tlie past year "accident clerks" have been ap- 
pointed in Boston, and it is the general opinion that the 
company has profited by the appointment to a considerable 
degree. Educated in the claim department, these men are 
in a position to show trainmen how serious the accident 
question really is from the viewpoint of the department 
where the income of the company flows the wrong way. 
The three men assigned spend a week in one division and 
then move to the next, and it is so arranged that they are 
not assigned to the same division more than once in two 
months. Their duties require them to study all conditions 
which may seem conducive to accidents and to point out in 
individual conference at the time that accident reports are 
made the ways in which the employee was negligent. 

As indicative of the manner in which a proper atmos- 
phere can be created in which to present the accident prob- 
lem to the men, the following letters were mailed to the 
home addresses of conductors and motormen. They were 
signed by the superintendent of transportation. The letter 
to conductors was dated Nov. 18, 1912, and that to motor- 
men Sept. 30, 1912. It was thought that as these letters 
were read around the home table in the evening there would 
come a deeper realization of the responsibility of him who 
day in and day out wears the, to him, commonplace uniform. 
Undoubtedly other members of the families read them and 
conceived ideas which caused the subject to be brought up 
again at a later date. Replies were received from some 



/ 




Boston Safety Campaign — View from Moving-Picture Film 

and they were most gratifying as showing the sentiment 
of responsibility which existed upon the platforms. 

LETTER TO CONDUCTORS 

"To Conductors : 

"This company comes in contact every day with about a 
million and a half individuals, all of them different. To 
them you represent the policies as well as the kind of serv- 
ice which it provides. We deal in the commodity of trans- 
portation and you are the agents of the company as it is 
delivered. It is recognized as sound business policy to 
discriminate against no one. More especially is this true 



in this business, a public service, at a uniform rate, that all 
must be accorded the same treatment. 

"Doubtless it is true that no agent in other lines comes in 
contact daily with as many customers as you_ do. Many 
of them, for want of else to do, observe with interest the 
manner in which you perforin your duties. It should be a 
source of satisfaction therefore to know that if your work 
is well done others observe it, not infrequently call it to 
the attention of the management, and in any event inwardly 
respect you. By proper conduct you build up the good 
will of the business. If the good will of the business is 



December 



1910-11 
Car and Vehicles 

1912 



1910-11 
Car and Persons 

1912 



DIVISION — 

Accident Reports 



Car Collisions 



Alighting 



Boarding 



Derailments 



1910-11 
1912 

1910-11 
1912 

1910-11 
1912 

1910-11 
1912 































'/ 




.A U.l 






























































































































1 


H 




















































































4a 










































































r "" 


VAU 


















































































til' 























































EUctnc Itl/.Journal 

Boston Safety Campaign — Comparative Chart Posted in 
Carhouses 

strong, it is by just so much an easier matter satisfactorily 
to explain matters which may not suit the individual. 

"If a passenger aggravates you, retain always your self- 
control. The next time the same passenger rides make no 
allusion to the past and conduct yourself properly. You 
cannot but change his attitude from one of anger to respect 
and probably a feeling of shame upon his part. By simply 
doing right in such a case you have done unquestionable 
good in that you have taught a moral lesson. 

"Always bear in mind that by your careless act a board- 
ing or alighting accident is likely to occur. You may be 
responsible not only for the financial loss which the com- 
pany may sustain but for suffering and injury. It may be 
a young, active person who must carry the burden of this 
injury down the years of life, or it may be an elderly 
person whose brief remaining span of life is shortened be- 
cause of this injury. In either case it is too great a toll 
for a few seconds which the company has never asked 
that you save or spend in such a way. 

"A comparatively fixed relation exists between the gross 
receipts of the company and the amount which can be 
disbursed as wages. Failure therefore because of inatten- 
tion, carelessness or inefficiency on the part of a conductor 
to collect the revenue rightfully due the company for serv- 
ice rendered bears directly upon the company, the general 
public and the conductor himself, as well as upon his 
fellow employees. Much there is to try you, but in the 
short dealing you have with passengers it is not for you to 
know the burdens each may be carrying which, in their 
outward expression, bear heavily upon you. 

"Remember that your work well done is constructive 
effort making stronger the company, those who observe 
you and yourself, and further remember that you will never 
be regarded- as 'a good railway man' till you run your car 
without accident and with civility to passengers." 

LETTER TO MOTORMEN 

"To Motormen of Surface Lines: 

"In these busy autumn days let your energies be exerted 
to the avoidance of the accidents which heretofore have 



6o 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



been peculiar to the season. Bear in mind that each 
collision leaves a scar, and no one wishes to cause a scar. 

"That scar may cause human suffering, and no one 
wishes even to reflect upon the fact that many homes each 
Christmas are saddened from the scars of street car acci- 
dents during the previous twelvemonth. That scar may 
cause the company to pay out money for repairs to car or 
object damaged, in which case it is an economic loss, merely 
replacing what formerly existed. 

"If the company did not have to pay out these sums it 
could, by just so much, improve the facilities for trans- 
portation as well as the compensation of its men. In the 
last analysis every accident is the result of carelessness or 
failure of judgment on the part of someone and conse- 
quently is preventable. 

"Every motorman has but one duty to himself, the com- 



BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY COMPANY. 

REPORT OF COLLISION WITH CAR. 

Date of Collision 191 Time A ' IJL 

P. M. 

„ _ Run Cond. Collided „ Run Cond. 

By MWn W,tb CatN °- By MWn 

Street At or Opp. No. Street 
On Avenae (WwIWi K* 11 mi mhUkm k„., _ Avenue 










VESTIBULE Op*n 


















LOCALITY 

Poorly Lie ti lad 














CONIilTIOM BHppcry 






















































OOLUSIOH 




































































Date 

Div. Superintendent 



Boston Safety Campaign — Blanks Used for Obtaining 



pany and humanity while his car is in operation, and that 
is to give his entire attention to operating it safely. This 
company has stood in the front ranks of street railway 
operation in this country. The incentive should be there- 
fore not to be satisfied but to progress and be a leader in 
every way. 

"The management believes that this fall a successful stand 
can be taken against accidents. It has communicated with 
the schools, the public authorities and others who use the 
public highways. It now appeals to its men to strive 
earnestly for this end and show results. 

"Each day from Oct. 1, 1912, there will be posted the 
number of collisions which occur during October and No- 
vember with those that occurred during the same time the 
previous year. 

"Be sure you have sufficient sand for an emergency, 
making allowance for the frosty rails of this time of year 
as well as the falling leaves. If you observe a motorman 
younger in the service than you are make a careless move 
which, if repeated, might cause a serious accident, make it 
your duty at some time, in a friendly way so that he cannot 
help but appreciate it, to warn him. 



"Do not allow yourself to imagine that the other users 
of the highways will make any move except the one most 
unfavorable to your position and be prepared for it. Re- 
member, when on a car you should concentrate your atten- 
tion on your work just as much as should a surgeon who is 
performing a delicate operation in which life hangs in the 
balance. Enter upon this reduction of the accident account 
with a determined mind and surprising success well worth 
while from any point of view will result." 

MOVING PICTURES 

A wide range of persons were also reached by means of 
running a series of pictures at twenty-one of the moving 
picture theaters in the city. Typical views from these 
pictures are reproduced. Appropriate wording was dis- 
played before each was thrown upon the screen. Just how 
valuable such an outlay really was can only be presumed, 



^mMTAMu, BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY COMPANY 

Report of Collision with Person 


Date ol Collision - — 191 Time f\ 

Conductor Collided "™™ * P I^"" 
Motorman With * Ja ,™ 


Street At or Opp. No. or Street 

On Aven-'e <ont pou wp u no i m»r •u.pi Avenue 










LOCALITY poo,,, Lit* led 












































KAIL liir 
CONDITION B!lpp«f 








WEATHEB Pklr 








































































































Date 191 



Information of Collisions with Cars and Persons 

but it is inconceivable that serious impression was not made 
upon a good many, old as well as young, and that some acts 
of carelessness were not by this means prevented. 

ACCIDENT CHARTS FOR TRAINMEN 

To focus the attention of trainmen concretely upon the 
accident standing from day to day, charts, similar to that 
shown on page 59, were posted at all carhouses, and each 
day the number of the several classes of accidents was 
drawn in beneath the average record for the previous two 
years. There seemed to develop a genuine purpose among 
the men not to allow the current year line to creep up on 
the "bogey," they realizing the consequences to the com- 
pany if it did. Simple as is this plan, there is no question 
that it accomplished good results. It might be well if 
prizes of some sort were given to the division making the 
best record against its own previous performance in this 
connection. 

OTHER PRECAUTIONS 

The words "Do not talk to the motorman" have long 
been stenciled on some part of the vestibules of electric 
cars. In most cities the observance of these words is the 
exception rather than the rule. How many accidents might 



January ii, 1913.J 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



61 



have been avoided had this not come to be the case can 
only be conjectured, but certain it is that violation of the 
rule is conducive to accident, and up-to-date operation 
should combat it vigorously. Policemen and firemen are 
frequent offenders and should be reached through their 
respective departments. 

It has been said that drivers of horse-drawn vehicles 
should be licensed, and there is considerable merit in the 
proposition, although the labor organizations would in all 
probability oppose such legislation. It is a fact that many 
of the vehicle drivers are unfit for the responsibility and 
should be prevented by law from jeopardizing in the public 
highways their own lives and those of pedestrians or those 
of a carload of passengers. 

In congested cities harrowing accidents result from the 
street gamins and newsboys stealing rides. Here is pre- 
sented a problem, the seriousness of which is increasing as 
congestion increases. It has its pathetic side which must 
be studied and met, for many of the boys stealing rides are 
the product of families which have been wrecked. Often 
their mothers are away all day earning the wherewithal to 
support them, while their fathers have deserted them or 
are "good-for-nothings." This task is one for the church, 
the schools, the juvenile courts and the railroads to pursue 
earnestly and thoughtfully if we are to have a reduction in 
this class of accidents. 

In conclusion, it more and more becomes an economic 
problem of far-reaching consequence to reduce the acci- 
dents of common carriers in this country and bring to pass 
a conservation of our human resources. 



street and provides drainage from both sides as far as the 
building lines. Its installation is limited, however, to streets 
where an outlet can be provided to the city sewer system 
or otherwise. 



CROSS PIT TRUCK TRANSFER TABLE 



One of the problems confronting the master mechanic 
of a small road where the amount of rolling stock does not 
warrant the installation of an overhead crane in the repair 
shop is the replacement of trucks at a minimum expense. 




ILLINOIS TRACTION T-RAIL PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION 



The engineering department of the Illinois Traction 
System has recently developed a type of track construction 
in pavements which includes several novel features. A 
section of this new construction is shown in the illustration. 
It was designed for both creosoted block and brick pave- 
ment and its advantages are found in the method of handling 
the pavement between the T-rails. The section was de- 
signed for 90-lb. A. S. C. E. rail on 6-in. x 8-in. x 8-ft. 
wooden ties with a 6-in. concrete foundation under the 
pavement. By employing a template which will prepare the 
sand cushion between the rails and give a crown at the 



VA 1 Sand 



90 lb.A.S.C.E. 



--.C'juv'i -1 -t& 

A. :,/ ///.•)/, 




Standard T-Rail Construction in Paved Streets — Illinois Traction System 



center equal to the height of the ball of the rail no special 
filler block in the pavement is required. In case brick is 
used a special brick may be purchased which is 3 in. deep, 
or the paving block, if the width is less than the depth, 
may be turned on the side. In case a creosoted block is 
employed, the shallow block may be purchased at no addi- 
tional cost over the price of the standard size. It has been 
found that the public expressed no objection to this type 
of construction, and at the same time it affords a cheaper 
method of paving between the rails. 

Another feature is the method of preparing the subgrade. 
Usually the trench containing the ballast under the ties is 
rectangular in section, but in order to provide drainage to 
a 6-in. farm tile, which is installed at the center of the 
trench, the subgrade is sloped from the ends of the ties to 
the tile, y 2 in. to 1 ft. The installation of farm drain tile 
with outlets in the center of the track trench is advantageous 
in that the trench is usually below the subgrade of the 



Cross Pit Truck Transfer Table 

This problem is particularly pertinent on interurban roads 
where it is necessary to jack up the heavy car body to a 
sufficient height not only to clear the trucks but to allow the 
trucks to pass out under the pilot. In case it is not possible 
to do this, the pilot and possibly the draft rigging must be 
removed, a task which entails considerable expense. In 
solving this particular problem the master mechanic of the 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad Company 
built a cross pit between the inspection pit and the track 
on which truck repairs are made. He also designed and 
built a comparatively inexpensive transfer table of scrap 
material found in the company's storeyard. A sketch show- 
ing the transfer table construction as well as the cross pit 
is shown. The numerals on the drawing give the dimen- 
sions of the several parts in inches. 

Since the cross pit has been built and the transfer table 
installed the cost of removing trucks from 
cars has been reduced to a minimum. An 
interurban car is run on the inspection track 
so that the trucks rest on the table. Two 
jacks are placed under the side sill of the 
car and bear on the concrete cross pit walls. 
After the car body has been raised to a 
sufficient height to clear the center bearing 
plates, the transfer table is pushed by hand 
to the truck repair track, where the defec- 
tive truck is removed and one in good order replaces it on 
the table. The transfer table is then moved back to the 
inspection track, the car body lowered, the king pin dropped 
in place, and the car is again ready for the road. 



One of the largest hydroelectric plants thus far installed 
has recently been placed in service at Trollhattan, in Swe- 
den. It is a government enterprise utilizing as its storage 
basin Lake Vanern, the third largest lake in Europe, with 
an area of 2150 sq. miles. With the regulation possible to 
be applied on the lake the minimum flow can be considerably 
increased and the possible output will rise to not less than 
200,000 hp. Approximately half this amount is the output 
planned for the present installation. The equipment of the 
initial plant consists of eight turbines, six of which are 
already in operation. These turbines are double-runner 
units of the Francis type, working under 108-ft. head, each 
directly coupled to a 11,000-kva generator. 



62 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



Reports on San Francisco Conditions 

One Report Just Rendered Recommends the Construction of 72 Miles of New Track Within the Next Five Years and 
Says the City Must Adopt a Definite Railway Pobcy — Another Report Analyzes the Rush-Hour Traffic — 
The Third Discusses the Probable Growth of Traffic and Required Investment 



Three reports have recently been submitted to the Board 
of Supervisors of the city of San Francisco by B. J. Ar- 
nold. The first is a continuation of report No. 10, of 
which an abstract appeared on page 1240 of the Electric 
Railway Journal for Dec. 21. It refers to the extensions, 
immediate and future, of street railway facilities in San 
Francisco which Mr. Arnold considers necessary. This 
report was submitted Dec. 2, 191 2. An addendum to the 



report, dated Dec. II, 1912, 
proposed charter amendment 
at the referendum. 

The second report, No. 11 



refers to the defeat of the 
X11. 34 by a small majority 

was submitted Dec. 23 and 
relates to traffic and service in the downtown district of 
San Francisco. The third report, No. 19, was submitted 
Jan. 2, 1913, and discusses the growth of traffic in San 
Francisco, past and future, and the investment which will 
be required to provide new transportation facilities in the 
city adequate to care for the future traffic. The reports are 
of especial interest because of the expressed policy of the 
municipality to own all of its electric railway systems. 

In the earlier reports Mr. Arnold showed the necessity, 
especially in view of the approaching exposition, for the 
city to provide some means by which the transit facilities 
should be made adequate to the needs that will arise in 
1915. A charter amendment which permitted the co-opera- 
tion of the city and of private capital to make certain ex- 
tensions to care for this situation was defeated by popular 
vote, as already mentioned. The addendum to Report 
No. 10, abstracted first below, outlines the courses now 
opened for the city and urges the adoption of a definite 
transportation policy. The final report, No. 19, then dis- 
cusses the requirement for rapid transit during the next 
forty years and shows that under the constitutional debt 
limitation of the city the assessed valuation of its property 
will not provide sufficient margin to enable the city to make 
the improvements and extensions which would be required 
yearly. 

A DEFINITE POLICY IMPERATIVE 

The addendum to Report No. 10, Part 2, made immediate- 
ly after the election already referred to, says that it is now 
incumbent upon the city : 

"First — To finance, by local assessment or bond issue, 
all or a large part of the extensions called for and to se- 
cure the right of exchange of its own cars with the con- 
necting United Railroads lines (involving an adjustment 
of wage scales) ; or 

"Second — To build the roadbed only and grant private 
operation rights there-over ; or 

"Third — To secure private capital to finance these ex- 
tensions and secure the right of through service under 
present charter conditions. 

"The time has now arrived for the city of San Fran- 
cisco to establish a definite transit policy, either to under- 
take a prolonged warfare of competition with established 
lines or else to accept a reasonable compromise and sub- 
division of territory served between the municipal and 
private systems until such time as it is able to assume the 
financial burden of the entire transit system." 

NEEDS OF THE FUTURE 

In the full report, which was submitted before the elec- 
tion, Mr. Arnold says in part: 

"While the necessities of the present are being consid- 
ered it is equally necessary that those of the near future 
and of a decade hence shall be anticipated as far as pos- 
,-sible in order ;that piecemeal development may be avoided 



and a transit system planned which will eventually co- 
ordinate all of these successive steps into one efficient and 
unified operating system, whether under one or several 
managements, municipal or private. The extensions herein 
recommended are designed as parts of such a unified sys- 
tem, irrespective of ownership, i. e., with a system devel- 
oped only with reference to the best needs of the respec- 
tive districts, and with duplication of capital investment 
eliminated. 

"This unified plan does not in any manner prevent the 
future control by the city of all of its traction lines but 
may be regarded at the present time as simply the best 
means to a much-desired end — adequate service. From the 
standpoint of the patron, the ideal condition of service 
necessitates one city, one fare, universal transfers. 

"However, plans have been prepared for the subdivision 
of this unified program of development into its component 
parts, one of which contemplates a privately operated sys- 
tem and the other a municipally operated system, both cov- 
ering the entire city as far as possible and operating in 
direct competition. But such a plan necessarily results in 
extensive duplication of investment along parallel streets 
and consequently duplication of service." 

Among the conclusions and recommendations set forth 
are the following: 

"A study of the relative growth of population, operated 
trackage and riding habit indicates that the principal trac- 
tion system in its extension program is at least six years 
behind the average rate established by the company from 
1900 to 1905, which was 6 2/3 miles of single track per 
year. During the preceding decade an even higher rate 
was maintained — 8^4 miles per year. Furthermore, ex- 
tensions are by no means keeping pace with the growth in 
population, and only about 8 miles more track is now being 
operated than in 1905. 

"The apparent needs of the immediate future, deter- 
mined independently of the above facts, require the con- 
struction of about 72 miles of single track, 94 per cent of 
which is under municipal jurisdiction, and by far the greater 
proportion of this mileage is to be regarded as simply com- 
pleting a delayed program. 

"Upon the completion of the above construction, five 
years hence at the most, a second construction program 
should be entered upon, involving about 50 miles of single 
track, which may possibly be warranted within the present 
decade. 

"After this period further extension work should be 
steadily carried out as indicated, both in the outlying dis- 
tricts and within the city proper, solidifying and perfecting 
the present system. Inasmuch as San Francisco is hardly 
half developed, there remains much to be accomplished 
before a so-called saturation point shall have been reached 
to justify retrenchment in extensions. 

"This work will call for an approximate expenditure of 
about $6,000,000 in track and equipment within the next 
five years and $11,000,000 for all the extension work in- 
dicated herein, exclusive of all special street improvement 
work, such as regrades, tunnels, etc., and exclusive of all 
rapid transit undertakings, except the Twin Peaks tunnel 
project already recommended. 

"At a very conservative estimate the investment in physi- 
cal property should increase at the rate of $3 per $1 earned 
per year, and possibly at a higher rate. As the earnings 
for the future are conservatively estimated as doubling in 
from fourteen to eighteen years, this means that within the 



January ii, 1913. ] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



63 



next decade probably $18,000,000 will bave to be invested 
in extensions, additions and betterments to tbe transpor- 
tation facilities of San Francisco. 

"A large proportion of tbese extensions must be oper- 
ated as part of tbe private system having no possible con- 
nection with tbe municipal lines, present or contemplated. 
But if these various outlying fragments were builf' by the 
city, some form of contract should be entered into to guar- 
antee through service during the life of the trunk line 
franchise. 

"As the maximum benefit from service will be derived 
from extensions nearest the business center or into com- 
paratively thickly settled suburbs, these should receive con- 
sideration before lines into thinly settled districts. 

"Single-track construction, with turn-outs, will be justi- 
fiable in the case of some extensions into very thinly set- 
tled districts. This, together with the lighter construction 
employed, will so reduce the relative investment as to make 
it possible to serve a much greater territory than if stand- 
ard construction were used throughout. But such single- 
track lines, if of reasonably permanent construction, espe- 
cially as regards the substructure, should be laid at the side 
of the street, so as to be in position when the line is 
double-tracked and re-railed. 

"In outlying territory, where the streets and topography 
permit, a spacing between adjacent lines should be adopted 
which will divide the undeveloped territory with reason- 
able equality of service, as herein indicated. In other 
words, parallel lines should not be located nearer than 
three or four blocks apart, unless through exceptionally 
dense settlements. Otherwise unwarranted duplication will 
occur. 

"It is probable that a number of the extensions recom- 
mended, especially those not in a direct line of through 
traffic, may be better handled for the present by means of a 
shuttle service rather than to attempt through service to 
the downtown district. On such lines smaller car equip- 
ment would be permissible, such as would not be of suffi- 
cient capacity to warrant operating through the business 
district. 

"In conclusion, it is again necessary to draw the atten- 
tion of your board and the citizens of San Francisco to 
the serious fact, with which they are confronted, that cap- 
ital must be found to build these extensions. The munici- 
pality, of course, has a free hand in this contemplated use 
of its streets ; but many of the extensions are of such 
a fragmentary character that it is a grave question whether 
it should undertake, under present conditions, a capital 
burden of this nature. The only alternatives are for these 
extensions to be financed by assessment upon the property 
benefited thereby, or else by private capital, and to make 
this possible the passage of charter amendment Xo. 34, 
with proper restrictions, is therefore necessary and vital 
to the proper development of your city, particularly in 
time for the Panama-Pacific exposition." 

A table which accompanies the report gives figures of 
approximate cost for extensions. The estimates assume 
that electric power would be purchased, thus excluding the 
cost of power stations and transmission lines, and they 
include only roadbed, overhead, cars and power-converting 
equipment. They are as follows : Immediate, city, 66.92 
miles of single track; outside control, 4.76 miles; cost for 
total of 71.68 miles. $5,730,000; after five years, city, 44 
miles; outside control, 3.79 miles; cost for total of 47.79 
miles, $3,820,000; ultimate, city, 21.37 miles, cost $1,710,000. 

TRAFFIC CONDITIONS IN DOWNTOWN DISTRICT 

Traffic and service in the downtown district of San Fran- 
cisco are discussed in preliminary report No. 11, submitted 
under date of Dec. 23, 1912. An abstract of this report 
follows : 

"Owing to the variation in travel from day to day, this 
traffic study cannot represent all conditions that occur but 



rather is intended to give an impression of typical operat- 
ing conditions existing during a normal business day, that 
is, excluding Saturdays and Sundays and other days of 
unusually light or heavy travel. Further, the report is 
confined to the 'downtown' or loading district, the outer 
limits of which may be defined, from a traffic standpoint, as 
including the points of maximum outbound loading on the 
individual routes; that is, the limits within which the 
loading of cars is completed. These points form the basis 
of a so-called 'cordon count' of traffic, the object of which 
was to intercept during the maximum rush hour every out- 
bound passenger on his homeward journey. 

SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

"Adequate city transportation is largely a question of 
meeting, on the one hand, the capacity demands of the 
four rush hours, when one-half of the total day's travel 
must be handled, and, on the other, of providing a rea- 
sonably frequent headway during the remaining hours of 
light travel. Tbe former requires, for four hours only, 
about twice the number of cars and crews necessary for 
the rest of the business day. 

"Outside of the extra investment in rush-hour equipment, 
the greatest problem is to provide a reasonable day's work 
for rush-hour trainmen without running idle cars during 
the day to fill out the working day of 'tripper' men. 

"Of the two rush-hour periods, the evening has by far 
the heavier travel — easily 100 per cent greater than the 
average for the business day and 20 per cent greater than 
the morning peak. On practically all lines, maximum 
travel occurs within a short period from 5:15 to 5:30 p. m. 
and is approximately 10 per cent higher than the hourly 
average. 

"A composite passenger count of all lines leaving the 
business district during the evening rush hour indicated a 
total homeward travel of about 49,000 passengers per hour, 
84 per cent of whom were city-bound and only 16 per cent 
transbay commuters. Although nearly 15,000 commuters 
cross at this time each day, ferry-bound riding was found 
to be generally light, as over half of the commuters, en- 
couraged by street and terminal obstructions, walk to the 
ferry. 

"The operations of the traffic squad have been effective 
and should be encouraged, as street congestion is respon- 
sible for a considerable reduction in speed and carrying ca- 
pacity. The average operating speed in the terminal dis- 
trict is exceedingly low, but since 1905 the average sched- 
ule speed for the city has increased from 7.6 to 8.5 m.p.h., 
or over 12 per cent. 

"Every effort should be made to eliminate unnecessary 
stops. Within the usual range of speed, a reduction of 
one stop per mile will result in an increase in speed of 
about 5.6 per cent. 

"The prepayment principle for collecting fares has not 
had a fair trial in San Francisco especially as applied to 
short platform cars designed for non-prepay collection, par- 
ticularly those fitted with fare boxes, which require about 
two-thirds more time to load a passenger than for the 
long platform of the latest Oakland cars. With a properly 
designed platform, passengers can load at a speed of about 
one second each. 

"A comparison of official schedules of 1909 and 1912 
indicates on the whole a small increase in equipment oper- 
ated as determined by trips scheduled. Checks against op- 
erating schedules covering every car in the system showed 
that practicallv all of the available rolling stock is being 
operated, there being only 8 per cent idle cars out of the 
total, 5 per cent being held for emergencies and the re- 
mainder undergoing repair. 

"Comfortable standing should be limited to 50 per cent 
above seating capacity for cross seats, 100 per cent above 
for longitudinal seats, or 3 sq. ft. per standing passenger 
allowed for normal maximum capacity. 



6 4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



"Analysis of service standards indicates excessive load- 
ing on many routes. While the average car loading 
throughout the city during the rush hour was 58 per cent 
in excess of seats furnished, that of Mission Street was 
112 per cent for the hour and for the heaviest 15-minute 
period both Market and Mission throats showed 135 per 
cent excess loading over seats furnished. 

"Individual car loading was frequently so excessive as 
to make it impossible for conductors to reach passengers 
on non-prepay cars. In one case ninety passengers were 
missed on a single trip — 38 per cent of the registration — 
which shows the necessity for prepayment platforms, 
properly designed. 

"The most prolific cause of excessive car loading is 
irregularity of headway, due to street obstructions, care- 
less dispatching or improper schedules. At present de- 
lays of three to four times the headway are common. 

"The great interchange of transfer passengers clearly 
indicates the effectiveness and need of crosstown lines in 
city service. 

"The new equipment now under construction will prob- 
ably reduce the average excess rush-hour loading from 
58 per cent now to about 38 per cent, which will hardly 
suffice for the present, even neglecting the needs of the 
exposition in 191 5, unless by means of a general re-routing 
much car mileage now unused can be conserved where 
most needed, thus giving more service for the same num- 
ber of equipments and trainmen on duty. 

"In conclusion, permanent relief from the conditions 
above enumerated may be obtained only by, first, an in- 
crease in car mileage (carrying capacity) to be secured 
through effective re-routing and additional equipment; sec- 
ond, more uniformity in headway to be secured by im- 
proved schedules, inspection and dispatching and decreased 
street obstruction, and, third, increased operating speed, 
both in the loading of passengers and along thoroughfares. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION 

"During the four rush hours approximately one-half of 
the total day's travel must be handled. Furthermore, a 
considerable difference exists between morning and eve- 
ning travel in the suddenness and severity of the peak 
loads. Thus, the outbound evening peak is two and two- 
fifths times that of the morning, while the morning in- 
bound peak is only one and two-fifths times as great as 
the inbound evening peak. And finally, the difference in 
this fixed riding habit is shown in a total evening peak, 
both inbound and outbound, one and one-fifth times, or 20 
per cent, more than the morning peak. 

"With an adequate day service the rush-hour service 
must be exceedingly poor. With an adequate rush-hour 
service the day service must be unnecessarily good. This 
condition, in effect, has occurred in the street car opera- 
tions of this city. While the maximum evening travel is 
two and two-fifths times the minimum midday travel, the 
maximum car movement is only one and thirteen-twen- 
tieths times that of the minimum midday — that is, 65 per 
cent additional trips are run during the evening rush 
period, which is far too low for a proper balance of serv- 
ice. In most large American cities practically double serv- 
ice during evening rush hour is found necessary. This 
rush-hour service ratio must be interpreted with caution, 
however, and in the last analysis the onlv absolute cri- 
terion is actual average loading of equipment. 

"One very serious cause of the increased difficulties of 
giving adequate service is the interference of vehicle traf- 
fic. A very material improvement, however, has resulted 
- from the institution of traffic regulation in this city by 
the traffic squad. While the average schedule speed for 
the entire city is 8.5 m.p.h., the actual operating speed in 
the terminal district is but little over half — 4.4 m.p.h. ; in 
the next zone of operation, 6.7 ; further out in the dis- 
tricts where vehicle interference is small, 8.9, and finally, 
on streets clear of interference, as high as 11. 3 m.p.h. 



"This exceedingly low speed in the central terminal dis- 
trict, averaging about the same speed as brisk walking, 
undoubtedly accounts for the loss to the railway company 
of a very large amount of short-haul traffic, which is by 
far the most lucrative of all the traffic handled. There- 
fore, any measures tending to increase running speed will 
make possible more service in the poorly paying outlying 
districts for the same total income per year. 

"Since the electrification of the cable lines, the schedule 
speed has increased about 12 per cent and is continually 
improving, thus realizing one of the greatest advantages 
of electric service: In 1905 it was 7-599 m.p.h.; in 1906, 
7.647; 1907, 6.85; 1908, 7.91; 1909, 8. 1 1 3 ; 1910, 8.284; 1911, 
8.43; 1912 (eight months only), 8.509. These average fig- 
ures are based upon the actual car hours or running time 
of trainmen. 

"Another important element in preventing high sched- 
ule speed is too frequent stops. Numerous observations 
made on various routes indicate a relation between stops 
and speed as follows : Ten stops per mile, 528 ft., 7.5 m.p.h. ; 
eight stops per mile, 660 ft., 8.4 m.p.h.; six stops per mile, 
880 ft., 9.4 m.p.h.; four stops per mile, 1320 ft., 11 m.p.h.; 
two stops per mile, 2640 ft., 13.7 m.p.h. 

"The results of a large number of observations on the 
various types of cars in service referred to in a previous 
report on lower Market Street indicate that the prepay- 
ment principle has not had a fair trial in San Francisco, 
because of its being applied to cars designed for non- 
prepay service with short or constricted platforms. Thus, 
for a group of twenty-five passengers boarding at one 
point (a condition which occurs at the ferry regularly), 
the short-platform cars fitted with fare boxes require 
about two-thirds more time per passenger than for the 
long platforms in the latest Oakland cars fitted with a 
movable handrailing. 

"Comparisons of headway, past and present, show not 
only a general improvement in service, although small, 
but also no evidence of attempt by the operating company 
to improve temporarily the service on particular lines 
counted while the traffic record was being obtained. The 
operating company is using its available rolling stock to 
the best possible advantage, and it is a creditable showing 
that so large a percentage of its equipment remains in 
service, which indicates a high degree of maintenance. 

"It is recommended that reasonable standards to be ap- 
plied to all types of cars are as follows: 

"(1) Comfortable standing, 50 per cent in excess of 
cross seats and 100 per cent in excess of longitudinal 
seats. 

"(2) Normal maximum capacity, 3 sq. ft. per standing 
passenger. 

"(3) Emergency maximum capacity, 2 sq. ft. per stand- 
ing passenger. 

"A summary of observations on all the various outbound 
routes shows that for a typical composite business day 
slightly less than 49,000 passengers travel homeward on 
the surface cars during the maximum rush-hour period — 
5 to 6 p. m. Of this total 42,500, or about 87 per cent, 
were handled by the electric lines and less than 13 per 
cent by the cable lines, and 41,000, or about 84 per cent, 
represents city-bound traffic, the balance, or 16 per cent, 
representing trans-bay commuter traffic to the ferry termi- 
nal. 

ANALYSIS OF SERVICE 

"Taking the hourly basis, it was found that the average 
loading for all lines of city-bound passengers only was 
158 per cent, i. e., 58 per cent excess passengers over 
seats; or for every 100 seats outbound fifty-eight passen- 
gers were forced to stand. For the electric lines only the 
corresponding loading was 158.5 per cent and for the 
cable lines 155.4 per cent of the seating capacity. These 
figures give due credit to the operating company for all 
unoccupied seats — that is, they recognize the standing by 



Januaky ii, 191 3.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



preference, due to the fact that many people stand even 
with seats vacant, as has been previously explained. 

"If the trans-bay traffic to the ferry be included, the 
average loading for the system is then reduced to 131.1 
per cent, due to the fact that the ferry-bound traffic is rel- 
atively light, averaging for the hour only 69.2 per cent of 
the seating capacity, i. e., one-third more seats than pas- 
sengers. But it is not deemed proper to include in the 
final analysis this trans-bay commuter traffic to the ferry, 
for the reason that it is handled almost entirely on inbound 
cars and has no bearing on the outbound city service. 

"It is necessary to state here that the above percentage 
loadings, while apparently fair considered on the rush-hour 
basis, are in reality entirely too high. The ratio between 
rush-hour and base midday schedule indicated too low a 
rush-hour service standard. The throat counts fully con- 
firm this conclusion. In modern urban transportation, 
where the rush-hour load much exceeds 133 per cent of 
the seating capacity on an average, excessive standing re- 
sults. Here the rush-hour average of city-bound traffic is 
158 per cent, or nearly 20 per cent higher. 

"Disparity between the records of the operating depart- 
ment and those found by actual count may largely be ac- 
credited to the fact that it is a physical impossibility for 
any conductor to keep an accurate record of passengers or 
fares where continued car loading as excessive as that 
enumerated above is encountered. And here exists the 
most forcible argument for the installation of the prepay- 
ment principle on all lines. 

"To make sure of results, as many as five observers were 
stationed on the non-prepayment cars of both double-truck 
and single-truck type. These counts showed the following 
missed fares or passengers missed by the conductor on a 
single trip : One line was ninety passengers short ; four 
lines were fifty passengers short ; eight lines were twenty- 
five passengers short ; thirteen lines were ten passengers 
short. 

"In comparison therewith, only two prepayment lines 
showed ten passengers or more missed by the conductor, 
the average being four or five, and in these two cases the 
excessive crowding on the rear platform (which is against 
the rules of the company) prevented the conductor from 
reaching the passengers clinging to the rear step. 

"It is therefore deemed unquestionable that the prepay- 
ment car has served a most useful purpose in securing the 
proper income that should be derived from the passenger 
traffic handled, which should not be considered for the sole 
purpose of increasing dividends, as often considered, but 
also for the purpose of securing from this justly increased 
revenue the additional car service made possible thereby." 

GROWTH OF TRAFFIC AND INVESTMENT IN TRAFFIC FACILITIES 

On Jan. 2 Mr. Arnold presented a report to the Board of 
Supervisors on the growth of traffic in San Francisco and 
investment in traffic facilities. It was entitled "Preliminary 
Report No. 19." It discusses the general laws of cities and 
makes predictions as to the future income of the transit 
lines in San Francisco with their necessary equipment 
investments. The city at present contains 450,000 people, 
and Mr. Arnold believes that this will double in twenty-six 
years and will reach 1,000,000 in 1945. The city is now 
growing more rapidly than before the fire, but not as 
rapidly as other large cities on the Pacific Coast. The re- 
port says further : 

"An analysis of railway earnings shows that they are in- 
creasing in proportion to the square of the population — 
that is, when the population doubles earnings quadruple. 
United Railroads earnings alone should double in the next 
thirteen and one-half years — i. e., should reach $16,000,000 
by 1924-5- — and should quadruple by 1942. Earnings per 
capita are now the highest in the country — $20 per capita 
for all companies." 

On the other hand, "in extension of track mileage San 
Francisco is at least six years behind the necessities of 



the growth in population. Trackage should extend at least 
as fast as the population, if not faster. The total track 
mileage is now about the same as before the fire, due to 
abandonments, and the last fifteen years show a slower 
growth than at any period of the city's history. This de- 
layed construction must now be made up. The present 
necessities for track extension require about 15 miles per 
year up to 1920." 

DIFFICULTIES OF MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP 

The city's expressed policy of municipal ownership of 
public utilities makes an analysis of the purchasing power 
of the city with respect to its utilities of interest. The 
report shows that the underlying property valuation is in- 
creasing at a slower rate than the necessary railway invest- 
ment — viz., as the 1.7 power of the increase in population, 
instead of the square as in the case of earnings. At the 
very lowest estimate, $3 of capital must be invested for 
every $1 gross earnings. Under the present bond limit, 
therefore, the city's liability to purchase or build is becom- 
ing more and more inadequate, thus requiring a progressive 
refunding basis. 

The present available purchasing power of the city is 
approximately $51,000,000 for all purposes, including water 
supply. By 1930 the total railway- investment required will, 
be $62,000,000; by 1950, $123,000,000. This means that over 
one-third of the total bonding capacity of the city on its 
present 15 per cent basis would be continually pre-empted 
for railway investment alone, assuming the city entirely free 
from debt. 

The conclusion from this situation is that "if the city of 
San Francisco declines to accept the assistance of private 
capital in financing its utilities both for the present and the 
future, the conclusion cannot be evaded that a revision of 
the bond limit must be secured immediately in order to 
provide the capital necessary for preserving the normal 
rate of growth of the city." 

PROBABLE INCREASE IN EARNINGS 

The analysis in the report of the predicted growth of the 
city and its suburbs in population and territory occupies 
considerable space in the report, but no abstract of this part 
of the report is presented here because it does not relate 
directly to street railway traffic. Portions of the discussion 
on the growth of the earnings of the street railways are as 
follows : 

The report lays down the general law that the total annual 
railway earnings increase approximately as the square of 
the increase in population ; or, in other words, the earnings 
per capita will increase approximately in direct proportion 
to the increase in population. In this connection the dia- 
gram on the next page is presented. This diagram is plotted 
on logarithmic cross-section paper, like other similar dia- 
grams in previous reports by Mr. Arnold, so that ratios 
represented by Y = X n appear as straight lines, the value 
of n being indicated by the angle which the line makes to the 
horizontal line. In the case of San Francisco, the earnings 
of the railway system have increased more rapidly than 
the square of population and the value of the property at 
a somewhat less ratio. The broken guide line indicates the 
square relation, and any line parallel to it conforms to this 
law. In the chart the rate of earnings for the distant future 
has been conservatively decreased, as the report refers 
largely to surface transportation and is not intended to 
include expensive rapid transit projects. 

INCREASE IN EQUIPMENT 

The track mileage in San Francisco up to the time of the 
consolidation of the properties had increased at a more 
rapid rate than the population, but not lately. According 
to the report, a proper development of the transit facilities 
requires that it should increase at a rate at least propor- 
tional to the increase in population. The seating capacity 
of the cars in San Francisco is now practically the same as 
before the fire. 

An estimate of the proper rate of increase in car equip- 



66 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



ment and car mileage can be made, according to the report, 
by several methods as follows : 

"(1) Assuming a uniform density in cars per mile of 
track, and increasing in proportion to track mileage. 

"(2) Assuming a fixed income per car year, and thus in- 
creasing in proportion to the gross earnings. 

"(3) Assuming a fixed operating ratio, expenses per car 
mile, and car mileage per car year, and increasing in pro- 
portion to the gross earnings." 

Considering these in their order, on the first basis, "the 
car density resulting from a total of 741 cars averages for 
191 1 2.52 cars per mile of track. For a total trackage in 
1920 of 414 miles there will be required 1043 operating cars, 
or adding 5 per cent for reserve and repair, a total of 1095 
cars, equivalent to thirty-nine cars added per year. This 
represents a minimum, as the car density in San Francisco 
is low." 

According to the second method, "the average income in 
191 1 for 741 cars was $11,600, which is much higher than 




San Francisco Report — Chart of Future Growth and Rail- 
way Earnings 

in other cities. For gross earnings in 1920 of $13,100,000, 
a total of 1 176 cars would be required, or forty-eight per 
year." 

According to the third method, "taking the present ratio, 
including taxes, of 65 per cent, an operating expense of 
20 cents per car mile and the present yearly mileage per car 
of 36,700 miles, the estimated earnings for 1920 of $13,100,- 
000 will require a total of 1218 cars, or fifty-three per year. 

"Thus it appears that on the present operating basis 
thirty-nine to fifty-three cars per year should be added to 
the entire system. That this latter rate is entirely prac- 
ticable is shown by the fact that it would permit earnings 
of about 10 per cent on the investment, assuming $3.50 in- 
vested for each $1 of earnings. 

"The only way in which this car purchase schedule can be 
reduced for the same service is that proportionate econo- 
mies in operating car mileage be introduced by means of 
increased speed and effective re-routing of present lines." 



INVESTMENT NECESSARY 

The deductions from these data are of interest not only 
to San Francisco but to every municipality contemplating 
exclusive municipal ownership. As the future earning 
power has been determined, it is possible to deduce the total 
investment which will be necessary to extend the railway 
system according to the policy. These figures appear 
below : 

Financial Summary of Future Growth. 

Year 1912 1920 1930 1940 1950 

Population (thousands)...-. 443 558 722 909 1,121 

Street railway earnings (millions) 8.4 13 21 30 41 

Total assessed valuation for city and 

county (millions) 511 750 1,160 1,710 2,420 

Investment in street railway property of 

$3 to $1 earned (minimum) (millions) 25 39 62 90 123 

Bond limit (15 per cent of valuation) 

(millions) 77 113 174 257 363 

Per cent of present bond limit neces- 
sary tor railway investment 33 34.8 35.9 35.1 33.9 

This table shows that an average investment of at least 
$1,750,000 per year will be required to 1920. The invest- 
ment ratio assumed is $3 to each $1 earned. This, the 
report says, applies only to a system which is properly 
extended year by year in proportion to the growth in popu- 
lation and is probably the minimum investment necessary. 
If rapid transit undertakings in any form should be carried 
out during the intervening period, a considerably higher 
investment ratio would result, somewhat according to the 
following plan : 

Rapid transit subways $6.00 to $8.00 

Electrified steam lines 4.00 to 6.00 

Street railways 3.00 to 4.00 

CONCLUSIONS 

The conclusions reached are that unless some revision is 
made in the basis of the bond limit for the purposes of 
investment in municipal utilities, the city can never hope to 
acquire, much less to construct, a complete transit property 
of the character necessary to meet its future. The table 
shows that more than one-third of the total bonding capacity 
on the present basis would be continually pre-empted for 
railway investment alone, assuming the city entirely free 
from debt. It was for this reason that the provisions of 
Charter Amendment No. 34 were so drawn as to permit 
private capital to assist municipal development until such 
time as the city could take over its utilities upon an ade- 
quate bonding basis, as in the case of New York City in its 
latest subway acquisitions. 



PADLOCKING CONTROLLER HANDLES 




As a result of several serious accidents, two of which 
were fatal, the Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Company made 
the removal of the controller and reverse handle compul- 
sory. After this rule became effective the car crews and 

repairmen at the shops 
experienced considerable 
difficulty in keeping a 
sufficient number of extra 
handles on hand to take 
care of emergencies. To 
eliminate this trouble all 
controller handles were 
slotted to receive the han- 
dles of the reverse levers 
and Yi-'vci. holes were 
drilled in the ends of the 
latter. Now when a crew 



HOLE FOR LOCH 
SLOT 



Interlocking Controller and Re- 
verser Handles 



leaves a car at the close of the day both handles are re- 
moved, the reverse handle is slipped through the slot in 
the controller handle, and the lever of a padlock, perma- 
nently attached to the brake staff bracket, is passed through 
the j/2-in. hole in the reverse handle and locked. This 
arrangement keeps a set of handles with each car, and all 
properly authorized parties have keys to the padlock. 



January ii, 1913.! 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



67 



Electric Arc Welding on the Pacific Coast 



An Account of the Experiences of Two Electric Railways in Rehabilitating Worn Track and Equipment by Bi 

New Metal Welded Into Place by the Electric Arc 



diny Up with 



The commercial development of the art of electric arc 
welding, placing as it does an opportunity before the user 
for almost unlimited rehabilitation of worn or broken ma- 
terial, is a matter of great interest to electric railways, as 
such enterprises, having always available a supply of cheap 
electric current, are in a peculiarly advantageous position 
for its utilization. Although arc welding is still in its 
early stages, the development has been exceedingly rapid, 
and on several railways enough progress has been made 
already to demonstrate beyond any doubt the practicability 
of the method and the satisfactory results which may be 
obtained from it. 

On the United Railroads of San Francisco eight or nine 
electric welding outfits of the portable type, manufactured 
by the Indianapolis Switch & Frog Company, have been in 
use since the beginning of 1912 and have proved thor- 
oughly satisfactory in every respect. Through their use 



rehabilitate the crossing, thereby prolonging its life for 
possibly several years at a cost of between $75 and $100. 

It is, of course, the feature of portability which affords 
the greatest opportunity for saving. In many cases where 
welding is done at a forge or furnace by a blacksmith by- 
far the greatest part of the cost of the complete opera- 
tion is that which is involved in dismantling the damaged 
piece, transporting it to and from the forge and reassem- 
bling it after the repairs are finished. The ability to bring 
the welding flame to the work and to apply it from almost 
any direction or angle eliminates practically all of this in- 
direct expense, and through the localization of the weld- 
ing heat it has now become possible to make the so-called 
spot welds, to weld in narrow strips along crooked lines, or 
to operate upon material of a degree of thinness which 
would prohibit its being handled on a forge or on an anvil. 

This accounts largely for the great variety of work 




Electric Arc Welding — Different Classes of Car Equipment Repaired in the Shops of the United Railroads of San 

Francisco 



the road has been able to reclaim and rehabilitate many 
thousands of dollars' worth of material in the repair shops 
as well as a verv large amount of rail and special work in 
the streets. In the latter case corrugations and cup-outs 
have been built up easily and satisfactorily in addition 
to plates in hardened center special work where the points 
have become broken or worn. 

For repairs to track and special work the apparatus is 
especially economical. The road reports that, for a very 
nominal sum, material to the value of several thousands of 
dollars is reclaimed annually and the life prolonged for 
several years. It is, of course, almost impossible to esti- 
mate the exact saving on track work through the use of 
electric arc welding for the reason that, while the value 
of a new piece of special work may be $1,500 or $2,000, 
the actual cost of replacing the worn-out piece will amount 
to considerably more when the cost of labor for installa- 
tion and the amount involved in tearing out and replacing 
the pavement is considered. As an example, it is reported 
that at one of San Francisco's busiest corners considerable 
complaint arose on account of the noise caused by cars 
running over a worn double-track section. This layout 
cost about $1,400, and the cost of replacing it with new 
material would have amounted to $1,000 additional, but 
through the use of the new process the road was able to 



which can be done with the electric arc, an example of 
which is given in the list of material repaired by the elec- 
tric arc on the United Railroads of San Francisco. Here 
they report that they regularly make repairs to gear cases, 
motor cases, axles, truck frames, axle bearings and brake- 
shoe heads where the dowel pin has become oblong, arma- 
ture shafts where the keyway and the tapered pinion seat 
have become worn, axle caps, brake levers, bolster cast- 
ings, brake hangers, controller backs, step castings, and in 
fact all of the material used in their repairs of cars. In 
the track department the road has used the electric arc 
for repairing switch tongues, frogs and mates, for filling 
up cup-outs and corrugations in rail and for filling up low 
joints in both straight rail and special work. 

An interesting example of the application of the electric 
arc welding on this road occurred soon after the introduc- 
tion of the process, when about 600 half gear cases which 
were taken from the scrap pile were reclaimed at a price 
not exceeding 50 cents each. The new value of these 
gear cases was about $4,000, so that the saving on the lot 
amounted to about $3,700. These gear cases could not be 
repaired by ordinary methods. To all intents they were 
scrap material, quite incapable of being reclaimed com- 
mercially until the introduction of the new process per- 
mitted patches to be welded over the holes worn through 



68 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[January i j, 1913. 



the original metal. The use of a localized flame which 
could be directed around the edges of the patch regardless 
of its irregularity naturally made these repairs rapid as 
well as inexpensive. 

In the car repair shop the ability of the electric arc to 
weld cast iron is the most surprising of its features, and 




Electric Arc Welding — Cart Containing Resistance Grids 
for Use with Trolley Voltage 



this adds very materially to its sphere of usefulness. One 
of such pieces of repair work is shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration of various parts of car equipment re- 
claimed in the shops of the United Railroads of San Fran- 
cisco. This is a cast-iron controller back which was broken 
into several pieces, but was welded together into its orig- 
inal form without the necessity for any further labor or 
machine work. 

One of the illustrations shows the carriage for the re- 
sistance grids used for cutting down the trolley voltage 
where the current is collected from the trolley wire in 
order to make repairs to the track. Alongside of this 



illustration is another showing two cup-outs in the head 
of a typically worn rail, the photograph having been taken 
immediately after the welding operation and before the 
application of the grinder, which is used to grind the filled 
portion of the rail to a smooth surface even with the 
adjacent track. 



The three illustrations on this page show a badly broken 
piece of special work in the various stages of rehabilita- 
tion. At the left the joint is shown in its original condi- 
tion before repair, and the adjoining two illustrations show 
the same joint immediately after welding and after the 
grinding of the built-up metal had been commenced. This 




Electric Arc Welding — Typical Built-up Cup-outs Before 
Grinding 



was stated to be a somewhat difficult task for the reason 
that the frog was in such a worn-out condition as to be al- 
most beyond reclamation. The railroad officials consid- 
ered that in this case the frog might better have been re- 
placed. However, it shows the really extraordinary possi- 
bilities of the process. 

Of the two upper halftones on page 69, one is of a 
hardened center crossing which has been built up by the 
welding of additional metal both on the manganese plates 
where they had become chipped and also on the rail which 
had cupped out. The operation has undoubtedly prolonged 
the life of this crossing for several years. The other illus- 



tration shows an electrically welded built-up crossing in 
which no bolts or rivets have been used. The rivet heads 
which are on the corner plates are installed merely to keep 
horses' hoofs from slipping and do not enter in any way 
into the construction of the crossing. 

The two illustrations on page 70 show an electrically 




Electric Arc Welding — Progress of Repairs to a Badly Worn Frog, Showing Its Condition Before Welding, After 

Welding and During Process of Grinding 



January it, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



69 



welded fishplate and bond which has been proved through 
actual service on the United Railroads of. San Francisco 
to be able to withstand the severe stresses and strains of 
the heaviest city traffic. It is stated to possess greater 
conductivity than the usual bolted fishplate joint with cop- 
per bonds and can be made at a cost of from 40 to 50 per 




Electric Arc Welding — Built-up Crossing with all Joints 
Welded, No Bolts or Rivets Being Used 



cent of that of an ordinary joint. The company has in 
service over 400 compromise joints, connecting rails of two 
different sections, and with this welded fishplate installed 
on them they have met with excellent success. The officials 
of the road feel that if the joint can withstand the severe 
stresses of the compromise joint it naturally should prove 
even more satisfactory for straight rail. The joint which 




Electric Arc Welding— Apparatus Used for Applying the 

Arc 



is shown in place in the street was installed during Feb- 
ruary of last year, and in order to give it severe service the 
ties were left untamped. It is still in service and reported 
to be apparently in perfect condition. 

The other illustration shows a specimen test joint which 
had been suspended on 6-ft. centers under a load of 140,000 



lh. applied to the head of the rail. After this application 
the rail was reversed and the same load was applied at 
the base of the rail. The final result of the reversed loads 
is shown in the photograph. The two rails when welded 
were close together, and the separation which is shown was 
caused by the elongation of the fishplates. The joint itself 




Electric Arc Welding — Hard-Center Crossing with New 
Metal Welded Onto Treads and Grooves 



was found after this extremely severe test to be in perfect 
condition, with the exception of a very short space along 
the top of the plate where the elongation of the plate had 
broken the weld between it and the rail. This elongation of 
the plate is clearly shown by the patches of scale broken 
off from it on each side of the rail joint in the form of a 
roughly shaped triangle, and this would indicate that the 




Electric Arc Welding — View Showing Apparatus in Use on 
Track Work 



plate had nearly reached its elastic limit. As the usual 
spacing between ties is 2 ft., the suspension of a specimen 
joint on 6-ft. centers provides an unusually severe test, and 
it is surprising that any joint could have withstood it with 
so little damage. On a tensile strength test of the joint a 
load of 380,000 lb. was reached without signs of rupture. 



70 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



The officials of the United Railroads of San Francisco 
state that the welding can be done by any intelligent 
laborer after receiving reasonably thorough instructions, and 
that, in general, Greek laborers are being used for perform- 
ing all the operations in the track department. In the 
repair shop the operators are developed from a similar 
class of labor for much of the work which is done. 

On the Pacific Electric Railway Company a machine 



ELECTRIFICATION PLAN OF THE CHICAGO, MIL- 
WAUKEE & PUGET SOUND RAILWAY 











■ 1 










m^ 1 








Electric Arc Welding— Welded Fishplate Which Eliminates 
Necessity for Bonds 

similar to those used in San Francisco was placed in service 
several months ago. This is reported to be kept busy 
almost all of the time since its purchase and is stated to 
have done exceedingly satisfactory work in building up 
cupped rails. It is stated to have prolonged the lives of 
crossings and special work from eight months to a year, 
and although there has been no occasion to use the machine 
on any manganese special work as yet. the operating officials 
consider that it will prove satisfactory for this service. It 
is in fact used at present to a considerable extent for 
cutting rails and boring holes in manganese steel. The 
operating cost to make a weld in a rail is reported to be 




Electric Arc Welding — Welded Fishplate Joint After Test of 
Reversed Load of 140,000 Lb. with a 6-Ft. Span 

approximately $3, Mexican labor being used, as it has been 
found that the apparatus does not require any special skill 
after the operators have been advised how to handle it. 

This paper is indebted to Thomas Finigan, purchasing 
agent United Railroads of San Francisco, for the illustra- 
tions and the account of the work on that railway and to 
E. C. Johnson, assistant chief engineer Pacific Electric 
Railway Company, for the comments on its practice. 



The mechanical department of the Metropolitan Street 
Railway, Kansas City, Mo., has decided to abandon all other 
methods of preparing exposed steel in car bodies for paint 
in favor of sand blasting. This method assures a complete 
removal of old paint scale, exposing a bright, pitted metal 
surface to which paint is sure to adhere. If compressed 
air is available, this is the cheapest of all methods. 



An important step in the electrification of the mountain 
divisions of transcontinental railroads between the Rocky 
Mountains and the Pacific Coast was made this week when 
President A. J. Earling of the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget 
Sound Railway announced that that company expected to 
electrify its main line division from Harlowton, Mont., to 
Avery, Idaho, a distance of 440 miles. The electrification 
will be in operation within the next three years, and the 
number of electric locomotives required is estimated to be 
between 50 and 100. Nine separate water-power develop- 
ments will supply the required energy for the full stretch 
of 440 miles, which traverses the Belt Mountains, Rocky 
Mountains and Bitter Root Mountains. No contracts have 
yet been placed, and no detailed plans have yet been made 
for the electrical equipment, but C. R. Goodnow, assistant 
to the president, in a recent interview, said that the plans 
in general provide for the handling of all of the traffic 
with electric locomotives and that probably the 2400-volt 
system will be used. Regeneration is being considered 
seriously and plans for the equipment and overhead con- 
struction are being pushed forward rapidly. The installa- 
tion will be begun within eighteen months and the com- 
pletion rushed. 

Part of the railroad power will be supplied by the Great 
Falls Power Company, which has secured from the federal 
authorities for a term of fifty years the grant of a right-of- 
way across the public domain for a 150-mile transmission 
line. In fact, the first announcement of the proposed rail- 
way electrification was made through a statement by Walter 
L. Fisher, Secretary of the Interior, that this grant for a 
right-of-way had been made. 

The grant embodies the fundamental principles of water- 
power policy which Secretary Fisher has been advocating 
for the past two years and the transmission line, in matter 
of fact, is already in operation, but it was built under a 
revocable permit issued in 1909. At that time no better 
right could be given for any power development, ' but the 
agricultural appropriation act of March 4, 191 1, authorizing 
the making of fifty-year grants for transmission, telegraph 
and telephone lines, provides that the grants are to be made 
under general rules and regulations to be fixed by the 
Secretary of the Interior. The act further provides that old 
lines already constructed can have the benefit of the statute 
on like "terms and conditions" as new lines. In view of the 
importance of this application to travelers and shippers by 
rail, and in further view of the fact that only transmission 
lines, not water-power sites proper, are involved, Secretary 
Fisher felt justified in ruling that he has the power to 
grant the more permanent right obtained. The installation 
of the new system will involve the expenditure by the rail- 
road of many million dollars and the railroad company was 
unwilling to invest so large a sum while the power com- 
pany's rights were revocable in the discretion of the govern- 
ment. Therefore Secretary Fisher's grant is conditioned 
upon the power company's entering into and performing its 
obligations under a contract to supply electricity for the 
motive power of the railroad. 

Energy at 110,000 volts and at 60,000 volts will be fed to 
the railroad company at eight different points on its right- 
of way, the minimum requirement for power being 25,000 
kw and the maximum for . the present 50,000 kw. Ulti- 
mately five stations of the Montana Power Transmission 
Company, three stations of the Great Falls Power Company 
and the station of the Thompson Falls Power Company will 
supply the load. The Thompson Falls Power Company is 
now constructing a 5o,ooc-hp hydroelectric station at 
Thompson Falls, Mont., and the Great Falls Power Com- 
pany has also under construction a 130,000-hp hydroelectric 
development on the Missouri, at Great Falls, Mont. 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



7i 



POWER PLANT EXTENSION FOR THE UTAH LIGHT & 
RAILWAY COMPANY 

An instance of rapid power plant construction will be 
found in the extension to the Jordan steam station of the 
Utah Light & Railway Company at Salt Lake City, Utah, 
which was designed and constructed by Westinghouse, 
Church, Kerr & Company, constructing engineers, New 
York City. The original station was built in 1910 and con- 
sisted of an 8500-kw single-unit steam turbine station, de- 
signed to act as an adjunct to various hydroelectric plants 
operating in the vicinity and also to form the nucleus for 
such steam generating equipment as might be later required 
to serve Salt Lake City. 

The new work, which consists of an extension to the old 
station, comprises in general a brick and steel building, 
approximately 100 ft. x 60 ft. The building walls rest on a 
pile concrete mattress composed of 36-ft. piles, overlaid 
with about 3 ft. of concrete. Condenser intake and overflow 
flumes are formed in the foundations. The boiler room 




Utah Light & Power — General View of Salt Lake City 
Power Plant 

consists of a steel frame structure supporting an overhead 
coal bunker with brick walls and concrete floor and roof. 
The turbine room is similarly constructed, the only steel, 
however, being in the crane rails, floor beams and roof 
trusses. 

The new boiler equipment consists of six Stirling boilers 
and Roney mechanical stokers, supplied with natural draft 
by means of a radial brick stack 11V2 ft. in diameter by 
225 ft. in height. The boilers operate at 200-lb. pressure 
and 125 deg. superheat. The piping is thoroughly modern, 
designed with welded flanges for high-pressure work and 
cast-steel fittings and valve bodies. Valve seats, disks and 
spindles are of Monel metal, particular attention being given 
to providing for expansion and contraction in view of the 
high steam pressure and the superheat. 

In this station it was not necessary to store coal in large 
quantities and the coal and ash handling equipment is com- 
paratively simple. It consists of a track hopper into which 
coal is dumped from railroad cars and carried by an inclined 
bucket conveyor up to the top of the boiler house, where it 
.discharges on a horizontal belt by which it is distributed 



through the length of the bunker over the boilers. Ashes 
are dumped from ash pits into side- dump cars, which run 
on an industrial railroad in the boiler room basement, are 
lifted to ground level by an elevator and are run out by 
hand to dump on adjacent land which is being filled. 

The new turoine equipment consists of one Westing- 
house-Parsons unit of 8500-kw capacity running at 3600 
r.p.ni. and delivering current at sixty cycles, three-phase, 
4400 volts. The unit is served by a Leblanc condenser 
placed directly beneath it in the turbine foundation, the con- 
denser having turbine-driven air and circulating pumps. 
The main generator is provided with the usual air ducts 
for ventilation and is excited by a turbine-driven set of 
100-kw capacity. General Electric switching apparatus is 
contained in concrete cells, and the ring type of bus is used 
to secure the desired flexibility in switching operations. 

The construction of the extension and the installation of 
the equipment were carried out with unusual rapidity owing 
to the necessities involved by operating conditions. The 
extension to the plant was authorized on March 27, 1912, 




Utah Light & Power — General View of Turbine Room 
Showing New 8500-kw Turbine 



and completed on Aug. 26, 1912. Actual field work was 
commenced ten days after authorization, so that the time 
spent in actual construction up to the time when the new 
unit went under commercial load was only 142 days. The 
work described in this article was carried out under the 
direction of O. A. Honnold, electrical engineer Utah Light 
& Railway Company. 



APPROVAL OF MELBOURNE ELECTRIFICATION 

It is announced that the resolution providing for the 
electrification of the Melbourne (Australia) suburban lines, 
which was recently passed by the lower house of the Vic- 
torian Legislative Assembly, has now passed the Legis- 
lative Council, or upper house. The plan of Messrs. Merz 
and McLellan, providing for electrification at i50C-volt 
direct current, has therefore been approved. It is under- 
stood that the contract will be arranged as early as possi- 
ble. The principal features of the approved report were 
published in the Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 14, 
1912. 



72 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



SCHEDULE BOARDS FOR CITY LINES 



In the modern American city of 50,000 population and 
more the quality of the electric railway service rendered 
is measured largely by the regularity of the schedule. To 
facilitate the actual arrangement of a schedule or a number 
of schedules which interspace, the schedule board as de- 
scribed in this article has been introduced on the surface 
lines in the city of Fort Wayne, Ind. While the purpose 
and principle of the board were taken directly from the 
boards in use on many steam roads and some interurban 
lines, the application to city work, where the track lay-out 
is generally much more complicated, is comparatively new. 

It has been found there that a well-designed board offers 
to the trained eye a graphical process in which every car 
will be portrayed, as well as its exact location at every 
moment during a trip, its relation to all other cars on the 
same route in both directions and its relation to all other 
cars on the same and parallel routes at switches, sidings, 
junctions and turn-outs. In fact, almost any desired condi- 
tion relative to the car movements can be instantly and 
accurately determined. In addition to the car movements the 
exact car speeds can be determined at any point along the 



Schedule Board for Four Interspacing Routes, Showing an 

line. The schedule can be made to fit the track and traffic, 
lessened in some places and increased in others. Where 
single track plays an important part in the make-up of the 
schedule, the speed, delays and other conditions can be 
shown accurately. Lastly, the board can be used in an 
educational way to instruct inspectors, starters and even 
the carmen themselves how the running time is determined 
and what affects the time points which they know to be so 
important. 

The experience at Fort Wayne shows that the following 
specifications are well suited for the purpose of such a 
board. It should be made of well-seasoned white pine or 
other soft wood, 1 in. to i l / 2 in. thick, depending on the 
outside dimensions of the board. It should be carefully 
joined and cleated on the back to prevent warping. 

The height should be a direct multiple, to scale, of the 
longest route combination possible. In some cases where 
there are suburban lines much longer than this a second 
scale for such routes may be chosen. A good scale for a 
line length of 5 miles is % in. to 100 ft. Where the length 
of line is greater than 7 or 8 miles, it is very desirable to 
have the track lay-out extend horizontally, as in the accom- 
panying illustration, in which case the board can be made 
long with only the limits of the room as a determining 
factor. The length of the board depends upon the scale 
of time chosen. A good value, regardless of the maximum 



track length, is ^ in. to each half-minute space. For a 
sixty-minute board, the best one for most uses, this gives 
45 in. of time space; and by adding to this the space re- 
quired for the track lay-out, scales, street names, etc., a 
total length (or height if used the other way) of from 
50 in. to 60 in. is established. 

In laying out such a board the best results can be ob- 
tained with a ruling pen and inks on a fiat white surface. 
After the lay-out is complete a number of thin varnish 
coats should be put on to complete the appearance of the 
board as well as to protect it. In preparing the track lay- 
out care should be exercised to be accurate and to show 
the location, diagrammatically if possible, of all points 
necessary to the make-up of the future schedules. In 
other words, all topographic conditions, factories and other 
points affecting operation should be shown. 

The actual procedure of arranging any particular schedule 
by strings will be greatly facilitated if thumb tack plugs 
are used. These plugs are the ordinary brass furniture 
tacks used in upholstering, and if the receiving holes are 
of the proper size they can be most conveniently removed 
and re-inserted. The size of the hole should be slightly 
smaller than the shank of the tack and not over }i in. in 

depth. The tack must fit the 
hole snugly but not so tightly 
as to cause difficulty in re- 
moval. 

To determine the speed of 
a car at any point a series of 
slant lines are drawn close 
enough to each other to allow 
the operator to compare the 
slant of the string with the 
nearest series of speed lines. 
These speed lines naturally 
slant at an angle depending 
on the scale used. In other 
words, the speed slant is a 
function of the distance, ver- 
tically, and of the time, hori- 
zontally, or vice versa if the 
board is placed in the position 
shown in the illustration. 
This paper is indebted 
~" for the suggestions printed 

Hour's Run with 36 Cars above > as wel1 as for the ac- 
companying illustration, to 

C. E. Warwick and R. R. Ritchie, both of Fort Wayne, Ind. 



REPORT OF THE BOSTON TRANSIT COMMISSION 



The eighteenth annual report of the Boston Transit 
Commission, covering the year ended June 30, 1912, has 
been made public. It is a pamphlet of 218 pages, and re- 
views the work of the board in the period above stated, 
with special reference to the completion of the Boston con- 
nection of the Cambridge subway, the subways now under 
construction under Winter Street and in the Back Bay, and 
the extension of the tunnel and subway leases of the Boston 
Elevated Railway Company until 1936. A large amount of 
miscellaneous legislative matter, canvasses of bids, costs 
of work accomplished and reports upon transit bills is 
included in a lengthy appendix. The board had expended 
to the date of its report $19,120,207 in the construction of 
subways in Boston, including the Charlestown Bridge. 

Work is actively in progress on the Boylston Street sub- 
way, which is to be a two-tracked structure about 1.9 miles 
long designed for large surface cars. It begins at an in- 
clined entrance in the Commonwealth Avenue parkway, at 
Kenmore Street, and after passing under the Fenway dis- 
trict runs under Stony Brook conduit and Newbury Street 
to Massachusetts Avenue, and thence through city property 



January ii, 1913.J 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



73 



to Boylston Street. It then continues in nearly a direct 
line in and under Boylston Street to Tremont Street. From 
this point to Park Street the precise location of the subway 
and its stations have not yet been determined. Other sta- 
tions will be located at Massachusetts Avenue and Copley 
Square. At the lowest part of the subway the track level 
will be 19 ft. below mean low water of the sea and 27 ft. 
lower than the surface of the Charles River Basin. 

An extension of the East Boston tunnel is now under 
construction. Under Court Street the grade of the tunnel 
is to be changed so as to run under the present Scollay 
Square station of the Tremont Street subway, with a sta- 
tion for the East Boston tunnel traffic at this point. Thence 
it will continue westerly to Bowdoin Square, coming to the 
surface near Chambers Street in the West End. A station 
in the vicinity of Bowdoin Square is contemplated, and 
the extension, although only 2300 ft. in length, will mate- 
rially facilitate the entrance and egress of surface cars be- 
tween Cambridge and Boston, and will permit, so far as 
required, the operation of through cars between East Boston 
and Cambridge. Still another important extension now 
under construction is that of the Boston connection of the 
Cambridge Main Street subway under Winter and Summer 
Streets to the South Station, and thence to South Boston 
and Dorchester. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



A REMARKABLE SERIES OF COINCIDENCES 



Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corporation 
Augusta, Ga., Jan. 4, 1913. 

To the Editors: 

Quite accidentally I noticed the frequency of the figures 
1 and 3 in connection with a big wreck we had at North 
Augusta at 3 a. m. on Dec. 29, 1912. There was no loss 
of life nor serious personal injury. After the first 13 was 
commented on as being the final figures on Car 25,213, I 
found a lot of 13's right on the spot. I send you a list I 
made out the other night, thinking it will have some interest 
for your readers. I also inclose a photograph of the 
wreck, just to let you know it was no insignificant affair. 
The express car was thrown on its side, down the road, a 




Accident at North Augusta, S. C. 



distance of 190 ft. All trucks were dismembered from the 
three cars, and they took all sorts of directions. The 
express car is back in the shop, but the steel gondolas are 
still in the canal they dug. A track has been built for 
them to the main line, and jacks are being used to elevate 
them to the level of the road. 

The two gondola coal cars were being shifted from 
Clearwater, S. C, to the Hampton Terrace Hotel, in that 
State. The train was handled by the following men : 
Charles Herron, motorman ; Yeoman Padgett, conductor ; 
Thomas Hawkins, colored, helper. Count the letters in 
each of the names: 



Charles Herron 13 

Yeoman Padgett 13 

Thomas Hawkins 13 

The year was 1912. Add those figures; result 13 

Add the letters in the name of the State, South Carolina. 13 
It happened Sunday morning. Count the letters in 

"Sunday morning" 13 

One of the coal cars had defective brakes. It was 

C. & O., No. 52,150. Get the result by adding the 

figures 13 

The other coal car was C. & O., No. 25,213. Take from 

the five the last two figures, and you have 13 

Or, for amusement, add the figures in the number, 

25,213 13 

The smash-up was on twelfth, 29, 1912. Add the letters 
in the number of month and the digits in the dates. . 13 

The cars jumped the track in front of the home of 
James U. Jackson. See if the letters in his name don't 
add up 13 

The number of the express car which hauled the coal 
cars was 130. Cut off the cipher and gaze at beauti- 
ful 13 

The coal cars chewed up thirteen cross-ties. Without 
purpose in so doing, except to get them out of the way, 
eight were sent to James U. Jackson and five to George 
Jackson 13 

Just for fun, count the letters in the last name — George 
Jackson, at whose door the cars were demolished. 
Hush ! 13 

Take the middle figure from the conductor's badge num- 
ber — 123. Once more we get 13 

And what do you get if you take the final figures from 
the same badge number ? Skiddoo ! 23 



George H. Conklin, Claim Agent. 



RIVETED-WELDED JOINTS 



Cleveland Railway Company 

Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. 4, 1913. 

To the Editors : 

I note with interest the article in your issue of Dec. 21, 
1912, on "The New Type of Joint for Baltimore." This 
heading is rather misleading. This is not a new type of 
joint, although I note in the article that you give a slight 
credit to me by saying that it is somewhat similar to the 
"Clark joint." This, of course, is practically so. However, 
there is nothing about this joint which we have not already 
developed. In fact, a saving could be made in this joint of 
about 2 lb. of thermit if the shape of the mold was changed. 
We found by experimenting, five years ago, that the bottom 
of the mold under the base of the rail should not be level but 
should be brought up to within J4 in- of the base of the rail 
at the center. This allows the thermit steel to flow through 
this opening and heat the base of the rail as it flows by. 
This change would permit a saving of 2 lb. of thermit to 
each joint. We also undercut our rails by mitering them 
at the base three years ago. 

Another criticism which I would make of the joint is the 
fact that the riveting is being done by hand, the rivets being 
backed up with a "dolley." I am very sure that the plates 
cannot be made as tight in this way as in our method of 
using a riveting machine which squeezes the rivets with a 
100-ton pressure. Another improvement which we have 
made, but which is not mentioned in connection with the 
Baltimore joint, is that we drill our rails 3 1/32 in. from the 
center of the first hole to the second hole, and the other 
two holes are spaced 3 in. The joint bars are rolled from 
the same material as the rail, and the drilling is 3 in. to the 
center of the first hole and 3 in. from center to center of the 
remaining holes. This small difference of 1/32 in. in the 
drilling allows a drift pin to crowd the heads of the rail 
together. Charles H. Clark. 

Engineer Maintenance of Way. 



74 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 

Messages of the Governors 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



The Regulation of Public Service Corporations, Minimum Wages and Workmen's Compensation Measures Are Discussed 



Legislative sessions are held in nearly all the states this 
year, and most of the sessions will be begun this month. 
Among the states where the sessions are now in progress 
are the following: New York, Massachusetts, Pennsyl- 
vania, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Oklahoma, Maine and 
South Dakota. Extracts from the messages of the Gov- 
ernors of all these states follow: 

GOVERNOR SULZER OF NEW YORK 
"The question of the conservation of the natural re- 
sources of the State, and their development and utilization 
for the benefit of all the people, is a matter of vital im- 
portance to our Commonwealth and demands the most care- 
ful consideration at your hands. We should favor the pres- 
ervation of our forests by intelligent forestry legislation. 
We should protect our watersheds and utilize to the utmost 
our numerous rivers as they flow from the hills to the sea. 

"To secure for those less accustomed to the competitive 
struggle protection that other workers have won for them- 
selves through organization, we should carefully consider 
the establishment of wage boards with authority to fix a 
living wage for conditions of work below which standards 
no industry should be allowed to continue its operations. 

"Another type of legislation beneficial to the state that 
aims to conserve human life and health is that which re- 
quires the use of safety appliances and establishes safety 
standards. Practical results of such legislation prove that 
these regulations are a good investment. Statistics prove 
that the welfare of the worker is indissolubly involved in 
permanent industrial progress." 

GOVERNOR FOSS OF MASSACHUSETTS 
"The railroad situation in New England, and especially 
in Massachusetts, is such as to cause the deepest concern. 
In this day and generation no public service corporation can 
prosper if it lacks public confidence. The continued hos- 
tility of the press and the public to the great railroad sys- 
tem upon which we depend is sure to lead to serious results. 
The situation to-day clearly demands something more than 
criticism. It behooves us to take fully into account the 
probability of the acquisition and operation of the railroad 
systems of the United States by the national government. 
We must do our part by providing adequate regulation in 
this Commonwealth to make national ownership and oper- 
ation unnecessary. The only way to postpone national 
ownership of railroads and to retain in the Commonwealth 
the power to regulate our transportation system is to assert 
that power at once and to apply it without delay. I there- 
fore renew my recommendation, that a powerful public 
service commission be created, armed with mandatory 
authority over the public service, so far as this is within 
the power of Massachusetts to control. This commission 
should have power to compel the adoption of an interchange- 
able mileage. It should enforce such train schedules as 
will provide convenient connections between trains at junc- 
tion points. This commission should have authority to fix 
freight and passenger rates on an equitable basis, to ex- 
amine and audit the books of all transportation companies 
at any time, and to hold the railroad corporations to a 
sworn statement of their current operating expenses and 
disbursements. It must have authority to order the con- 
struction of railroad extensions, side tracks and spurs wher- 
ever required. 

"It is equally important that this commission should have 
power to supervise and force the electrification of all the 
railroads within the metropolitan area, and their connec- 
tion through whatever tunnel system is required to unite 
our principal railroad and water terminals into a complete 
system, giving us adequate facilities for rail and deep- 



water connections. If you were to fail in this crisis to 
create a public service commission with mandatory power, 
this Legislature would fall under just public condemnation. 
It is your obvious duty to exhaust every means within your 
constitutional power to regulate our public service and to 
compel from its existing agencies the full discharge of their 
duty to the public. 

"A second measure, by which the benefits of both pri- 
vate and public ownership may be secured, would be to 
enact a law providing that henceforth the Governor shall 
appoint a number or the majority of the directors of every 
corporation which owns, operates or controls a railroad in 
Massachusetts, proportionate to the mileage of that rail- 
road in the State. Thus, if every state in which the rail- 
road operates shall pass a like statute, the directors repre- 
senting these states shall constitute a majority of the board 
of directors of the railroad. The act should provide fur- 
ther that the Commonwealth shall obligate itself to pur- 
chase at any time, at a price to be fixed by a court of com- 
petent jurisdiction, any share of stock offered to it for 
purchase, unless the Commonwealth shall at the time of 
said offer already have acquired and then hold shares of 
the capital stock of that corporation equal in proportion 
to the total capital stock to the proportionate representa- 
tion of the Commonwealth in the majority of the direc- 
torate of that corporation. Also, the directors of any rail- 
road shall not have the power to withhold the declaration 
and payment of any dividend that has been earned over 
and above a reserve for depreciation. 

"Such a measure would accomplish directly every result 
which could be achieved indirectly through the condemna- 
tion, purchase and operation by the Commonwealth, or any 
other state, of every mile of railroad over which it has 
power. It would also preserve to the public every advan- 
tage of private ownership and management. It would not 
only be fair to the stockholders, but would benefit them." 

GOVERNOR TENER OF PENNSYLVANIA 
"I earnestly urge the early passage of a sane, sound, com- 
prehensive and effective public utilities law, framed along 
substantially the same lines as that drafted by Attorney- 
General Bell, which failed of passage at the last session of 
the General Assembly. No doubt several bills will be in- 
troduced concerning this subject. I therefore recommend 
the early reference of all such proposed legislation to an 
active committee, which shall forthwith give intelligent con- 
sideration to the same, with a view of reporting to the Leg- 
islature the best of such proposed enactments, or, if deemed 
wise, a new or composite bill, which shall contain the best 
provisions to be culled from any or all of those suggested 
bills and from the field of such legislation in other states. 

"I strongly urge the enactment of the workman's com- 
pensation bill, and the other related bills included in the 
report of the industrial accidents commission, without 
change in their essential features, and without delay, es- 
pecially the bill regulating the employment of women and 
children. 

"In my inaugural address I called attention to the neces- 
sity of the State exercising jurisdiction over the issuance 
of obligations by public utility corporations, to the end that 
such obligations should represent actual value. I renew 
that recommendation, with the further recommendation that 
every corporation, company, copartnership or association, 
organized, proposed to be organized, or which shall here- 
after be organized, within or without this State, whether 
incorporated or unincorporated, shall not be permitted to 
sell, or negotiate for the sale of, any bonds, stocks or other 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



75 



evidences of property or interest in itself or any other com- 
pany, unless subject to regulation and supervision by the 
proper departments of the Commonwealth, to the end that 
such securities shall represent actual value only. 

"An enlarged application of the water policy already be- 
gun by the State, through the co-operative relationship of 
the Department of Health and the Water Supply Commis- 
sion, is one of Pennsylvania's greatest needs." 

GOVERNOR POTHIER OF RHODE ISLAND 
"Public regulation of the public utilities in Rhode Island 
had been undertaken none too soon, and the efficiency of 
such regulation should be maintained by vesting sufficient 
power and authority in the commission to enable it to 
achieve the results for which it was created. The rates 
charged for the service rendered by the various utilities are 
now matters of record with the commission, but with no 
authority to inspect their securities or to make a physical 
valuation of their properties, the commission finds it diffi- 
cult to determine whether or not the rates charged are just, 
or such as would be warranted to insure a fair return on 
the capital invested. Provision for such physical valua- 
tion of the property of all public utilities operating in the 
State, and also for the inspection of their securities by 
the commission, should be made by an amendment to the 
present law. The commission also should have the power 
of prescribing proper and uniform accounting methods, 
and of requiring, from all companies under its jurisdiction, 
reports of operating expenses and financial and other data. 
Provision should be made in the law for the appointment 
of experienced men to act as inspectors of the equipment 
of steam and electric railways, and of the gas and electricity 
supplied for public consumption. The most important 
need, however, is some provision for the physical valuation 
of utilities and the inspection of their securities, and the 
General Assembly should enact an amendment to the pres- 
ent law containing such provision. 

"I recommend the passage of an amendment to the work- 
men's compensation act, requiring employers to report all 
accidents in their several establishments to the commis- 
sioner of industrial statistics, immediately after each acci- 
dent has occurred, upon blanks to be furnished by the com- 
missioner, and also to make to him a further statement as 
to the settlements made in all such cases, in order that the 
State may be fully informed as to the benefits which ac- 
crue as a result of the law." 

GOVERNOR BALDWIN OF CONNECTICUT 
"The results attained by the Public Utilities Commission 
have fully justified the expectations of those who con- 
tributed to its creation. 

"A commission appointed pursuant to an act of the last 
General Assembly to consider, among other things, the ex- 
pediency of adopting a workmen's compensation act has 
agreed on a bill for such an act, the passage of which it 
unanimously recommends. The scheme is to place the ad- 
ministration of the remedy mainly in the hands of four 
commissioners, with an annual salary of $5,000 apiece and 
a very moderate allowance for expenses. 

"I think three commissioners could do all the business, 
and that a salary to each of $3,500, with an allowance 
of not exceeding $1,200 for expenses, would be more 
advisable than a salary of $5,000 and the allowance for ex- 
penses recommended by the commission of not over half 
that sum. With such changes in these respects as you may 
think desirable, I should recommend the enactment of the 
bill." 

GOVERNOR BYRNE OF SOUTH DAKOTA 
"I believe that the time has come when all public utilities 
should be brought under control of the Board of Railroad 
Commissioners and it be given the powers and duties of a 
general public utilities commission and charged with the 
duty of regulating service and charges. The basis of suc- 
cessful regulation and control must be the physical valua- 



tion of the property in use, the determination of proper 
standards of equipment as to kind, quality and construc- 
tion, and an accurate system of accounting to show the 
gross earnings and the necessary and proper expenses and 
thus the net income. For this purpose the board should 
have a competent engineer and expert accountants and the 
question of proper regulation and control be taken up broad- 
ly, comprehensively and with a view to permanent results, 
Considerations of economy should be kept in mind and the 
utmost care exercised in appropriating public funds, but it 
is to be remembered that it would be false economy indeed 
to fail to put this board in a position where it can accom- 
plish the important work there is for it to do in securing 
good and efficient service from the public service corpora- 
tions doing business in the State and saving to the people 
large sums in rates and charges. The board recommends 
the enactment of a law requiring the railways to report 
annually their gross receipts and disbursements at each 
station in the State. This is a matter of importance, and I 
especially urge it upon your attention. In this connection I 
call your attention to the recommendation of the Attorney- 
General for the enactment of a law providing for appeal 
from the Board of Railroad Commissioners to the Supreme 
Court of the State, direct. This recommendation of the 
Attorney-General relates to an important matter regard- 
ing the enforcement of orders of the Board of Railroad 
Commissioners and should receive your careful attention." 

GOVERNOR CRUCE OF OKLAHOMA 
"I recommend that you give to the people a law upon 
the subject of workmen's compensation, framed with the 
view of dealing out absolute justice to the employer and 
employee alike, based upon the experience gained from other 
states in the Union that have adopted such a measure." 

GOVERNOR HAINES OF MAINE 
"We now have nearly 80,000 wage-earners in the manu- 
facturing plants of the State. Under the rules of the com- 
mon law now in force in this State, the employer is bound 
to provide a reasonably safe place in which to work, rea- 
sonably safe tools and machinery, to be reasonably careful 
in hiring competent fellow workmen, and to make proper 
rules for doing work. Under modern conditions these rules 
work much hardship and injustice to the wage-earner. 
Placing the liability for accident upon the employer only 
in cases where his negligence is established, under these 
rules, leaves the employee in a hazardous and uncertain 
condition as to maintenance and support when injured. 
Under modern manufacturing conditions these rules of the 
common law can but result in great injustice. That we 
have outgrown this system in Maine cannot be denied. I 
believe it to be your duty to pass a workmen's compensation 
law such as will place our State abreast of other states, for 
the protection of our wage-earners and the insuring of 
friendship and a feeling of mutual interest and dependency 
between employee and employer. 

"The question of reasonable regulation and control of 
persons and corporations furnishing public service of dif- 
ferent kinds to the people of our State is one uppermost 
in the public mind to-day. While our statute contemplates 
some regulations in some cases in these matters, and the 
common law undoubtedly clothes our court with such 
authority, there is no easy and practical way for the average 
citizen to get at this question ; and the public seems to feel 
that such a means should be provided. I believe that the 
time has come when a public service commission or court 
should be established for this purpose. Such a court could 
do the work which is now done by the railroad commis- 
sioners. It may also be vested with authority in the matter 
of the issue of stock and bonds of corporations, which 
would tend to give confidence and encourage the investment 
of capital in new enterprises in our State. I recommend 
its establishment, with proper authority for the regulation 
and control of the public service business of the State." 



7 6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



A SIMPLIFIED FORM OF THERMIT RAIL WELDING 



After considerable experimental work, the Goldschmidt 
Thermit Company announces that it has devised a suc- 
cessful method for welding the entire rail section without 
incurring the risk of changing the composition or wearing 
qualities of the steel in the head of the rail. In the method 
of welding used until recently a space of i n - was left 
between the rail ends. This space was filled with thermit 
steel, which also flowed around the rail at a temperature 
sufficient to melt the sections with which it came in con- 
tact and to amalgamate with them to form a homogeneous 
mass when cooled. Although this method proved satis- 
factory, it involved much preliminary analysis of the rail 
steel to determine the amount of alloy, such as chromium 
or nickel, which would have to be added to the thermit in 
order to produce a steel of the same wearing quality as 
the steel in the head of the rail. The new method is a mod- 
ification of the one just described and also of the procedure 
for thermit rail welding followed in Europe. 

In Europe butt welding is most generally used. The 
reason for two thermit rail-welding methods is, of course, 
the fact that abroad the high-carbon rail (0.65 per cent to 



section with thermit steel, the difficulty was in providing 
for the welded head a composition which would wear 
equally with the original rail steel. After considerable 
testing the following process was developed: 

A piece cut from the same rail section as the one 

to be welded or from a rolled section of the same compo- 
sition and of the shape shown in the accompanying draw- 
ing is introduced between the ends of the rails. Although 
this insert is cut to fit closely, its retention of its position 
between the ends of the rails is insured by the process of 
preheating, which, of course, expands the abutting rails. 
No clamps are used, as their functions are performed by 
a thermit weld on the outside edge of the ball of the rail 
and by another weld on the lip. These welds are made in 
one operation. The force due to the shrinkage of the two 
welds compresses and butt-welds the white-hot rail ends 
to the insert. It should be noted that the usual thermit 
weld of the base and rail has been retained. From the fore- 
going description, it is evident that as no part of the wear- 
ing surface is replaced with thermit steel, there is no 
further need for special alloys, chemical analysis of the 
rails or other preliminary work. 

The improved method has been found to result in an ab- 




Gate 





' Riser 

Top View of Rail Joint 
before Grinding 





T 

1 1 

1 

1 ; 




; 




/ 


1 I 






1 ] 
1 





Side Elevation 



Section on Line AA 



Electric Ru Journal 



Section Through Rail Juint 
after Pouring 

Sections and Elevations Showing Combination of Thermit Welding and Insert for the Head of the Rail 



0.08 per cent carbon) is an exception, whereas American 
rails sometimes contain as much as 0.95 per cent carbon. 
A low-carbon rail adapts itself very easily to a butt-weld- 
ing process. The rails are lined up on temporary ties, and 
a special patented clamping apparatus is adjusted on the 
rails. An opening is left between the rail ends sufficient 
to introduce a circular ratchet file. With this the ends 
of the heads of the rails are very carefully filed to parallel 
surfaces. The ratchet is then removed and the rails are 
drawn together by means of the clamping apparatus. The 
heads of the rails are preheated by a small charcoal fur- 
nace, after which the molds are applied quickly. The 
thermit is then ignited in the crucible, and the thermit 
steel is tapped into the mold, fusing and forming a collar 
about the base and web of the rail, while the slag runs 
over the head. A further addition of thermit is next 
made and is directly ignited by the heat of the slag, so 
that the rail head is thus brought to a welding tempera- 
ture. This takes about four minutes after the pour has 
been made. The powerful clamp is then again brought 
into operation, and the heads of the rails become butt- 
welded. Several modifications of this method, of course, 
are also used for special cases. 

As the American practice has been to weld the whole 



solutely continuous running surface of the same composi- 
tion and hardness as the rail itself. Furthermore, it gives 
a joint which is stronger than the rail and has but a 
slightly greater mass of metal at the joint than elsewhere 
along the rail. The slight extra cost of using the insert 
is balanced by a decrease in the amount of grinding re- 
quired to finish off the rail surface with the Goldschmidt 
Thermit Company's special grinder. 

As the physical principles of the new method of weld- 
ing may not be entirely clear, the following demonstration 
may be of interest: 

Assume that the rails are 30 ft. long and that the con- 
traction is taken up locally in this rail length. Then the 
total tension put in the rail by the contraction strain due 
to the welded joint would under good track conditions be 
about 10,000 lb. per square inch. This strain, however, is 
distinct from the secondary strain which is set up in the 
added metal surrounding the insert. If with a %-in. gap 
the steel is made molten for a distance of iy 2 in. (the 
molten steel contracting about 3/16 in. to the foot), there 
would be a contraction of 1/50 in. in this distance, and in 
the distance of the insert, ^4 i n -, there would be half of 
this, or 1/100-in. If a modulus of elasticity of 30,000,000 
is assumed and the insert is considered cold, the strain 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



77 



produced on this insert would be more than 400,000 lb. per 
square inch, which force would, of course, rupture the 
joint. That the joint does not rupture and develops- its 
full strength is proof that the larger part of this strain is 
taken up in the upsetting of the insert, which, owing to 
the preheating and to the added heat from the thermit 
steel, is brought to a welding temperature and is, of course, 
welded during this upsetting. 



carrying position at will. The position of the scoop, how- 
ever, is governed by a trigger spring which holds it in the 
normal operating position. After it has been tripped it 



A NOVEL DISAPPEARING FENDER 

The Fonger Fender Company, Chicago, has placed on 
the market a new type of projecting fender which has sev- 
eral unique features. The illustrations show this fender 




Disappearing Fender — View Showing Fender in Normal 
Position with Scoop Held Up by Trigger 

in three different operating positions as installed on one 
of the cars of the Union Electric Company, Dubuque, la. 
The most unusual feature of the fender is a tilting shield 
at the lower end of the basket which, upon coming in con- 
tact with an object on the track, automatically overturns 
and serves as a scoop in picking up the object encountered. 




Disappearing Fender — View Showing Fender with Scoop 

Tilted 

In its operating position the fender projects less than 2 ft. 
beyond the bumper, and it is so attached to the car by 
pivoted hanger rods that it may be swung out of the way 
beneath the car when it is at the rear end. 

One of the greatest advantages claimed for the new 
type is that it can be easily released from the operating 
position by the motorman and swung back under the plat- 
form of the car when a collision with a vehicle or other 
inanimate body is unavoidable. Its position is, in fact, gov- 
erned by the judgment of the motorman, as a foot lever 
and chain enable him to set the fender in operating or 




Disappearing Fender — View Showing Fender in Concealed 
Position 

is necessary to reverse the scoop and set the. trigger by 
hand. The fender is constructed entirely of steel with the 
exception of the scoop, which is made of oak incased in 
sheet steel. 



POLE-TOP DISCONNECTING SWITCHES 



Pole-top switches are coming into wider use as the sole 
switch equipment of the high-voltage side of outdoor sub- 
stations. Such switches should be made so as to open all 
poles at once from the ground, in order to insure the safety 
of the operator. As made by the Electrical Engineers 
Equipment Company, of Chicago, 111., they can be obtained 
in single, double, triple or four-pole types of either the 
single-break or double-break feature per pole, as well as 
with the combination of these features for use in connec- 
tion with fuses. 

A single pole of a 30,000-volt, 150-amp pole-top switch 
of the double-break type is shown in the first illustration. 
The contacts are of the flexible, self-aligning type. The 
switch is furnished so that it can be locked in either the 
open or closed position as desired. This style of switch, 
when equip- 
ped with dis- 
charging 
horns, can 
break consid- 
erable loads. 

A triple- 
pole, 22,000- 
volt. 100-amp 
p o 1 e - t o p 
switch of the 
single - break 
type is shown 
in the second 
view. This 
style of switch 

can readily be mounted either vertically or horizontally, 
since the control handle adapts itself to either mounting, as 
well as at either the center or the end of the switch as de- 
sired. The switch illustrated in this view is not equipped 
with fuse tubes or fittings, but can be so furnished if re- 
quired. 

The third illustration shows a triple-pole, 15,000-volt, 
100-amp combined switch and fuse, the usual switch blade 
in this type being supplanted by a hickory tube, boiled in 
linseed oil, dried and then varnished. The hickory tube 




30,000-Volt, 150-Amp Pole-Top Switch of 
Double-Break Type 



78 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



contains the fuse, which is readily renewable. The switch 
and control handle can be mounted in a manner similar to 
that described above. 

All three types of pole-top switches have been se de- 
signed that the work required for installing them is of the 
simplest nature, consisting of bolting the switch units, which 
are shipped completely assembled, to the arms and attach- 




22,000-Volt, 100-Amp Pole-Top Switch and i5,ooo-Volt, 

ing the control. The switches are built with clamped pipe 
arms and are capable of adjustment in every way, thus 
affording a rigid construction readily adaptable to stand- 
ard pole line framing. It is only necessary for the user 
to furnish the required pole and cross-arm work. 

Of the many uses to which switches of the pole-top type 
have been put, the most usual are opening branch lines, 
disconnecting transformer banks, diverting energy past sub- 
stations when installed upon the roof, disconnecting port- 
able substations from high-tension lines of electric rail- 
ways, and as line sectionalizing switches. 



CITY CAR WINDOW-GLASS TEST 



The service obtained from car window glass has received 
little attention from electric railways, yet window glass is 
a continued source of expense. This expense is not only at- 
tributable to glass renewals, but broken glass often results 
in personal injury claims. It is also practically impossible 
to obtain perfectly clear glass of a uniform thickness for 
cab windows, where clearness is especially desirable and 
when the glass must stand severe wind strains. Another 
desirable feature is that if the glass has these qualities it 
must also withstand the sandblast action of dust and re- 
main perfectly clear as long as it lasts. 

In 1910 a large street and interurban railway system in 
the Central West received forty-four double-truck, closed- 



were operated along with the new ones so that service con- 
ditions would be exactly similar. 

The mechanical department had had previous unsatis- 
factory experience with polished plate glass, and it was not 
considered in this test, as it had been found to cost more 

than the double-strength or 
§j/H^™ the blown glass, and did not 
give the desired strength in 
service tests with interurban 
/ Jffjcll equipment. 

The service tests from which 
the accompanying data were 
collected extended from Jan. 1, 
191 1, to Dec. 30 of the same 
year. The difference in the 
sizes of glass used, noted in 
the column containing this in- 
160- Amp Switch and Fuse formation, was due to the fact 

that a stock of one kind of 
glass was on hand, while the other was purchased to size. 
The stock of double-strength glass consisted of approximate 
sizes for general use, it being considered better economy 
to keep approximate sizes and cut to fit rather than pay 

Double Blown 

Strength Glass 

First cost of total glass per car, plus replacement per year $ ] 9 . 1 $44.35 

Weight of total glass per. car, lb 361 495 

Average cost of replacement per car per year $8.41 $1.69 

Interest on investment, at 5 per cent! per car per year.. 1.36 2.30 

Cost of hauling, at $0.05 per lb. per year 18.05 24.75 

Total cost $27.84 $28.74 

interest on the large stock required to supply renewals for 
the large number of cars in service. The blown glass was 
purchased in two thicknesses, 5/32 in. for areas under 
5 sq. ft. and 3/16 in. for areas more than 5 sq. ft. 

Although the first cost of the blown glass was about 
three times that of the double-strength, the saving made in 
cost of renewals at the close of the test was 80 per cent, 
or $271.42 for forty-four cars. In addition to the saving in 
money the blown glass which remained in the cars gave no 
evidence of any sand-blast action, which could be seen very 
plainly in the double-strength cast glass. 

Before drawing definite conclusions as to the economy to 
be obtained in changing to the higher priced glass, the 
question of car weight reduction and cost of hauling was 
investigated. It was found that when cost of replacement, 







Table 


Showing the 


Cost of G 


inary Double 


Strength 


Cast Glass Br 


oken. Forty-fo 


iir Cars 


No. 






Labor 


Total 


Pieces 


Size 


Cost 


Resetting 


Cost 


34 


14x38 


$6.12 


$8.50 


$14.62 




18x30 


.38 


.50 


.88 


44 


18x36 


10.56 


11.00 


21.56 


9 


20x36 


2.34 


2.25 


4.59 


444 


24x24 


92.00 


111.00 


203.00 


9 


24x26 


1.97 


2.25 


4.22 


84 


24x30 


21.25 


2l'0O 


42.25 


37 


24x38 


12.95 


9.25 


22.20 


2 


26x30 


.55 


.50 


1.05 


2 


30x30 


.64 


.50 


1.14 


37 


30x36 


14.80 


9.25 


24.05 


. 704 




$163.56 


$176.00 


$339.56 



Imported Cylinder-Process Blown Glass Broken. Forty-four Cars 



Totals. 



No. 






Labor 


Total 


Pieces 


Size 


Cost 


Resetting 


Cost 


8 


10 x24 


$2.21 


$2.00 


$4.21 


2 


10 x2SVi 


.66 


.50 


1.16 


5 


11^x38 


3.15 


1.25 


4.40 


2 


16 x33^ 


1.07 


.50 


1.57 


5 


18 x23^ 


3.10 


1.25 


4.35 


5 


IS x3Sy& 
21'Ax23'A 


4.27 


1.25 


5.52 


1 


.71 


.25 


.96 


5 


22!4x38 


7.70 


1.25 


8.95 


26 


23 '4x24 


20.30 


6.50 


26.80 


6 


285/^x34^ 


8.72 


1.50 


10.22 


65 




$51.89 


$16.25 


$68.14 



type cars from the Cincinnati Car Company. The specifi- 
cations covering this rolling stock required that the cars 
be glazed with a special quality of imported blown glass. 
The master mechanic had heard of the advantages claimed 
for this material but wanted to verify the claims to his own 
satisfaction. After these forty-four cars had been in serv- 
ice for some time his attention was called to the almost 
negligible amount of breakage, as compared witn cars 
glazed with ordinary double-strength glass, as well as to the 
clearness of the glass after considerable service. On re- 
ceipt of this information forty-four more cars of the same 
design were selected and glazed with the ordinary double- 
strength cast glass. To make the test conclusive these cars 



interest on investment at 5 per cent and cost of hauling 
at $0.05 per pound per car per year was considered, the 
total cost of the special glass was $0.90 per year in excess 
of the double-strength glass. This small difference could 
not be considered to offset either the charges coming from 
the claim department due to broken glass or the advantages 
of the clear condition of the blown glass after long service. 
Another item which had to be taken into account was the 
time consumed in selecting perfectly clear double-strength 
glass of a uniform thickness for vestibule sashes. In view 
of these indirect savings it was decided that the special glass 
would be more economical and should be adopted as 
standard. 



January ii, 1913.] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 79 

News of Electric Railways 



Pacific Electric Railway Development Plans 

Paul Shoup, president of the Pacific Electric Railway, Los 
Angeles, Cal., has addressed a letter in part as follows to 
the Public Utility Commission of Los Ange.les in reply to 
the letters from the commission published in the Electric 
Railway Journal for Jan. 4, 1913, page 48, recommending 
the addition of cars for use in the city: 

"This company has the following equipment, due in Los 
Angeles, according to the latest advices from the factories, 
in January or February: Forty-five interurban cars, latest 
improved type, similar in general design but seating eight 
more passengers than our present Pacific Electric Railway 
interurban cars; ten center-entrance, all-steel type, seating 
fifty-two passengers, suitable for short suburban runs; ten 
pay-as-you-enter, end-entrance type, seating forty passen- 
gers, our present standard city type. We have also 
ordered for delivery within six months twenty center-en- 
trance stepless cars, similar to type in use in New York 
City. As soon as these cars are received and we determine 
whether they are satisfactory we will order an additional 
thirty, or if we evolve a better type, will order thirty of 
the latter. 

"Further, we are about to order twenty long-distance in- 
terurban cars, superior, we think, to any interurban cars 
heretofore designed, for use on long-distance runs, which 
we expect to have by the time our line is completed from 
Los Angeles to San Bernardino and Riverside. Within 
ninety days a further order of twenty-five interurban cars 
similar in type to those we expect to receive during the 
next two months will be placed. The cost of the above 
equipment will be about $1,600,000. The foregoing does not 
include any of the investment in new electric locomotives 
and freight cars which we are ordering or have recently 
ordered. I trust this will satisfy you that we are keeping 
abreast of the progress of Southern California. The Pacific 
Electric Railway is trying so to do in the matter of new ex- 
tensions, of adding to its equipment and in the reconstruc- 
tion and betterment of existing tracks through replacing 
light rail with heavier rail, ballasting tracks, etc. 

"Our earnings show that during the first five months of 
the present fiscal year beginning July 1, compared with the 
corresponding months of last year, we have been provid- 
ing 4.4 per cent greater car mileage than has been the in- 
crease in our revenue — in other words, on the whole, we are 
giving 4.4 per cent greater accommodation for the same 
number of passengers. With the Pacific Electric Railway 
the difficulty is not so much one of car shortage as it is one 
of street congestion, and your board is quite familiar with 
the co-operative efforts of the city and of the railway made 
during the last six or eight months to work out this problem. 
Increasing the number of cars will not aid materially if they 
cannot be got through the streets promptly at rush hours, 
but I am hopeful that the use of San Pedro Street will mate- 
rially lessen this rush-hour congestion. 

"However, this is not a measure of permanent relief, and 
that can be secured only by the co-operation of the city 
through liberal franchise provisions in connection with in- 
terurban railways on private rights-of-way which will justify 
I he exceedingly heavy investment necessary to make and 
keep easy of access to the business heart of Los Angeles 
the surrounding territory within the radius of Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway service. Indeed, with such co-operation from 
the city, I think we may reasonably expect the territories 
so served to be with Los Angeles one great urban and 
suburban community. So fullv has this subj'ect been dis- 
cussed that it is perhaps hardly necessary again to point 
out that if the electric railways serving Los Angeles and the 
surrounding territory are to be enabled to promote and keep 
pace with the growth of this city and its tributary country, 
the policy of the city toward investments made and yet to 
be made must be one that will assure protection since the 
railways must, in securing their funds, compete with all 
other forms of possible investment and they will be able to 
secure funds in such competition only as they, in proportion, 
can demonstrate assurance of safety for the investment and 
a fair return thereon to the investor." 



Re-routing Plan in Operation in Cleveland 



Under the re-routing plan put into operation at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, on Jan. 1, 1913, the interurban cars were forced 
to stand on Prospect Avenue while awaiting passengers 
for their regular trips. This was found to be very incon- 
venient for both the companies and the passengers, and 
Street Railway Commissioner Witt has consented to per- 
mit the cars to stand on Champlain Street, which is nearer 
the Public Square. In departing from the city the cars 
are routed over Superior Avenue for a short distance to 
pick up passengers who do not desire to go to them on 
Champlain Street. 

Mr. Witt states that fifty new motor cars will be in oper- 
ation within a few months. It will not be long until the 
company will have 1200 cars in operation. 

Express cars have been put into operation on the Clif- 
ton Boulevard line. After leaving the business section 
of the city they make few stops until they reach the sec- 
tion of the city where most of the passengers reside who 
patronize the line. Passengers pay their fares as they 
leave the cars. They enter at the front door and leave by 
way of the rear platform. In that way it has been neces- 
sary to make only a slight change in the location of the 
fare box. 

The Electric Depot Company has purchased about three 
acres of land fronting on Eagle Avenue and East Ninth 
Street, in order to be prepared for the increasing package 
business and the electric freight business, if the interurban 
lines finally take up that branch of transportation. This 
will depend upon the action of the City Council in regard 
to granting the right to haul freight cars over the tracks 
of the local company. It is believed, however, that some 
arrangement will be made to that end. The depot company 
will not make any additions to its buildings now, but will 
hold the land in readiness for future use. 

The G. C. Kuhlman Company, Cleveland, was the lowest 
bidder on the fifty new motor cars that are to be built 
for the Cleveland Railway. 

It is said that the actual surplus from operation for 
December, 1012, will be between $6,000 and $8,000, while 
the franchise surplus will be about $25,000. The total re- 
ceipts for the month are about $575,000. 



Public Hearings on New York Subway Operating Contracts 

The Public Service Commission for the First District of 
New York has concluded its conferences with the officers 
of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company over the terms and conditions 
of the proposed operating contracts fcr the dual system of 
rapid transit, which is to cost more than $300,000,000. The 
law requires that public hearings shall be held on such 
contracts before they are executed. Accordingly the com- 
mission has called for public hearings as follows: 

On Jan. 14 at 10 a. m. on the proposed contract with the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company for the construction by 
the city, with a contribution by the company, of the Broad- 
way and Centre Street Loop subways in Manhattan, a tun- 
nel under the East River and the Fourth Avenue Subway 
and its extensions, and the Eastern District subway in 
Brooklyn, and for the operation of such lines in conjunction 
with the existing elevated railroad system of the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company. 

Jan. 14 at 2 p. m. on the proposed contract with the In- 
terborough Rapid Transit Company for the construction by 
the city, with a contribution by the company, of the Lex- 
ington Avenue and Seventh Avenue subways in Manhattan, 
the Steinway tunnel, a new tunnel under the East River to 
Brooklyn, and the Eastern Parkway and its extensions in 
Brooklyn; also for the construction by the city of the Co- 
rona and Astoria rapid transit lines in Queens, for opera- 
tion by both companies. 

Jan. 17 at 10 a. m. on the proposed certificates to the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Manhattan 
Railway for the right to construct and operate certain ex- 



8o 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLl, No. 2. 



tensions to and third-tracks upon existing elevated railroads 
in Manhattan and the Bronx. 

Jan. 17 at 2 p. m. on the proposed certificate to the New 
York Municipal Railway Corporation (Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit) for the right to construct and operate third-tracks 
upon existing elevated railroads in Brooklyn and Queens. 

Jan. 18 at 10 a. m. on the proposed certificate to the New 
York Municipal Railway Corporation for the right to con- 
struct and operate certain extensions of existing elevated 
railroads in Brooklyn and Queens. 

After these hearings are held the contracts and certifi- 
cates will be put in permanent form, adopted by the com- 
mission and transmitted for approval to the Board of Esti- 
mate and Apportionment, after which they will go to the 
companies concerned for acceptance and execution. 

The Public Service Commission for the First District has 
received the report of the commissioners appointed by the 
Appellate Division approving the Whitehall Street-East 
River-Montague Street rapid transit route and the order of 
the court confirming the report. This is the route selected 
by the commission for the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany's tunnel to connect the proposed Broadway subway 
in Manhattan with the Fourth Avenue subway in Brooklyn. 
Commissioners were appointed by the court on the applica- 
tion of the commission because it had been impossible to 
obtain, as required by law, the consents of property owners 
to the extent of a majority in value of the property along 
the route for the construction of a rapid transit railroad 
thereon. 



Geary Street Municipal Railroad. 



The placing in operation of the first section of the Geary 
Street Municipal Railroad, San Francisco, Cal., on Dec. 28, 
1912, was attended with elaborate ceremonies in which 
practically all of the city officials of San Francisco par- 
ticipated. The first car carried among its passengers the 
Mayor and the city treasurer, and George Schaver, con- 
struction engineer, and C. E. Heise, of the Westinghouse 
Company. The operation of the property is in the hands of 
T. A. Cashin, who was formerly superintendent of the 
Fresno (Cal.) Traction Company. Ten cars are being used 
at present, but forty-three semi-steel, double-end pre-pay- 
ment "California" type cars, seating forty-eight passengers 
each, are under construction by the W. L. Holman Com- 
pany, San Francisco. The section which is in operation is 
about $y 2 miles long. The carhouse is at Presidio and 
Point Lobus Avenues. It is constructed of concrete and 
steel and has a storage capacity for sixty cars. It was built 
at a cost of $228,363. A contract has been entered into 
with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company for the purchase 
of power, and current is delivered at 600 volts to the feeders 
of the railway at Kearny and Geary Streets, Broderick and 
Geary Streets and Presidio and Point Lobus Avenues. 

The Geary Street Municipal Railroad is built over part of 
the route formerly occupied by the Geary Street, Park & 
Ocean Railroad, the franchise of which expired in 1903. 
With the expiration of the franchise the first municipal 
bond issue to build the road was proposed by the Super- 
visors, but this was defeated as the vote in favor of the plan 
did not meet the charter provision which required a two- 
thirds vote in favor of any expenditure of this kind. The 
second election to effect this purpose was held the follow- 
ing year and the proposition again failed to carry. Nothing 
more was done in this connection until 1907, when an issue 
of $720,000 of bonds was authorized by the Supervisors. 
Suit was brought to nullify this action, and the Supreme 
Court upheld the contention that the Supervisors had acted 
without authority. In June, 1909, the plan to issue bonds 
to provide funds to construct the road was again defeated 
by the voters. In December of that year, however, on re- 
submission of the proposition the proposal was carried. An 
injunction was secured, but the case was decided in favor 
of the city, and on appeal the Supreme Court of California 
affirmed the decision of the lower court. In February, 
1911, the Legislature of California passed a bill to insure the 
legality of the bonds, and in April, 1912, the entire issue of 
bonds was sold to Adams & Company, Boston. 

The contract for building the road was awarded on April 
1, 1912, to Bates, Borland & Ayre, but that firm forfeited 
the contract and new bids we're called. On April 17 the 



contract was awarded to B. H. Mahoney. He was allowed 
180 days to complete the work, with a bonus of $200 for 
every day which he saved in carrying out the work. The 
operation of cars over the route by the Geary Street, Park 
& Ocean Railroad was suspended on May 5, 1912, and the 
construction of the municipal railway was begun on May 
7. 1912. 

Following is a statement compiled by the Board of Works 
of San Francisco in regard to the expenditures on the road: 



Bonds authorized $2,020,000 

Geary street construction $1,900,000 

Market street extension 120,000 

Bonds sold 1,900,000 

Premium 2,341 



$1,902,341 

Bonds to be sold 120,000 



Grand total $2,022,341 

Estimated expenditure to date 1,543,721 



Balance $478,620 

The principal expenditures of construction, right-of-way, 
buildings and equipment are as follows: 

Trolley poles and overhead wires, labor and material $27,952 

Track construction, day labor, Filth to Thirty-third and Tenth 

Avenue 97,647 

Track construction and paving Kearny to Fifth Avenue 267,490 

Paving right of way Fifth to Thirty-third and Tenth 62,737 

*Paving right-of-way Kearny to Devisadero 7,244 

Purchase of cars 337,725 

Carhouse construction, possible extras and bonus 228,363 

Electric conductois 64,705 

Underground conductors, Kearny to Presidio Avenue 31,15 J 

General construction, materials, supplies, etc 276,701 

Lands and miscellaneous 114,171 



'Balance expended for this purpose included in track construction. 

New Jersey Gas Decision 



On Jan. 6 Thomas N. McCarter, president of the Public 
Service Corporation of New Jersey, announced that the 
Public Service Gas Company would accept the order of 
the Public Utility Commission to establish a 90-cent rate 
for gas beginning on Feb. 1, 1913. This order was pub- 
lished in abstract in this paper last week. The company 
reserved to itself, however, the right to test at its con- 
venience the legality and constitutionality of the board's 
valuation of its property upon which the order was based. 
The company will also establish the same reduced rate for 
gas on May I for the other divisions of the company's 
business, to remain in force, unless changed by the com- 
mission, pending the termination of the litigation of the 
principle of valuation upon which the order in the Passaic 
division case was made. 

The Board of Public Utility Commissioners has accepted 
this date of May 1 as reasonable. It also adds that "the 
board approves the desire of the Public Service Gas Com- 
pany to test the legality and constitutionality of the prin- 
ciples of valuation on which the board's order was based. 
The public, the company and the board should welcome a 
definitive adjudication of this matter." 

President Brown of the New York Central Favors Perma- 
nent Arbitration Body 

W. C. Brown, president of the New York Central & Hud 
son River Railroad, is reported by the Evening Post of Chi- 
cago to have declared himself emphatically in favor of 
action by Congress at the earliest possible date to make 
compulsory the arbitration of all public service labor 
troubles, with the public recognized as one of the three main 
groups at interest. Mr. Brown is quoted in part as follows 
in regard to the labor situation as it affects the railroads: 

"One of the most significant and important results of the 
arbitration of the controversy between the locomotive en- 
gineers and the Eastern railroads is the emphasis that is 
placed upon the fact that the public is a party, and a very 
important party, to all controversies of this character. 
When public service corporations and the labor organiza- 
tions are a unit in recognizing the public's right in these 
disputes we shall have come to a basis where controversies 
of this character will be less frequent and more easily set- 
tled. The report of the arbitration board is one of the most 
able and exhaustive that have been made, and I should like 
to see Congress, take up the recommendations in regard to 
some permanent form and method of arbitration of labor 



January ii, 191 3.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



81 



troubles between employees of all public service corpora- 
tions and the corporations themselves and express them in 
a statute which will clearly define the rights of the three 
parties to all controversies of this kind, so as to prevent 
interruptions of the orderly conduct of the business of these 
concerns, which are so closely related to the public and 
upon which the public depends for light, water, heat, power 
and transportation." 



The Yonkers Strike 



Up to Jan. 9, 1913, no attempt had been made to operate 
the cars of the Yonkers (N. Y.) Railroad. The Chamber of 
Commerce suggested that the employees return to work 
pending arbitration, but this the men refused to do on 
the mere assurance of that body. Mayor James F. Len- 
non of Yonkers sent a letter to President Whitridge on Jan. 
5, recommending an arbitration committee of three, one to 
lie selected by the strikers, one by Mr. Whitridge himself, 
and the other to be mutually agreed upon, or in case this 
proved impossible the third member to be appointed by the 
Mayor himself. Mr. Whitridge in reply said in part: 

"So far as my willingness to negotiate with the men is 
concerned, 1 sent for them and told them substantially what 
I have told you and what is contained in my published state- 
ment, and I emphasized particularly that, while in the na- 
ture of things there could not be any binding agreement 
with Mr. Sutherland in respect to these matters, I had not 
the least intention of replacing them, or of interfering with 
Mr. Sutherland's settled policy, which is as stated, and I ex- 
plained to them, at considerable length, the reasons why the 
person they objected to had been appointed, and at the 
time of their interview with me they seemed to recognize 
the justice of what I said and quite to understand that thi^ 
man's appointment was not in any way to be regarded as a 
precedent or a breach of any understanding. 1 thought my 
interview with them was entirely satisfactory to them, and 
I was greatly disappointed to lind that they should have 
twisted it, after some hours, into something quite different 
from what I said." 

Mr. Whitridge also said in his communication to the 
Mayor that he had not received any specific statement of 
the reasons why there was a strike. From the public press 
he understood that after the strike took place the men for- 
mulated objections to certain rules and thereafter adopted 
resolutions adding to their demands so that at the time of his 
letter to the Mayor he did not know whether he was dealing 
with the first thought, the second thought or the third 
thought of the men. He suggested to the Mayor that the 
men state the cause of the strike in writing. At the same 
time Mr. Whitridge addressed a communication to the men 
in which he said that he felt sure they did not understand 
the attitude of the company and that they had been delib- 
erately and grievously misled. He also reviewed the state- 
ments which were contained in his communication of Oct. 
29, 1912, to the committee representing the men. 

On Jan. 8 Mr. Whitridge made public another letter to 
Mayor Lennon in regard to the strike. He said: 

"I believe it is my duty, as a public servant, to see that 
this strike is settled permanently when it is settled, not in 
any makeshift fashion which will enable it to be renewed 
every three or six months. I see only three ways in which 
this can be dene: By the repeal of this pro-strike ordinance, 
the operation of which is now so disappointing to the men; 
by a legal decision which will enable me to man the road 
and run it; by the return of the men to work voluntarily. 

"If I find a disposition on the part of the men to resume, 
I shall then be prepared to state the conditions, in addition 
to those referred to in my statement on Jan. 1, on which 
they may come back. I may be permitted to add that what 
I have said in writing is not to be regarded as a mere form 
of words, but is a precise statement of facts and my inten- 
tions. Finally, I venture to feel quite sure that in demand- 
ing a permanent settlement, which will permit discipline to 
be enforced and prevent a recurrence of these performances, 
I have the hearty support of the good people of Yonkers, in 
whose interest as well as that of the company I have taken 
up my position." 

In a statement which he issued at Yonkers on Jan. 2 Mr. 
Whitridge referred to rules which he had made to prohibit 
men in uniform from drinking, requiring conductors to stand 



on the rear platform, and demanding that all men who de- 
sired to be excused for sickness present a doctor's certif- 
icate. He said these were requirements in the interest of 
the public, and that experience had shown that such rules 
were necessary and that he intended they should be en- 
forced. 

A local ordinance of Yonkers complicates matters by re- 
quiring men to have fifteen days' instruction on the cars op- 
erated in Yonkers before they can qualify as motormen or 
conductors. 



Electric Service to New Haven by July. — Charles S. 
Mellen, president of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad, is quoted as stating that the completion of 
the work of electrification between Stamford and New 
Haven, Conn., should occur about July 1, if everything goes 
as planned. 

New Ohio Road Opened. — The Cleveland, Alliance & 
Mahoning Valley Railway was placed in operation be- 
tween Ravenna and Alliance, Ohio, on Jan. 2, 1913. Cars 
are run on an hourly schedule. As soon as repairs have 
been made to the bridge over the tracks of the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad the cars will be operated to the business 
district of Ravenna. 

Preliminary Tax Assessments in Wisconsin. — The State 
Tax Commission of Wisconsin has fixed the preliminary 
valuation of the twenty-eight electric railways and the light, 
heat and power companies in Wisconsin at $55,505,000. This 
is an increase of nearly $8,000,000 over the final assessment 
of these companies last year, which was fixed at $47,365,000. 
The largest valuation is that of The Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company, the property of which is valued 
at $30,500,000. Last year the property of the company was 
valued at $26,750,000. The property of The Milwaukee 
Light, Heat & Traction Company is valued at $8,250,000 in 
the preliminary report, as compared with $6,500,000 in the 
final assessment last year. 

Proposal in Regard to Re-routing Suburban Cars in Cin- 
cinnati. — J. C. Ernst, president of the Cincinnati, Newport 
& Covington Light & Traction Company, Covington, Ky., 
lias informed Mayor Hunt of Cincinnati that the changes 
deemed necessary for re-routing cars as desired by the city 
will necessitate the expenditure of about $32,000 by the 
company. Since the company's franchise will expire in 
about three years Mr. Ernst said he did not consider it 
fair to the company to require it to make such an ex- 
penditure at this time. Mayor Hunt has suggested that 
the City Council grant a special franchise to the company in 
the streets to be used under the re-routing plan, the new 
grant to continue in force until the expiration of the orig- 
inal franchise and the company to be reimbursed on the 
basis of the value of the track if the franchise is not re- 
newed. 

Reasons for Activity of Tractions on Change. — The 

writer of the column "News for Investors," which appears 
daily in the New York Evening Sun, referring to the recent 
activity in the trading in the traction issues on the New 
York Stock Exchange, said: "The tractions are neither 
prosecuted for restraining trade nor threatened with re- 
ductions in rates. In the Supreme Court they figure not 
at all. Their earnings never fall below what they were last 
year, and if they suffer any radical change it is all in favor 
of the investor. Public Service Commissioners may make 
them put in center-door cars and ventilating systems and 
electric lights, but for every electric light or ventilator 
there is another new passenger, and the center side doors 
are not to let people out but to let them in. The crops do 
not fail along their lines and people do not stop riding on 
elevated or subway trains when trade happens to be poor — 
which are some of the reasons why Stock Exchange traders 
turn to the traction stocks to the neglect of the others in 
the interim of waiting for a decision in the Minnesota rate 
case and a solution of the Union Pacific-Southern Pacific 
puzzle." 

Pittsburgh Subway Matters. — At a special meeting of the 
service and surveys committee of the Council of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., on Jan. 6, 1913. the report on the subway ordinance 
with its amendments was presented. This, ordinance was 
referred • to the law department recently for an opinion,. 



82 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



Several amendments were added to the ordinance by coun- 
cilmen. Charles K. Robinson, who appeared for the law de- 
partment, said that he was not in favor of any company 
being compelled to pay part of the salaries of the board 
of supervisors and would leave that proposal to the judg- 
ment of the members of the Council. Mr. Burns raised 
the question of the disposition of the ordinance if the 
detailed plans were not approved. Mr. Wilkins said that 
in building subways all of the detail plans could not be 
agreed upon at the time of the passage of the ordinance. 
He thought that by adding a clause which would provide 
for the consideration later on of such detail plans as 
might be necessary the matter could be advanced. It was 
finally agreed that the ordinance should become null and 
void if the Council and the company to which the award 
was made could not reach an agreement in regard to such 
details within ninety days after the passage of the 
ordinance. 

Report of New Jersey Board. — The Board of Public 
Utility Commissioners of New Jersey has submitted its 
annual report to Governor Wilson. A considerable part 
of the report is devoted to the subject of the elimination 
of grade crossings. The work of the year in disposing 
of rate cases and other matters is also reviewed. Notwith- 
standing the density of railroad traffic in New Jersey, the 
large number of trains which are operated and the many 
passengers carried, the commission points out that there 
have been no collisions between passenger trains and no 
derailments of passenger trains during the year in which 
passengers have been killed. The report concludes with 
suggesting a number of amendments to the present law, 
the purpose of most of which is to make clear some of the 
provisions regarding which questions have been raised. 
One suggestion is the repeal of the act of 191 1 which limits 
the annual total expenses of the commission to $100,000. 
The board expresses the opinion that the Legislature might 
make more explicit its intent in enacting the provision of 
1911 that no franchise granted to any public utility shall 
be valid until approved by the board. Similar suggestions 
are made regarding the provisions of the act of 191 1 relative 
to the proposed issues of stocks, bonds or other evidence 
of indebtedness and the purposes to which the proceeds are 
to be applied. 

New Orleans Company to Build Its Own Cars. — Hugh 
McCloskey, president of the New Orleans Railway & Light 
Company, New Orleans, La., is quoted as follows in regard 
to plans which the company is working out to build in its 
own shops such cars as may be needed for the operation of 
the system in the future: "We find with the experience we 
have had in constructing the cars now nearing completion 
that the work can be done by home labor with entire satis- 
faction to us and at a cost considerably less than that spent 
for cars built elsewhere. Therefore, we have decided to do 
all of the work at home and with home labor. We have 
an expert car builder, to whom will be given all the skilled 
help required to build modern cars. We are in excellent 
position to get all of the material required to build the cars, 
and can do the work fast enough to meet the requirements 
of the operating department of the company." Such car 
construction as is now done by the company is carried out 
at the Magazine Street carhouse. According to the same 
source of information, the engineering and the operating 
departments of the company are now at work on plans for 
larger and more complete shops for the company. It is 
planned, so it is said, to standardize the small cars of the 
company, and Mr. McCloskey is reported to have said that 
these improvements will be made known to the public just 
as soon as the operating and the engineering departments 
have completed their plans for what the respective heads 
of these departments consider the best and most serviceable 
cars for use in New Orleans. 



PROGRAMS OF ASSOCIATION MEETINGS 



National Civic Federation 



The thirteenth annual meeting of the National Civic 
Federation will be held in New York Jan. 28 and 29, 1913, 
at the Hotel Astor. The subjects to be discussed include 
the following: "Workmen's Compensation," "Accident 



Prevention," "Pensions for Federal, State and Municipal 
Employees," "Reform in Legal Procedure," "Regulation 
of Public Utilities," "Mediation in Industrial Disputes," 
"Regulation of Industrial Corporations." Model bills for 
passage by the legislatures of the several States will be 
considered on all of these subjects. 

In connection with the subject of "Mediation of Indus- 
trial Disputes," the Federation will consider the recom- 
mendation to the several states of a model mediation bill 
somewhat on the plan of the Erdman federal act. This 
act, of course, does not apply to intrastate utilities. The 
chairmen of the four committees which are considering 
this subject and will report at the meeting are Marcus M. 
Marks, Charles P. Neill, head of the Federal Bureau of 
Labor; William C. Rogers, of the New York State Board 
of Arbitration, and Henry B. F. Macfarland, former Com- 
missioner of the District of Columbia. 

In drafting the proposed model workmen's compensation 
bill the Federation's department, of which August Belmont 
is chairman, has had the co-operation of the compensation 
committees of the American Bar Association and the 
Uniform State Law Commissioners. Its principles have 
been indorsed by the executive council of the American 
Federation of Labor, and it is the basis of the federal act 
for railroad employees, which passed the United States 
Senate and is now before the House for consideration. 

The Federation's model state bill regulating public utili- 
ties has already been mentioned in these columns. It has 
been drafted by a department, of which Emerson Mc- 
Millin is chairman, and Dr. John H. Gray is director of 
investigation. In the investigation made by the department 
the general question was, "How far can public regulation 
go to be effective and not interfere unnecessarily with 
management?" Especial study was made of the sliding- 
scale principle employed by London in dealing with electric 
light and gas companies, and particular consideration was 
given to the question of state versus municipal regulation of 
public utilities, as now in force in California. 

The annual dinner of the Federation will occur on Wed- 
nesday evening, Jan. 29, at the Hotel Astor. 



Program of Wisconsin Electrical Association 



The fifth annual convention of the Wisconsin Electrical 
Association will be held at the Hotel Pfister, Milwaukee, 
Wis., Jan. 15 and 16. The following is a list of the papers to 
be presented at this convention: 

"The Proposed Revision of Standards of Electric Service 
Now Under Consideration by the Railroad Commission of 
Wisconsin," by J. N. Cadby, member of the engineering 
staff of the commission. 

"The Decision in the Milwaukee Fare Case," by Edwin S. 
Mack of the firm' of Miller, Mack & Fairchild. 

"Building up a Day Load for Small Central Stations," by 
W. E. Haseltine, secretary and treasurer of the Ripon 
Light & Water Company. 

"Dispatching and Handling Street Cars and Train Crews," 
by Edward Hammett, superintendent of the railway depart- 
ment of the Sheboygan Electric & Railway Company. 

"The Proper Operation and Maintenance of Arc Lamps," 
by L. H. Lathrop, general superintendent of the Menominee 
& Marinette Light & Traction Company. 

"A Work Order System Adaptable to Public Utilities: 
Its Purposes and Method of Application," by George W. 
Kalweit, auditor of The Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company. 

"Report and Recommendations on Liability Insurance," 
by the insurance committee, Ernest Gonzenbach, chairman. 

"Construction and Maintenance Problems of the Over- 
head Distribution System of an Electric Utility," by C. R. 
Phenicie, general superintendent of the Wisconsin Public 
Service Company, Green Bay Gas & Electric Company. 

"The Standardizing Laboratory of the University of 
Wisconsin," by F. A. Kartak of the University of Wis- 
consin. 

"Resuscitation from Electric Shock, and First Aid to the 
Injured," by Dr. Charles H. Lemon, chief surgeon of The 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company. 

On Wednesday evening, Jan. 15, at 7 o'clock, the annual 
dinner of the association will be held in the Fern Room of 
the Hotel Pfister. 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



83 



Financial and Corporate 

Stock and Money Markets 



January 8, 1913. 
Trading on the New York Stock Exchange continues 
indifferent. The sales to-day totaled only 200,312 shares. 
From Jan. I, 1913, the total transactions amounted to 
1,512,290 shares as compared with 3,290,977 shares for the 
same period last year. Trading in the bond list, however, 
continues active. The sales of bonds to-day totaled $2,746,- 
000, par value. Rates in the money market to-day were: 
Call, 2')4@3 per cent, with the last loan at 3 per cent; sixty 
days, 3 : )i@4 per cent; ninety days, 4@4% P er cent; four 
months, 4@4j/2 per cent; five and six months, 4 : 4@4J4 
per cent. 

Trading was broad and active on the Philadelphia ex- 
change to-day, with a goodly volume of sales. Bond tran- 
sactions totaled more than $60,000. 

The Chicago market was broad to-day, but the volume 
of transactions was small. The only electric railway issue 
dealt in was Chicago Railways series 2's. 

In the Boston market the tone was firm. Boston Ele- 
vated Railway stock and rights were in good demand. 

Trading in Baltimore to-day was narrow, but the vol- 
ume of transactions was fair. The bond market continues 
very active, sales to-day totaling $107,000. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 



compared with last week follow: 

Dec. 31 Jan. 7. 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (common) 95 96 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry (preferred) 135^ 136 

American Cities Company (common) 47 '/ 2 48 

American Cities Company (preferred) 78'/ 2 78->4 

American Light & Traction Company (common) 400 430 

American Light & Traction Company (preferred).... 108 108 

American Railways Company 41 40% 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) 40 40 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) 86 86 

Boston Elevated Railway 113 112^ 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common) 10 5 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) 75 67 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common).... 7 7 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred)... 40 40 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 92 !| 91% 

Capital Traction Company, Washington 122 125 

Chicago City Railway 150 150 

Chicago Elevated Railways (common) 27 28 

Chicago Elevated Railways (preferred) 92 89 

Chicago Railways, ptcpig., ctf. 1 86 90 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg. , ctf. 2 26 Vi 22 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 8 ty 2 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 iV 2 3J4 

Cincinnati Street Railway 122 ^ 122 : / 2 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. (common).. *6 l / 2 SVn 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Rv. (preferred) . *34 33 

Cleveland Railway 103^ 103^ 

Columbus Railway & Light Company 55 60 

Columbus Railway (common) 82 80 

Columbus Railway (preferred) 81 81 

Denver & Northwestern Railway *121 118 

Detroit United Railway 70 76 

General Electric Company 186 185 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) 120 122 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred).... 83 83% 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (common) lS 1 ^ 1 S 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (preferred).... 64 62)4 

International Traction Company (common) *39 38 

International Traction Company (preferred) *92 99 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common).... 18J4 18^ 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) ... 40 40 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (common) *6 9 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (1st preferred) *89 91 

Lake Shore Electric Railway (2d preferred) *25 I 4 25^ 

Manhattan Railway 129 129 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) 17 16 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) 75 76 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. (preferred).. 100 100 

Norfolk Railway & Light Company *26 25 

North American Company 79 81 

Northern Ohio L'ght & Traction Company (common) 80 80 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company (preferred). 100 100 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (common) 50 49 l / 2 

Philadelphia Companv, Pittsburgh (preferred) 44 44''. 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Companv 27 V 2 27 ?4 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company *66 68 

Publ : c Service Corporation 117 117 

Third Avenue Railway, New York 40^ 3854 

Toledo Railway & Light Companv 2yi, 2% 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Minneapolis (common). 105 105 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (common) (>V 2 4^ 

Union Traction Company of Indiana (1st preferred).. *80 81 

Un'on Traction Company of Indiana (2d preferred).. *34 34 

United Rys. & Electric Company (Baltimore) 24 23% 

United Rys. Inv. Company (common) 35 34 

United Rys. Inv. Company (preferred) 63^ 62^ 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (common) 51 51 

Virginia Railway & Power Comnany (preferred) 90 90 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) 88 88 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) 90 895-s* 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) 80 80 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) 96 98 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company 79 % 78 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st preferred)'.. 115 119 



*Last sale, a Asked. 



Receivers' Sale of Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Held 
Invalid 

As a result of the suit brought against the receivers 
of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad by the In- 
vestment Registry, Ltd., Judge Landis, of the United States 
District Court, has rendered a decision declaring the sale 
of the Illinois Division invalid. Objections were filed by 
a bondholder who urged that the price bid for the property 
was inadequate and that the purchasers suppressed compe- 
tition at the sale. It will be remembered that in 1908, as 
a result of proceedings by creditor's bill, receivers were 
appointed in Illinois and Wisconsin. The two receivers 
were necessary, as the divisions of the road, which operates 
between Evanston, 111., and Milwaukee, Wis., had been 
chartered and built by separate companies. 

During 1912 decrees of sale were rendered in both 
States, and the Wisconsin division was bid in at $1,600,000 
and the Illinois division at $1,650,000. The successful bid- 
ders represented the reorganization committee, which had 
deposited, subject to its control, over 95 per cent of the 
bond issue under foreclosure. As no other bids for the 
property were offered at the sale, the court recommended 
acceptance of these. 

The objecting bondowner holds twelve bonds of the 
Illinois company, which he refused to deposit with the re- 
organization committee. In arguing the case before the 
court three separate issues were involved, i. e., an alleged 
suppression of bidding by means of which certain Mil- 
waukee interests were induced, in consideration of the pay- 
ment to them of $1,122,000, to sell their holdings of bonds 
in the Illinois company, for which they paid approximately 
$770,000. As a part of the sale of such bonds, it was 
alleged that these interests agreed to refrain from com- 
peting with the reorganization committee at any foreclos- 
ure sale of the property. The second issue was the inade- 
quacy of the price bid. it being contended that the proper- 
ties were worth at least $5,000,000, whereas the amount bid 
plus the amount of underlying bonds aggregated only 
$2,800,000. The third objection raised was to the plan 
of reorganization, which was considered unfair and in- 
equitable. Judge Landis said: 

"The general rule is that the public shall be free to bid 
for property offered at a judicial sale, and the law pro- 
hibits the making of any bargains, or the doing of anything 
which takes from any part of the public this liberty of 
action. The term general public, as used in this connec- 
tion, does not include persons who by virtue of lien or 
ownership, or otherwise, have an existing interest in the 
property to be sold. Such persons may combine to pro- 
tect their interests and may even expressly agree not to 
bid against each other, in furtherance of a plan mutually 
agreed upon as calculated to conserve their interests, but 
in so doing their activities must not operate to exclude 
any part of the general public as purchasers at the sale. 
Therefore the first question here is whether or not the 
agreements mentioned amounted in fact only to a combina- 
tion between bondholders for the protection of their in- 
terests, as such, or whether those agreements kept away 
from the sale persons who, while they did not have an 
existing interest in the property as holders of bonds, were 
in reality so circumstanced that they must be classed with 
the general public." 

The court held that the Milwaukee interests mentioned 
purchased their securities in the property after the receiv- 
ers were appointed and that their sole purpose in doing so 
was to use the bonds as an instrumentality in acquiring the 
property; that is to say, to turn them in as a part satis- 
faction of the bid to be made by them at the judicial sale. 
Their relation to the property was, therefore, that of a 
prospective bidder. This attitude made it hazardous for 
other persons seeking the property to bargain with the 
Milwaukee interests for their elimination. In such case 
there was a burden on the beneficiaries to show clearly 
that the parties selling out had altogether lost interest as 
intending purchasers of the property prior to the beginning 
of the negotiations resulting in their elimination. 

As to the inadequacy of the price bid, Judge Landis 
said : 

"On the question of value of the property the court had 
evidence as to physical condition, earnings, past, present 



84 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



and prospective, franchise conditions and other matters 
thoroughly entitled to be considered under this head. It 
is my opinion, on the showing made, that the Illinois prop- 
erty is reasonably worth approximately $4,500,000. The 
bid of the company and the obligations which the pur- 
chase must assume aggregate in the neighborhood of 
$2,800,000 as the cost of the Illinois property to the com- 
mittee. The bids on both divisions, as has been shown, 
total $3,250,000. Add to this the amount of the underlying 
bonds and all the other expenses estimated by H. M. 
Byllesby & Company, on behalf of the reorganization, as 
necessary to be incurred in adjusting and discharging liens 
and rehabilitation of the property, including extensions and 
betterments, and the total cost to this committee of the 
entire line in Illinois and Wisconsin, including a connection 
with the elevated road in Chicago, approximates $6,700,000." 

In discussing the third point raised. Judge Landis said: 

"Now it is declared the purpose of the reorganization 
committee, if it gets this property, to turn it over to a new 
company which the reorganization committee proposes to 
organize. Then it is the committee's plan that this new 
company shall be authorized to issue securities as fol- 
lows: First mortgage bonds, $10,000,000; second mortgage 
bonds, $4,500,000; third mortgage bonds, $6,000,000; capital 
stock, $6,000,000. 

"Of this total of $26,500,000, it is the committee's pur- 
pose that the new company shall put out $21,000,000 to 
use in effecting the reorganization. This appears from the 
committee's plan which it has distributed to the bond- 
holders. It is very plain from these figures that a great 
mass of these securities, if issued, really will represent no 
investment whatever, by anybody, at any time. And this 
is proposed to be done in the face of the public utility 
law of Wisconsin and the constitution of Illinois. Funda- 
mental law contains the following provision: 'No railroad 
corporations shall issue any stocks or bonds except for 
money, labor or property actually received and applied to 
the purposes for which such corporation was created.' " 

In conclusion, the judge said: 

"In the present case this court will enable the members 
of the committee and its counsel to consider, before the 
property shall be offered for sale again, whether it would 
not be well to adopt a program authorized by law. There 
will be another sale, at which time there will have to be 
a higher bid." 

It is understood that as a result of this unfavorable de- 
cision counsel for the reorganization committee will take 
an appeal. 

Reorganization of International Traction System 

The details of the plan for the reorganization of the com- 
panies included in the International Traction System, Buf- 
falo, N. Y., as approved by the Public Service Commission 
of the Second District of New York, are now being car- 
ried out. As noted in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 
14, 1912, page 1210, the commission authorized the merger 
of' the Crosstown Street Railway and the Electric Street 
Railway, but owing to legal difficulties the Crosstown Street 
Railway cannot be merged until next April. Pending the 
actual merger the commission has authorized the lease of 
the Crosstown Company to the International Railway for 
999 years. As soon as the merger takes place this lease 
will become void. The commission has also authorized the 
International Railway to make a mortgage for $60,000,000 
and to issue bonds secured thereby to the amount of $19,- 
817,500 in accordance with the plans previously noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal. In furtherance of this plan tire 
company filed on Dec. 31. 19*2, with the county clerk at 
Buffalo a mortgage for $60,000,000 in favor of the Bankers' 
Trust Company, New York, N. Y., as trustee. On the same 
date Thomas Penney retired as president of the Interna- 
tional Traction Company and the International Railway, 
and E. G. Connette, who had been vice-president of the 
International Railway, was elected to succeed him with that 
company, and Rodman E. Griscom was elected to succeed 
him with the International Traction Company. Mr. Con- 
nette was also elected vice-president of the International 
Traction Company. Mr. Penney, however, continues as a 
director of the company, and T. E. Mitten will continue as 
chairman of the executive committee. 



Nelson Robinson, who has long been a director of the 
International Traction Company and the International 
Railway and has had a prominent part in the financial un- 
dertakings of the companies, issued the following statement: 

"The new mortgage, which has the approval of the Public 
Service Commission, now provides for the additional capital 
necessary to the further development of the property. This 
reorganization, involving the surrender of over $18,000,000, 
par value, of bonds, has been accomplished without the ap- 
pointment of a receiver, which very satisfactory result has 
been largely due to the painstaking and persistent work of 
the president, Thomas Penney, who was elected to the posi- 
tion some four years ago because of his especial fitness for 
this work. 

"1 have now disposed of my interest in the company and 
am therefore retiring from the situation. Mr. Penney will 
also sever his connection as president of the International 
companies at an early date, this being necessary because of 
the responsibilities devolving upon him in the management 
of the Near-Side Car Company and other commercial under- 
takings which are now directed by him. Mr. Penney will 
be succeeded as president by E. G. Connette, who for some 
time past has been acting as his assistant in the operation 
of the property. 

"Bertron, Griscom & Company, bankers, New York, N. Y., 
who represent the new financial interest in control, have 
a very thorough knowledge of the results secured by T. E. 
Mitten, both here and in Philadelphia, and have prevailed 
upon him to remain with the property as chairman of the 
executive committee, in which position he will continue to 
direct the operating policy of the company. Mr. Penney 
has also been prevailed upon to remain with Mr. Mitten as 
a director of these companies, his intimate knowledge of 
the companies' affairs making his services especially to be 
desired in this connection." 

Simultaneously with the announcements which were made 
in regard to the changes in the company, Bertron, Griscom 
& Company, New York, N. Y., offered for subscription at 
07 l / 2 and interest $3,832,000 of the refunding and improve- 
ment 5 per cent gold bonds of the International Railway 
dated Nov. 1, 1912, and due Nov. 1, 1962. With this offer- 
ing of the bonds of the company for subscription there was 
published the official report of the earnings of the company 
for the year ended June 30. 1912, and a general statement in 
regard to the property owned and controlled by the com- 
pany and the prospects of the territory in which the com- 
pany operated prepared from a letter from Mr. Penney in 
regard to the affairs of the company. 

New directors have been elected as follows: S. Reading 
Bertron, Rodman E. Griscom, John S. Jenks, Jr., Marshall 
J. Dodge, Francis T. Homer and Edward G. Connette. The 
retiring directors are as follows: G. L. Boissevain, Morris 
Cohn, Jr., James O. Moore, Oliver H. Payne, Nelson Rob- 
inson and George I. Seney. 

New J. G. White Companies Organize 



The plan to conduct the engineering-construction depart- 
ment and the operating department of J. G. White & Com- 
pany, Inc., New York, N. Y., separately has been approved 
and the new corporations, The J. G. White Engineering 
Corporation and The J. G. White Management Corporation, 
elected officers and directors on Jan. 6, 1913. The direc- 
tors of The J. G. White Engineering Corporation are as 
follows: Harry Bronner, of Hallgarten & Company; 
James Brown, of Brown Brothers & Company; F. Q. 
Brown, of Redmond & Company; Douglas Campbell, of 
Campbell, Harding & Pratt; George C. Clark, Jr., of Clark, 
Dodge & Company; Bayard Dominick. Jr., of Dominick & 
Dominick; A. G. Hodenpyl, of Hodenpyl, Hardy & Com- 
pany; T. W. Lamont, of J. P. Morgan & Company; Marion 
McMillin, of Emerson McMillin & Company; J. H. Pardee, 
president of The J. G. White Management Corporation; 
E. N. Potter, of Potter, Choate & Prentice; Frederick H. 
Reed, vice-president of J. G. White & Company, Inc.; 
Charles H. Sabin, vice-president of the Guaranty Trust 
Company; Frederic Strauss, of J. & W. Seligman & Com- 
pany; Moses Taylor, of Kean, Taylor & Company; George 
H. Walbridge, of Bonbright & Company; E. N. Chilson 
and C. E. Bailey. The officers of the company are: J. G. 
White, chairman of the finance committee; Gano Dunn, 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



85 



president; E. G. Williams, A. S. Crane, H. A. Lardner, 
vice-presidents; H. S. Collette, secretary, and R. B. Mar- 
chant, treasurer. 

The J. G. White Management Corporation announces as 
directors Cecil Barret, of Spencer Trask & Company; 
F. Q. Brown, of Redmond & Company; P. M. Chandler, 
of Chandler Brothers & Company, Philadelphia; Arthur 
Coppell, of Maitland, Coppell & Company; Gano Dunn, 
president of The J. G. White Engineering Corporation; 
George E. Hardy, of Hodenpyl, Hardy & Company; R. G. 
Hutchins, Jr., vice-president of the National Bank of Com- 
merce; R. L. Montgomery, of Montgomery, Clothier & 
Tyler, Philadelphia; John T. Pratt, of Campbell, Harding & 
Pratt; Frederic Strauss, of J. & W. Seligman & Com- 
pany; H. R. Tobey, of N. W. Halsey & Company, and J. G. 
White, president of J. G. White & Company, Inc. The 
officers are: J. H. Pardee, president; F. H. Reed and S. L. 
Selden, vice-presidents, and T. W. Moffat, secretary and 
treasurer. 

The business of the management company was estab- 
lished some years ago as a department to supervise the 
operation of properties in which J. G. White & Company, 
Inc., were interested. This department, which has now been 
formed into a separate company, was, on Dec. 31, I9 T2 > 
acting as operating or consulting operating manager of the 
Manila Electric Railroad & Lighting Corporation, the 
Helena Light & Railway Company, the Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania Railways, Pottsville, Pa.; the United Light & Rail- 
ways Company, the Associated Gas & Electric Company, 
the Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corporation, the Pa- 
cific Railroad of Nicaragua, the Kentucky Public Service 
Company and other properties. 

The parent organization, J. G. White & Company, Inc., 
controls the new companies and will continue as an active 
financing and owning company. 



General Merger Proceedings in Chicago 

Very little progress was made during the week ended 
Jan. 4, 1913, toward arriving at the satisfactory valuation 
of the Chicago elevated properties by the local transporta- 
tion committee of the Chicago City Council in its negotia- 
tions to bring about the general merger of the elevated and 
surface lines. As noted in the Electric Railway Journal on 
Jan. 4, a report was made to the general committee by a 
sub-committee in which it announced that the statement pre- 
sented by the representatives of the Chicago Elevated 
Railways had been verified. At a meeting of the transpor- 
tation committee held on Jan. 7, the attorneys for the Chi- 
cago Elevated Railways advised the committee concerning 
the purpose of the merger of the elevated lines in July, 191 1, 
the securities which had been issued and the liabilities as- 
sumed by the new organization. The representatives of the 
company and the committee appear to agree that the total 
amount invested by the new organization is $82,285,750.39. 
There is still some question, however, as to the itemized 
statement going to make up this total, as well as certain 
amounts which must be eliminated from these negotiations. 
At the conclusion of a very lengthy discussion the commit- 
tee instructed the company's representatives to prepare 
statements showing an itemized account of the cost of the 
properties to the new organization as of July 1, 1911, Jan. 
1, 1912, and Jan. 1, 1913. These statements will probably 
be submitted at an early date. 



Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, Birming- 
ham, Ala. — The common stock of the Birmingham Railway, 
Light & Power Company, most of which is held by the 
American Cities Company, has been increased from $3,500.- 
000 to $3,900,000. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company. — The Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company has filed at Albany a certificate 
of the increase in its capital stock from $45,000,000 to $90,- 
000,000, the new shares to be issued from time to time 
prior to July 1, 1914, exclusively for the conversion of the 
4 per cent bonds of 1902, dollar for dollar, if presented by 
the holders for that purpose. Of these bonds $34,750,000 
are outstanding in the hands of the public. The New 
York Municipal Railroad Corporation has applied to the 
Public Service Commission of the First District of New 



York for permission to issue $1,000,000 of its $2,000,000 
authorized capital stock, the proceeds to be used for work- 
ing capital. At the same time the New York Consolidated 
Railroad applied to the commission for permission to pur- 
chase the entire capital stock of the New York Municipal 
Railway Corporation. The New York Municipal Railroad 
Corporation was formed by Brooklyn Rapid Transit inter- 
ests entering into a contract with the city of New York 
in build and operate portions of the dual system of rapid 
transit. The New York Municipal Railroad Corporation, 
to carry out its contract with the city, is to make the Cen- 
tral Trust Company trustee of its mortgage to secure its 
first mortgage 5 per cent sinking fund gold bonds, to be 
issued from time to time to provide the capital required by 
the contract with the city. The Consolidated company is 
to guarantee these bonds. At the same time the Brooklyn 
Heights Railroad and the New York Municipal Railway 
Corporation submitted to the commission for approval a 
contract made between them by which the Municipal 
company obtains the right to use the lines of the Lutheran 
Cemetery elevated road from a connection with the Myrtle- 
Avenue line to Fresh Pond road and from that point t>> 
Metropolitan Avenue. The contract is for eighty-five years 
and the New York Municipal Railroad Corporation is to pay 
$25,000 a year for the privilege. 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, Ottawa, 111. — The 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway has increased its capi- 
tal stock from $500,000 to $1,500,000. 

Columbus Railway & Light Company, Columbus, Ohio. — 

The Columbus Edison Company, the property of which was 
leased to the Coiumbus Railway & Light Company in 1903, 
has applied to the Public Service Commission of Ohio for 
permission to issue $250,000 of preferred stock and a similar 
amount of common stock. 

Dedham & Franklin Street Railway, Westwood, Mass. — 

Eugene H. Mather, receiver of the Dedham & Franklin 
Street Railway and the Medfield & Medway Street Rail- 
way, has asked the court for instructions in regard to con- 
tinuing the roads in operation between Dedham and Frank- 
lin. Mr. Mather says that, although the closest economy 
has been practised, the earnings of the roads have not 
been sufficient to cover the operating expenses, and he is 
doubtful whether the roads would pay even if the fares 
were to be increased. The question of discontinuing opera- 
tion will come up before the court on Jan. 28, 1913. 

Illinois Traction Company, Champaign, 111. — Notices of 
increases in the stock of subsidiary companies of the Illi- 
nois Traction Company have been filed as follows: St. 
Louis, Springfield & Peoria Railroad, from $7,850,000 to 
$8,250,000; Bloomington, Decatur & Champaign Railroad, 
from $3,525,000 to $3,650,000. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. — 

To provide funds for the financing of its part in the con- 
struction and equipment of the dual subway system, as well 
as for refunding all outstanding bonds and for funding 
short term notes, the Interborough Rapid Transit Company 
has asked the Public Service Commission of the First Dis- 
trict of New York to approve a proposed bond issue not to 
exceed $170,000,000. The petition states that the company 
has arranged to have J. P. Morgan & Company purchase 
the entire issue at 93J/2 and accrued interest, the bonds to 
be issued in such quantities as will net the company $150,- 
622,900, and the further sum of $174,600 to pay off prior 
liens or encumbrances. The Public Service Commission has 
extended to May 1, 1913, the time in which the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company may issue $17,123,611 in bonds, per- 
mission for which was given in a previous order of the com- 
mission. 

Ironwood & Bessemer Railway & Light Company, Iron- 
wood, Mich. — The Ironwood & Bessemer Railway & Light 
Company has filed with the Secretary of State an amend- 
ment to its articles of incorporation increasing its capital 
stock from $700,000 to $900,000. 

Irwin-Herminie Traction Company, Irwin, Pa. — There 
are now being offered for subscription at 99 and interest by 
the Dominion Trust Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., $250,000 of 
first mortgage sinking fund gold bonds of the Irwin- 
Herminie Traction Company. The bonds are dated Nov. 1, 
1912, and are due Nov. 1, 1937. They are redeemable all or 



86 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



in part at 105 and interest at the option of the company, 
except such as shall be paid $6,000 yearly from the sinking 
fund. 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark. — Interests identified with the Little Rock Railway & 
Electric Company are reported to have obtained control 
of the Garland Power & Development Company, which con- 
trols water power on the Ouachita River, 45 miles from 
Little Rock. It is proposed to extend $3,000,000 in develop- 
ing power and for transmission lines. 

Mansfield Railway, Light & Power Company, Mansfield, 
Ohio. — S. N. Ford, president of the Mansfield Railway, 
Light & Power Company, has been appointed receiver of 
the company and has been instructed by the court to sell 
the property of the company within four months. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. 
Va. — An initial dividend of 2 per cent has been declared 
on the $5,000,000 of common stock of the Monongahela 
Valley Traction Company, payable on Jan. 11, 1913, to 
holders of record of Jan. 8. 

Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street Railway, Canton, 
Mass. — The property of the Norwood, Canton & Sharon 
Street Railway has been acquired by M. A. Cavanagh, 
Boston, Mass., and Joseph B. Murphy, Thomas F. Cava- 
nagh, James T. Dunn and P. Corr, Taunton. New officers 
have been elected as follows: M. A. Cavanagh, president; 
Joseph B. Murphy, treasurer, and Dennis G. Trayers, su- 
perintendent. 

Railway & Light Securities Company, Boston, Mass. — 

The Railway & Light Securities Company has declared a 
semi-annual dividend of 3 per cent on its common stock, an 
increase of of 1 per cent. The usual semi-annual divi- 
dend of 3 per cent has been declared on the preferred stock. 
The dividends are payable on Feb. 1 to holders of record 
Jan. 15. 

Springfield & Xenia Railway, Springfield, Ohio. — The 

Springfield & Xenia Railway has declared a dividend of \V2 
per cent on its preferred stock and also an additional 1V2 
per cent, making 6 J A per cent, on its preferred stock this 
year, the same as last year. The i]/2 per cent extra is on 
account of accumulated dividends. There is still unpaid 
2^4 per cent accumulated dividends. 

Third Avenue Railway, New York, N. Y. — The Third Ave- 
nue Railway has issued its annual report for the calendar 
year 1912. It contains a consolidated income account for the 
eleven months ended Nov. 30, 1912, which shows a surplus 
of $1,209,429 over charges, including depreciation of $355,- 
000. F. W. Whitridge, the president, says that estimating 
December earnings at $t 10,000. the net for the year ended 
Dec. 31, 1912, was about $1,319,000. He continues: "The 
company has sufficient funds on hand to meet all the ex- 
penditures for the current year as well as to pay $350,000 on 
account of the purchase of the New York City Interborough 
Railway, and it has upward of $100, coo which it will be neces- 
sary to expend upon the Mid-Crosstown Railroad in case 
the owners should conclude to accept our offer to purchase 
that property. It may be desirable to apply to the Public 
Service Commission for consent to issue 4 per cent refund- 
ing bonds for part of these capital expenditures. It will not 
be necessary to market such bonds, and it should be our pol- 
icy, so far as possible, not to increase our fixed charges. 
Finally, I think it may be said notwithstanding the large ex- 
penditures shown in this budget, and which will probably 
hereafter be shown in similar budgets, that the outlook for 
the owners of Third Avenue Railway securities is encourag- 
ing." 

Toledo Railways & Light Company, Toledo, Ohio. — H. 

L. Doherty & Company. New York. N. Y., will not take 
over the operation of the Toledo Railways & Light Com- 
pany until Jan. 15, and possibly not until Feb. r. The 
exchange of securities is progressing satisfactorily and 
most of the stockholders have paid their assessment of 
$7.50 per share. It is stated that negotiations are pend- 
ing for the sale of $6,000,000 of first lien 6 per cent five- 
year collateral trust notes of the Toledo Light & Railways 
Company, which is to succeed the Toledo Railways & Light 
Company, to Harris. Forbes & Company, New York, N. Y. 

Union Traction Company of Indiana, Indianapolis, Ind. 
— The directors of the Union Traction Company of In- 



diana have decided not to pay a dividend at this time on 
the $3,000,000 of second preferred stock. The net earnings 
for 1912, with December estimated, are reported as ex- 
ceeding $75,000, after providing for the dividend on the 
first preferred stock. 

Valdosta (Ga.) Street Railway. — The Valdosta Traction 
Company has been incorporated in Georgia with a capital 
stock of $125,000 as the successor to the Valdosta Street 
Railway. 

York (Pa.) Railways. — The York (Pa.) Railways has de- 
clared a semi-annual dividend of 2]/ 2 per cent on the 
$1,600,000 of 5 per cent cumulative preferred stock, pay- 
able on Jan. 30, 1913, to holders of record of Jan. 20. This 
payment compares with 2 per cent in July and January, 
1912, and the initial payment of 1 per cent in July, 1911. 



Dividends Declared 



Athens Railway & Electric Company, Athens, Ga., 2 l / 2 
per cent, preferred. 

Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, Fort Smith, Ark., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway, 4 per cent. 

Manchester Traction, Light & Power Company, Man- 
chester, N. H., quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. 
\ a., 2 per cent, common. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha. Neb., 
quarterly, l% per cent, preferred; quarterly, 1^4 P er cent, 
common. 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Company, Ottumwa, la., quar- 
terly, i->4 per cent, preferred. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, 
Wash., quarterly, ij^ per cent, preferred; quarterly, 1 per 
cent, common. 

Rio de Janeiro Tramway, Light & Power Company, Rio 
de Janeiro. Brazil, quarterly, 1% per cent. 

Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power Company, Sao 
Paulo, 2 T / 2 per cent. 

United Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2^2 per cent, 
preferred. 

West Penn Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., quarterly, 
1^2 per cent, preferred. 

York (Pa.) Railways, 2^4 per cent, preferred. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, Youngstown, Ohio, 
quarterly, \Y% per cent, preferred. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 



Period. 
lm., Nov., '12 



ATLANTIC SHORE ELECTRIC RAILWAY, SANFORD, ME. 

Gross Operating Net Fixed Net 

Earnings. Expenses. Earnings. Charges. Surplus. 

$22,756 $22,475 $282 $465 t$183 

1 11 21,363 20,428 936 581 355 

AURORA, ELGIN & CHICAGO RAILROAD, CHICAGO, ILL. 

lm Nov '12 $155,313 $96,360 $58,853 $32,050 $26,803 

1"' " '11 140,050 86,803 53,247 31,728 21,519 

5 •' " '12 895,032 497.298 397,734 160,395 237,339 

S 11 839,757 456,790 382.977 157,216 225,761 

CLEVELAND, SOUTHWESTERN & COLUMBUS RAILWAY, 
CLEVELAND, OHIO, 
lm Nov. '12 $100,446 $59,617 $40,829 $31,746 $9,083 

1" " '11 90,196 54,137 36,059 29,000 7,059 

11" " '12 1,086,456 633,965 452,491 341,047 111,444 
11" " '11 1,042,341 587,373 454,969 329,863 125,106 

KENTUCKY TRACTION & TERMINAL COMPANY, LEXINGTON, 

KY. 

Nov., '12 $1,005,816 $647,363 $356,454 $175,942 $180,512 



lm. 

1 " 
1 1 " 
11 ' 



'11 862,243 543.812 318,431 177,132 141,299 

'12 10,866,927 7.044,613 3,822,314 1,945,832 1,876,482 
'11 9,518,443 6,009,717 3,508,726 1,943,259 1,565,467 



NORTHERN OHIO LIGHT & TRACTION COMPANY, AKRON, OHIO, 

lm Nov., '12 $239,141 $145,324 $93,817 $52,610 $41,207 

1 •' " '11 214.563 125,304 89,359 43,729 45,630 

11 12 2,736,156 1,551,988 1,184,168 520,668 663,500 

11" " '11 2,454,651 1,359,562 1,095,089 487,120 607,969 

PHILADELPHIA (PA.) RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY. 

Nov., '12 $2,008,400 $1,196,259 $812,142 $761,838 $50,304 

•11 1,881,976 1,136,722 745,254 740,631 4.625 

•12 9,860,294 5,865,245 4,995,049 3,798,281 196,76* 

'11 9,380,136 5,690,194 3,689,942 3,688,821 1,121 



lm.. 
1 " 
5 " 
5 " 

TWIN 
lm., 
1 " 

11 " 

11 " 



CITY RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
Nov, '12 $700,676 $347,885 $352,791 $153,574 $199,217 

Ml 633,968 317,628 316,340 148,079 168,261 

■12 7,485,614 3,796,657 3,689,157 1,581,366 2,107,791 
Ml 7,141,998 3,530,330 3,611,667 1,548,871 2,062,796 



tDefid't. 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



87 



Traffic and Tr ansportation 

Profit Sharing in Washington, D. C. 



The Washington Railway & Electric Company, Wash- 
ington, D. C, on Jan. 3, 1913, distributed $19,123.02 among 
801 employees, including motormen, conductors, starters 
and depot clerks. Profit-sharing checks were sent to each 
employee coming under the categories named who had been 
with the company for one month or more. The profit- 
sharing plan was suggested to the directors of the road by 
President Clarence P. King and those associated with him 
in the management and was adopted by the board. Mr. 
King last April, while addressing the men in the club rooms 
of the relief association, said that the adoption of such a 
plan was being considered by the company, but as no further 
suggestion of the idea was made, the receipt of the checks, 
with a personal letter from Mr. King explaining the com- 
pany's attitude toward its employees, was a surprise. Many 
of the men who shared in the distribution, having been with 
the company for a year or more, received checks for $28.72 
each. The others received a proportionate amount, based 
on the length of service. In the letter which accompanied 
each check Mr. King recalled the fact that he had mentioned 
the subject before, and said that the company in adopting 
his suggestion did so with a desire that the conductors 
and motormen should share in whatever improvement could 
be effected in the results of the year 1912 over and above 
the final showing made in 191 1. He explained that in 1911 
26 per cent of the company's earnings, after the deduction 
of 4 per cent had been made to meet the District tax, had 
been expended in wages and the payment of accident claims. 
With these results as a working basis, he added, the direc- 
tors agreed to set aside 26 per cent of the receipts, exclusive 
of the tax fund, to cover wage and accident payments for 
1912. If this sum was not required for these purposes, the 
directors agreed that any balance should be devoted to a 
profit-sharing plan and distributed among the men at the 
end of the year. The following table shows the results as 
disclosed at the conclusion of the year and the manner in 
which the residuary fund was distributed: 



Gross passenger receipts, less 4 per cent government tax $2,552,479 

26 per cent appropriated for trainmen's wages and accidents. . 663,645 

Accidents $89,337 

Wages 555,185 644,522 



Profit-sharing fund $19,123 

This amount was distributed among 8oi men, as follows: 

584 men in service one year or more, each $28.72 $16,772.48 

17 men in service 11 months, each $26. 34 447.78 

■ 4 men in service 10 months, each $23.94 95.76 

6 men in service 9 months, each $21.54 129.24 

18 men in service 8 months, each $19.15 344.70 

14 men in service 7 months, each $16.76 234.64 

20 men in service 6 months, each $14.36 287.20 

18 men in service 5 months, each $11.97 215.46 

19 men in service 4 months, each $9.57 181.83 

26 men in service 3 months, each $7.18 186.68 

20 men in service 2 months, each $4.79 95.80 

55 men in service 1 month, each $2.39 131.45 



801 $19,123.02 



The following suggestions, embodied in a folder, have 
been made to the men as to the best means to be followed 
by each man to increase the fund for 1913: 
"conductors 

"A large responsibility rests upon the conductor. He has 
charge of the car, and our common interests are vitally in 
his hands. While his chief duty is to collect fares he should 
constantly strive to avoid accidents. A careless signal has 
frequently caused an accident costing the company thou- 
sands of dollars. It is hardly necessary to say that the in- 
different, careless or dishonest conductor is our common 
foe, for either carelessness or dishonesty reduces revenue, 
and therefore bonus. 

"motormen 

"To this end motormen can do much by keeping their 
cars on time and guarding constantly against accidents. A 
delayed service forfeits both revenue and good will, while an 
accident plunges the company into expense, no matter who 
is at fault. All of us are losers, since an impaired service 
means a smaller bonus. 

"dfpot clerks and starters 

"Results accomplished by conductors and motormen de- 
pend largely upon co-operation and concerted effort on the 



part of depot clerks and starters. Fairness and impar- 
tiality in their dealings with trainmen should be their 
motto. It is the duty of trainmen to keep their cars on 
time, consequently the most essential thing is to start on 
time; this cannot be done unless the conductor is promptly 
furnished by the clerk with tickets, transfers, etc., necessary 
for his day's work. 

"While the conductor is getting his 'traps' the starter 
should assign a car to the motorman and see that it is 
clean, properly equipped with fender, sand, etc.; that des- 
tination signs, ventilators, head and light switches are in 
working order and properly adjusted. Start a crew out on 
time and in a good humor and they will in ninety-nine cases 
out of a hundred stay that way during their tour of duty. 
Tt is needless to say that their work will be much better 
than that of the crew that starts out with a 'grouch.' Don't 
think your duties end when the runs have been put out. 
Far from it. Constant attention to schedules and equip- 
ment only will make the day's work end as it was started. 
If the right man is in the right place, depot clerks and 
starters can do more than can be estimated toward increas- 
ing the profit-sharing fund. 

"good will 

"The great point is to win favor with the traveling pub- 
lic, and aside from good service no more certain factor ex- 
ists than unfailing politeness." 

P. T. Haller. secretary of the Washington Railway & Re- 
lief Association, addressed the following communication to 
the members of the association with the profit-sharing 
checks : 

"Just a word about your check. Don't 'blow it in' hastily 
because it has come to you almost unexpectedly. How 
about the 'rainy day' that is sure to come? It may be sick- 
ness, injury or death in the family. Your profit-sharing 
check or at least a part of it would make a nice start toward 
a savings fund. The relief association has a savings de- 
partment and will keep your money safely and allow 5 
per cent interest, compounded semi-annually." 



Grievance Committees in Providence 



The Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I., has re- 
cently addressed the following communication to its motor- 
men and conductors in regard to a plan to establish 
grievance committees to promote a more harmonious feeling 
among the men: 

"On page 5 of the rule book there is a clause which reads, 
'Grievances, etc., also suggestions as to betterment of serv- 
ice, will always be received for consideration by the super- 
intendent of transportation or the general manager.' 

"It occasionally happens that a suspended or discharged 
employee, acting in accordance with the above-mentioned 
clause and being particularly interested in his own favor, is 
not in a position to take an impartial view of the circum- 
stances responsible for his grievance, and after the inter- 
view regarding the same he is not fully satisfied with the 
final decision. 

"Therefore, in order to promote a more harmonious feel- 
ing, you are requested to appoint a committee of three from 
among the employees stationed at your respective carhouses, 
one member to be selected who has been in the service of 
the company one year or less, one member to be selected 
who has been in the service of the company more than one 
year but less than five years, and the third member to be 
selected to be one who has been in the employ of the com- 
pany five years or over, this committee to confer with the 
superintendent of transportation and the general manager 
relative to any grievance which a motorman or conductor 
may have and which he has failed to adjust satisfactorily 
through his own efforts." 

The men in the employ of the Rhode Island Company are 
not organized, but whenever the wages of the men in the 
employ of the other systems in New England which are con- 
trolled by the same interests are increased the management 
of the Rhole Island Company raises the pay of its men to 
correspond. The employees of the company are members of a 
benefit association, and the company felt that the formation 
of grievance committees from the various divisions would 
stimulate greatly the esprit dc corps. The company has 
always paid men for their time during the investigation of 
accidents where the men have been found not to have been 



88 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



at fault. The communication to the men was addressed to 
them over the signature of R. Roscoe Anderson, superin- 
tendent of transportation, with the approval of A. E. Pot- 
ter, general manager. 



Special Dairy Train Proposed. — The Chicago, Ottawa & 
Peoria Railway, Ottawa, 111., contemplates running a dairy 
special over its lines to furnish scientific instruction to 
farmers in the territory through which it operates. 

Automatic Ticket-Vending Machine in Hudson River Tun- 
nel Station. — An automatic ticket-vending machine has been 
installed in the concourse of the terminal of the Hudson 
& Manhattan Railroad at Church and Fulton Streets, New 
York, N. Y. 

Merit System in Washington, D. C. — A merit and de- 
merit system patterned after the Brown system was estab- 
lished by the Washington Railway & Electric Company, 
Washington, D. C, on Jan. 1, 1913. Folders showing merits 
and demerits were distributed among all motormen and 
conductors with instructions to carry the booklets while on 
duty. 

Free Coffee to Portland Employees. — Under the direction 
of Gus Rowden, superintendent of the welfare department 
of the Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, Port- 
land, Ore., every employee who carries his lunch to work 
will be served free a cup of hot coffee, cream and sugar at 
the Hawthorne Building, Hawthorne Avenue and Water 
Street, Portland, every noon. 

The "Webfoot" Route.— L. A. MacArthur, who is assist- 
ant general manager of the Pacific Power & Light Company, 
has been awarded the prize of $25 in gold offered for the best 
popular name for the Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway, 
which is constructing 340 miles of interurban electric rail- 
way through the Willamette Valley. The title "Webfoot" 
won the prize and will be adopted officially by the com- 
pany. 

New Station at Jamaica. — The new station of the Long 
Island Railroad at Jamaica, Long Island, has been com- 
pleted and it is expected to move the headquarters of the 
offi cers of the company connected with the administration 
of the general superintendent, most of which are now in 
Long Island City, to Jamaica on Feb. 22. The only de- 
partment which will stay at Long Island City will be the 
Long Island Express Company. 

Suspension of Service During the Winter Approved. — The 
Public Service Commission of the Second District of New 
York has consented to the discontinuance of a part of the 
electric railroad of the St. Lawrence International Electric 
Railroad & Land Company in Alexandria Bay. The por- 
tion is from the top of an elevation known as Church Hill, 
and operation during the winter months is considered 
dangerous. The president of the village of Alexandria Bay 
has consented to the granting of permission by the commis- 
sion. 

Increase in Wages by Massachusetts Northern Street 
Railway. — The Massachusetts Northern Street Railway, 
operating in the district between Fitchburg and Athol, has 
announced an increase of wages dating from Jan. 1, 1013. 
All employees of more than four years' standing with the 
company will receive 24 cents per hour, and all work will be 
performed hereafter on a nine-hour basis. Motormen and 
conductors will receive 20 cents per hour for the first year, 
21 cents for the second year, 22 cents for the third, and at 
the end of the fourth year 24 cents per hour. 

Award of Gold at Boston. — The Boston (Mass.") Elevated 
Railway made its annual distribution of awards on Jan. 1, 
1913, to car service men who had been in its employ at least 
six months and who had made satisfactory records during 
1912. In determining the standing of the men the com- 
pany eliminated all records included during June, July and 
August, and covering the recent strike period, and based the 
payment of the awards upon their service during the re- 
mainder of the year. About 4000 men received a reward 
of $15 each, this total exceeding that of 191 1 by about 400. 
The payment was made in gold and distribution was effected 
as usual at the division headquarters offices throughout the 
system. 

Skip-Stop Idea in Portland, Ore. — At a recent meeting of 
the special committee of the City Council of Portland, Ore., 



appointed to take up with the management of the Portland 
Railway, Light & Power Company the question of improv- 
ing street railway traffic conditions in the city, the officers 
of the company expressed themselves as in favor of the 
suggestion to eliminate certain stops and announced that 
beginning on Jan. 6, 1913, if agreeable to a majority of the 
people affected, the plan of stopping cars at every other 
block, instead of every block, would be put into effect on 
the Mount Tabor line. The company is also favorably dis- 
posed toward the suggestion that hereafter all stops made 
on paved streets be at the near side of the crossing instead 
of at the far side. 

Increase in Wages in Fitchburg. — W. W. Sargent, presi- 
dent and general manager of the Fitchburg & Leominster 
Street Railway, Fitchburg, Mass., had the following notice 
posted recently in the carhouses of the Fitchburg & Leo- 
minster Street Railway: "A general raise in pay for con- 
ductors and motormen will take effect Jan. 1, 1913, as per 
schedule below: First six months, 20 cents an hour; sec- 
ond six months, 21 cents; second year, 23 cents; third year, 
24 cents; fourth year, 25 cents; fifth year, 27^ cents. A 
new timetable going into effect on the same day will ad- 
just runs to new requirements for a day's work as passed 
by the last session of the Legislature. The directors wish 
to thank the employees for the courteous, careful and 
efficient service rendered during the past year and trust 
the same will continue." 

Differences Between Management and Employees Ad- 
justed. — The differences between the employees of the East 
St. Louis & Suburban Railway, East St. Louis, 111., and 
the management over the discharge of three motormen con- 
cerned in recent accidents have been adjusted. The repre- 
sentatives of the employees demanded that the men who 
had been discharged should be reinstated in their former 
positions and should receive twenty days' pay for the time 
which they lost owing to their discharge. The management 
of the company insisted that the records of the men involved 
precluded their re-employment by the company in their 
former capacities, but offered one of the men a position as 
a special officer, another a position as a shop worker and 
the third a position as a lineman, with fifteen days' pay. 
The men agreed to accept these terms. 

Accident on Chicago Elevated Loop. — At 6.50 a. m. on 
Jan. 8, 1913, as a train of the Chicago & Oak Park Elevated 
Railroad, Chicago, 111., consisting of three coaches was 
rounding the loop curve from Van Buren Street to Fifth 
Avenue, the rear coach was derailed, mounted the outer 
third rail and fell to the street. Only a few passengers 
were on the train and no passengers were in the rear coach. 
The car fell to the street on the west side of the structure 
in front of the Fifth Avenue station of the Aurora, Elgin 
& Chicago Railroad. One pair of trucks left the structure 
with the coach, but the other pair of trucks remained on 
the structure although derailed. Pending an investigation 
into the accident the only explanation for the mishap seems 
to be that the crew took the curve from Van Buren Street 
at an excessive speed which whipped the rear coach from 
the train. 

Communication in Regard to "Stop Signals." — On Dec. 

30, 1912, the Railroad Commission of Indiana addressed the 
following communication in regard to "stop signals" to all 
the steam railroads and the interurban railways which oper- 
ate in Indiana: "Information has come to the commission 
that many steam and interurban railroads operating in this 
State have not required strict compliance with Rule No. 27, 
Book of Rules, Standard Code for Steam Railroads, and 
Rule No. 103, Standard Code for Interurban Railroads. 
These rules are identical and read as follows: 'A signal 
imperfectly displayed, or the absence of a signal at a place 
where a signal is usually shown, must be regarded as a stop 
signal, and the fact reported to the proper official.' The 
proper construction of this rule is that when switch signal 
lights are found to be out the train or car shall stop, the 
switch shall be examined and the light relit. Trains or cars 
should stop in all cases where the lights are out; not slow 
down, but stop. The commission recommends that this 
strict construction of the rule shall be enforced by all com- 
panies. These companies will advise the commission within 
thirty days from the date of the receipt of this circular that 
they will so construe and enforce the rule." 



January ii, 



I9I3-1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



89 



Personal Mention 



Mr. G. A. McNamee, for several years assistant secretary- 
treasurer of the Montreal (Que.) Tramways, has resigned. 

Mr. Rodman E. Griscom has been elected president of 
the International Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., to suc- 
ceed Mr. Thomas Penney, resigned. 

Mr. J. P. Ross, who has been secretary of the Birming- 
ham Railway, Light & Power Company, Birmingham, Ala., 
has also been appointed assistant treasurer of the company. 

Mr. Theodore H. Rabe, who lias been treasurer and audi- 
tor of the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, 
Birmingham, Ala., has been made treasurer and assistant 
secretary of the company. 

Mr. J. T. McNamara, Jr., has been appointed auditor of 
the Jackson Railway & Light Company, Jackson, Miss., 
to succeed Mr. A. C. Powell, who has become connected 
with the McClelland Banking Company, Jackson. 

Mr. Frank McCoy has resigned as general manager and 
purchasing agent of the Allegheny Valley Street Railway, 
Tarentum, Pa., and as manager and contract agent of the 
Allegheny Valley Light Company, New Kensington, Pa. 

Mr. John Cash has resigned as superintendent of city 
lines and roadmaster of the Evansville & Southern Indiana 
Traction Company, Lafayette, Ind., after a continuous 
service of twenty-seven years with that company and its 
predecessors. 

Mr. E. E. Vreeland, who has been assistant to Mr. T. H. 
Tutwiler, president of the Memphis (Tenn.) Street Railway 
for the last seven years, has resigned to devote himself to 
his private interests. Mr. Vreeland went to Memphis 
from Nashville in 1904. 

Mr. Charles E. Fife, who since August, 1910, has been 
superintendent of the Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Greens- 
burg Railway, Greensburg, Pa., has been appointed general 
manager of the Allegheny Valley Street Railway, Taren- 
tum, Pa., to succeed Mr. Frank McCoy, resigned. 

Mr. M. A. Cavanagh, Boston, Mass.. who with his associ- 
ates has purchased the property of the Norwood, Canton 
& Sharon Street Railway, Canton, Mass.. has been elected 
president of the company to succeed Mr. Dennis G. 
Trayers, who continues with the company as superin- 
tendent. 

Mr. J. D. Maxwell has resigned as electrical engineer of 
the Spartanburg Railway, Gas & Electric Company, Spar- 
tanburg, S. C, to become connected with the Anderson 
Electric Carriage Company, which manufactures the "De- 
troit" electric vehicles. He will be attached to the Phila- 
delphia office of the company. 

Mr. A. D. Furlong, who has been general superintendent 
and electrical engineer of the Springfield (111.) Consolidated 
Railway, the entire stock of which is owned by the Spring- 
field Railway & Light Company, has been appointed general 
manager of the company to succeed Mr. A. A. Anderson, 
resigned. 

Mr. V. T. Bary, who has been dispatcher with the Pitts- 
burgh, McKeesport & Greensburg Railway, Greensburg, 
Pa., has been appointed superintendent of the company 
to succeed Mr. Charles E. Fife, who has been appointed 
general manager of the Allegheny Valley Street Railway, 
Tarentum, Pa. 

Mr. Daniel Reidel, Jr., formerly with the Cincinnati & Co- 
lumbus Traction Company and before that with the Cin- 
cinnati, Newport & Covington Light & Traction Company, 
has been appointed superintendent of motive power and 
maintenance of way of the Toledo, Bowling Green & South- 
ern Traction Company, Findlay, Ohio. 

Mr. Franklin K. Lane, of California, has been elected 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission to serve as its 
chairman for the year beginning Jan. 13. As chairman, 
Mr. Lane will succeed Commissioner Charles A. Prouty, 
of Vermont. Mr. Lane has been a member of the commis- 
sion since 1905, and now is serving his second term. 

Mr. Alfred Anderson, formerly purchasing agent of the 
Panama Railroad, Panama Steamship Line and Isthmian 
Canal Commission, and later with the Metropolitan Street 
Railway, New York, N. Y., in the same capacity, has been 



elected president of the Transit Manufacturing & Materials 
Company, Inc., recently organized with offices in New 
York. 

Mr. A. A. Anderson has resigned as general manager of 
the Springfield (111.) Consolidated Railway, the entire stock 
of which is owned by the Springfield Railway & Light 
Company. Mr. Anderson was formerly general manager of 
the Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Company 
and before that was general manager of the Indianapolis & 
Louisville Traction Company, Louisville, Ky. 

Mr. H. R. Domby has been appointed general store- 
keeper of the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Com- 
pany, Birmingham, Ala., in charge of the department of 
general stores, which has been established. Mr. Domby 
has been in the employ of the company since September, 
1906, all of his work being in connection with the purchas- 
ing and stores department, which he entered as a clerk. 
Before becoming connected with the Birmingham Railway, 
Light & Power Company he was with the Birmingham 
Ledger, and before that he was connected with newspapers 
in Los Angeles, Cal. 

Mr. James W. Dunbar, who was superintendent of the 
Gas. Light & Coke Company, New Albany, Ind., years ago 
and later accepted a position with the United Gas & Electric 
Company in that city, affiliated with the Insull interests 
which own the Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting 
Company and other properties in southern Indiana, has 
been appointed general manager of the New Albany utili- 
ties. It is announced by the Insull interests in Chicago that 
the electric railways of the syndicate in southern Indiana 
will be managed hereafter from the Chicago office, under 
the general charge of Mr. F. E. Cole. 

Mr. R. O. Launey has been appointed auditor of the 
Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, Birming- 
ham. Ala., to succeed Mr. Theodore H. Rabe, formerly 
treasurer and auditor of the company and now treasurer 
and assistant secretary. Mr. Launey has been connected 
with the company since April I, 1904. He entered the 
service as a clerk and occupied various positions in the 
accounting department until July 1. 1911, when he was ap- 
pointed assistant treasurer and assistant auditor. Before 
becoming connected with the Birmingham Railway, Light 
& Power Company Mr. Launey was connected with the 
public utilities at Savannah, Ga., where he was born. 

Mr. Henry A. Nettleton, manager of the local lines of the 
Connecticut Company in Manchester, Conn., which include 
the line to Stafford Springs, and the oldest employee in 
point of service now connected with the company in Man- 
chester, was presented with a gold watch recently by mem- 
bers of the crews which work under him. Mr. Nettleton 
has been in the employ of the Connecticut Company as 
superintendent at Manchester since the Hartford, Rock- 
ville & Manchester Tramway was taken over by the Con- 
necticut Company and previous to that was auditor of the 
Hartford, Rockville & Manchester Tramway. He has been 
connected with that company and the Connecticut Company 
for seventeen years. 

Mr. Ivy L. Lee has been appointed executive assistant to 
the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Mr. Lee was 
born at Cedartown, Ga., on July 16, 1877. He was graduated 
from Princeton University in 1898 with the degree of A. B. 
and did post-graduate work at Harvard and Columbia Uni- 
versities. He then engaged in editorial work until his ap- 
pointment as press representative of the anthracite coal op- 
erators, the Pennsylvania Railroad and other corporations. 
From 1008 to 1909 he was in charge of the publicity bureau 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and since 1910 he has been 
general European manager of Harris, Winthrop & Com- 
pany, bankers. Mr. Lee will have his office at the Broad 
Street station of the Pennsylvania Railroad in Philadelphia. 

Mr. E. Lowndes Rhett has been elected second vice-presi- 
dent and a director of the Federal Utilities, Inc., New 
York, N. Y. Mr. Rhett entered the banking house of 
Brown Brothers & Company in April, 1891, as a clerk, and 
remained with that firm for more than ten years, latterly 
as manager of the bond and stock department. He then 
engaged in the bond business with his brother, after which 
he entered the Stock Exchange firm of Dominick & Wil- 
liams, where he remained for about three years. Mr. 
Rhett then became manager of the New York office of 



90 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XL1, No. 2. 



the Boston bond house of E. H. Rollins & Sons, from 
which position he resigned in 1911, when he was elected 
vice-president and a director of the Smith-Tevis-Hanford 
Company, dealer in public utility securities. He continued 
with the Smith-Tevis-Hanford Company until he was 
elected second vice-president and a director of Federal 
Utilities, Inc., on Dec. 30, 1912. 

Mr. Joseph D. Evans, whose appointment as construction 
manager of the Electric Bond & Share Company, New 
York, N. Y., was noted in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Jan. 4, 1913, was educated in the schools of Lowell, Mass., 
where he was born, and was graduated as a civil engineer 
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He went 
south to do work in the engineering department of the pro- 
posed Nicaraguan canal and was subsequently associated 
with the United States government engineers in the prepar- 
ation of the original estimates for the Panama Canal. He 
next engaged in railroad construction in Ecuador. After 
this Mr. Evans engaged in electric railway work in Penn- 
sylvania, Massachusetts and Connecticut and a little later 
was appointed general superintendent of construction of 
the Great Northern Power Company at Duluth, Minn. Sub- 
sequently he was connected with the construction of the 
Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, which operates an 
electric railway between Rochester and Lockport. He 
was then appointed engineer in charge of construction of 
the Canada Light & Power Company, and at the completion 
of the plant at St. Timothee he accepted the position of chief 
engineer of the Montreal Tramways. Mr. Evans will have 
charge of plants under construction in Utah and Idaho by 
the Electric Bond & Share Company. 

Mr. E. G. Connette, who since May, 1912, has been vice- 
president of the International Railway Company, Buffalo, 
N. Y., has been elected president of the company to suc- 
ceed Mr. Thomas Penney, resigned, and has also been 
elected vice-president of the International Traction Com- 
f any, the holding company for the electric railways which 
are operating in Buffalo, Niagara Falls and Lockport. Mr. 
Connette has been connected with electric railway proper- 
ties in Nashville. Syracuse, Worcester and other cities, 
and previous to his election as vice-president of the 
International Traction Company he was transportation 
engineer of the Public Service Commission of the First 
District of New York. He is very well known in 
electric railway circles and has taken an active part 
in the affairs of the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation and its successors, the American Street & In- 
terurban Railway Association and the American Electric 
Railway Association. He was third vice-president of the 
American Street Railway Association in 1897-8 and was 
president of the Street Railway Association of the State of 
New York in 1903-4. A biography and a portrait of Mr. 
Connette were published in the Electric Railway Journal 
of May 11, 1912. In a statement which he issued at the time 
Mr. Connette was elected vice-president of the International 
Railway Company, Mr. Penney said: "The development 
of traffic in Buffalo and the adjacent cities of Niagara Falls 
and Lockport and on the interurban lines which connect 
these cities presents many problems which require broad ex- 
perience and expert knowledge to solve, and it was. there- 
fore, concluded that it was necessary to procure the very 
best talent obtainable. The directors believe that they have 
found a man who will ably assist the president in solving 
the problems attendant upon the situation." 

Mr. Thomas Penney has resigned as president of the In- 
ternational Traction Company and the International Rail- 
way Company, Buffalo, N. Y., but will continue as a di- 
rector of the companies. Mr. Penney intends to devote his 
time principally hereafter to the management of the Near- 
Side Car Company and other interests of Mr. Nelson Robin- 
son and his associates. Mr. Penney was elected president of 
the companies to succeed Mr. Henry J. Pierce in September, 
1908. He is a member of the firm of Norton, Penney & 
Sears, counsel for the International Traction Company, and 
became intimately acquainted with the affairs of the company 
through his membership in that firm. Mr. Penney was 
born in London, England, and came to this country when a 
boy. He prepared for college at Williston Seminary, East 
Hampton. Mass., and after completing the academic course 
at Yale he took a law course of two years, graduating with 



the degree of bachelor of arts and bachelor of laws and 
was admitted to the bar of Connecticut. In 1889 he began 
the practice of law in Buffalo and in 1895 became first as- 
sistant to the district attorney, which position he occupied 
for four years. A vacancy then occurred in the office of the 
district attorney and Mr. Penney was appointed to fill that 
office by Theodore Roosevelt, at that time Governor of New 
York. The following year he was elected to the office for a 
term of three years. As district attorney of Buffalo Mr. 
Penney prosecuted the assassin Czolgosz. At the expiration 
of his term of office Mr. Penney declined a renomination 
and resigned, having become a member of the firm of Nor- 
ton, Penney & Sears. Commenting editorially on the retire- 
ment of Mr. Penney as president, the Buffalo Courier 
said: "Four years ago Thomas Penney was made president 
of the company on account of his peculiar fitness for the 
direction of its affairs in a period requiring the most skilful 
management. Mr. Penney is a brilliant lawyer and also 
has the administrative quality highly developed. To his 
talent is credited the accomplishment of the reorganization 
without necessity for a receivership. Now he will retire 
from the presidency in order that he may give time to other 
large undertakings with which he is identified, but he will 
continue a director of the company." 

OBITUARY 

George W. Stoddard, who was president of the Citizens' 
Railway, Baltimore, Md., died at Atlantic City, N. J., on 
Dec. 27, 1912, at the age of seventy-three years. Mr. Stod- 
dard was born in Allegheny County, Md., and early in 
life entered the service of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 
During the Civil War he was superintendent of the division 
of the company between Baltimore and Cumberland. Soon 
after the war Mr. Stoddard took up his residence in Balti- 
more and subsequently became connected with street rail- 
way development work in that city. He retired from the 
Citizens' Railway following the sale of the property of the 
company some twenty years ago to the Baltimore Traction 
Company, which is now controlled by the United Railways 
& Electric Company. Mr. Stoddard went from Baltimore 
to Pittsburgh. He had long been a resident of Atlantic 
City. 



Another Communication to Employees in Regard to 
Holiday Traffic 



The Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J., took occa- 
sion to address its trainmen recently in regard to the 
handling of the increased traffic on account of the holidays. 
The communication, addressed to the men over the sig- 
nature of Newton W. Bolen, superintendent of transporta- 
tion, follows: 

"In the excitement of holiday shopping some persons 
are likely to be less careful than usual, or in their hurry 
take reckless chances in boarding or leaving cars or cross- 
ing in front of them. Nobody wants an accident to happen. 
This is just as true of motormen and conductors as it is 
of passengers or pedestrians. Accidents are bad enough at 
any time; they are particularly distressing when, in addi- 
tion to hurting some one, they spoil the Christmas of many 
others. Therefore, it is urged that more than the usual 
care be exercised in the operation of the cars to the end 
that no suffering shall be caused and that your record shall 
be clear during the holiday season. 

"In addition to being careful, be courteous. Remember 
that courtesy pays in good will. Do not be grouchy. Help 
your passengers all you can, especially the aged and infirm 
and the children. Keep your car as comfortable as the heat- 
ing and ventilating facilities will permit. Conductors will 
not fail to call out the names of the principal streets, stores 
and stations. It annoys one to be carried too far and there 
will be many visitors in town. Motormen will be extra 
careful in handling cars in the crowded districts. They 
can assist conductors, when necessary, by politely asking 
passengers to move forward in the cars. Everybody keep 
in mind the motto, 'Safety, Courtesy, Loyalty.' 

"I feel satisfied that if the trainmen will follow the above 
suggestions they will have less trouble, the patrons will 
be better pleased and both will do their part in making a 
merry Christmas for all." 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



9i 



Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 
ported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 

*Vancouver Island Hydro-Electric & Tramway Company, 
Ltd., Victoria, B. C. — Incorporated in British Columbia with 
a capital stock of $500,000. Headquarters, Victoria, B. C. 

*Caseyville Railway, Belleville, 111. — Chartered in Illinois 
to build an interurban railway from Caseyville to East St. 
Louis. Headquarters: Belleville. Capital stock, $50,000. 
Incorporators and first board of directors: Joseph E. 
Gundlach, Aloys Gundlach, A. H. Baer, Louis Opp and 
William M. Hoppe, all of Belleville. 

*Lake Erie & Youghiogheny Railroad, Youngstown, 
Ohio. — Incorporated in Ohio to build an electric or gaso- 
line railway between Youngstown and Conneaut. Capital 
stock, $3,000,000. Incorporators: A. W. Jones, John H. 
Ruhlman, William H. Ruhlman, George J. Chapman and 
George M. Brown, all of Youngstown. 

*Gananoque, Perth & Lanark Railway, Gananoque, Ont. — 
Application for a charter will be made by this company at 
the next session of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario to 
build an electric or steam railway between Gananoque and 
Lanark, with a branch from near Morton through Lund- 
hurst and Delta to Portland. Incorporators: F. A. Henry, 
R. A. Sibbitt, J. C. Judd, all of Ottawa, and W. T. Samp- 
son, Gananoque: J. A. Donevan, Toronto; F. B. Morton and 
D. W. Green, Lyndhurst. 

*Nashville (Tenn.) Traction Company. — Incorporated in 
Tennessee to build 34 miles of electric railway in Nash- 
ville. It will also furnish power for lighting purposes. Cap- 
ital stock, $125,000. Incorporators: Walter O. Parker, 
Nashville, and George N. Hendrie, Russell A. Alger, Henry 
Ledyard and W. Howie Muir, Detroit. 

*San Antonio, Fredericksburg & Northern Railway, Fred- 
ericksburg, Tex. — Application for a charter has been made 
by this company in Texas to build an interurban railway 
from within 4 miles of Waring in a northerly direction to 
Fredericksburg. Capital stock, $30,000. Incorporators: R. 
A. Love, Foster Crane, M. H. Trice, F. F. Ludolph, A. L. 
Cunningham, J. H. Haile, George D. Campbell, W. W. Col- 
lier, Frank Richards, H. N. Jones and H. M. Abernathy. 

FRANCHISES 

Globe, Ariz. — Nathan L. Amster, Boston, and associates 
have received a franchise in Globe. This is part of a plan to 
build an electric railway between Live Oak, Globe and 
Miami. [E. R. J., Dec. 7, '12.] 

New Westminster, B. C. — The plans of the proposed 
yards for the British Columbia Electric Railway in the 
West End have been submitted to the Council, calling for 
nineteen separate lines, or 3 miles of track. The city en- 
gineer has submitted a report giving his views on the plans 
and the City Council will visit the site before coming to any 
decision. 

Antioch, Cal. — The Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Rail- 
way, Oakland, has received a franchise in Antioch. 

Pacific Grove, Cal. — The Monterey & Pacific Grove Rail- 
way has received a fifty-year franchise from the Board of 
Trustees in Pacific Grove. 

Stockton, Cal. — The Stockton Electric Railway has re- 
ceived a franchise from the Council for the extension of its 
Poplar Street line in Stockton. 

Canon City, Col. — F. S. Kelsey and F. B. Street, New 
York, N. Y., have received an extension of time in which 
to begin the construction of the projected electric line 
through Canon City and the City Park at the top of the 
Royal Gorge. [E. R. J., Dec. 30, '12.] 

*St. Augustine, Fla. — The Jacksonville & St. Augustine 
Public Service Corporation has asked the City Council for 
a franchise in St. Augustine. The route of this railway has 
been described elsewhere in this issue. 

Ashmore, 111. — The Central Illinois Traction Company has 
received a fifty-year franchise from the Council in Ashmore. 



*Centralia, 111. — G. L. Pittenger, C. E. Stead, Dwight F 
Haussler and associates, who propose to form the East 
Side Electric Railway, have asked the City Council for a 
twenty-year franchise to build an electric railway on Lo- 
cust Street, Saline Street and Wabash Avenue in Centralia, 
111. 

Hillsboro, 111. — The Springfield & Central Illinois Trac- 
tion Company has received a franchise from the Council in 
Hillsboro. 

Shreveport, La. — The Texas-Louisiana Traction Com- 
pany, Shreveport, has received a franchise from the Council 
to build terminal properties and use certain streets in 
Shreveport., This line will connect Shreveport, La., and 
Jefferson and Longview, Tex. A. B. Blevins, Jefferson, 
Tex., is interested. [E. R. J., Dec. 7, '12. ] 

Mount Greylock, Mass. — The Berkshire Street Railway 
has been grantted an extension of time until Jan. 1, 1914, on 
its franchise for its Mount Greylock extension. Extensions 
of time for the construction of certain extensions in Pitts- 
field and North Adams have also been granted the com- 
pany by the Railroad Commission. 

Kansas City, Mo. — A. L. Berger, attorney for T. A. Big- 
ger, receiver for the Kansas City Outer Belt & Electric 
Railway, holding company of the terminal property of the 
Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Railway Company, has asked 
the Kansas City (Kan.) Commissioners for a three-year ex- 
tension of time for the completion of work in Kansas City, 
Kan., as provided in the company's franchise. 

St. Joseph, Mo. — The St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & 
Power Company has received a franchise from the Council 
in St. Joseph on Eighth Street from Messanie Street to Ed- 
mund Street and from Felix Street to Francis Street. 

Cicero, N. Y. — The Syracuse, Watertown & St. Lawrence 
River Railroad has asked the Public Service Commission, 
Second District, for permission to acquire and exercise a 
franchise from C. A. Lux for the construction of an exten- 
sion of its railway in Cicero. 

Utica, N. Y. — The New York State Railways has asked 
the Common Council for a franchise to double-track its line 
over the overhead railroad crossing at Genesee Street in 
Utica. 

Nashville, Tenn. — The Nashville Traction Company, the 
incorporation of which is noted elsewhere in this depart- 
ment, has asked the Council for a franchise over certain 
streets in Nashville. 

Murray, Utah. — The Utah Interurban Electric Company 
has received a fifty-year franchise from the City Commis- 
sioners in Murray City. The line will connect Salt Lake 
City, Payson, Lehi, Pleasant Grove, American Fork, Provo, 
Springfield and Spanish Fork. W. C. Orem, Salt Lake City, 
president. [E. R. J., Jan. 4, '13.] 

Tacoma, Wash. — The Tacoma Railway & Power Com- 
pany will ask the Council for a franchise for an extension 
across Tacoma's new steel bridge, which will be finished 
during January. 

TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — This com- 
pany plans to spend $6,000,000 for improvements and new 
equipment in southern California during 1913. The new 
lines and extensions consist of the following: Los Angeles 
to San Bernardino via Uplands, 21 miles; Riverside to San 
Bernardino, 10 miles; Santa Ana to Orange, 3 miles; Los 
Angeles to San Fernando, 10 miles, and Mendocinn Street, 
North Pasadena extension to Altadena, affording a new 
route to Mount Wilson, \y 2 miles. Other lines are the 
Lincoln Avenue line in Pasadena, 1V2 miles; the San Pedro 
Street line to be built for the city and for which the 
Pacific Electric Railway will bid. A short line of double 
tracking on Avenue Sixty-four will be completed in the 
near future. Work has been begun by this company along 
Colton Avenue on the new line to Riverside. 

San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway. — Surveys are being 
made by this company to determine the route for a new line 
through the City Heights section of San Diego. 

Ocean Shore Railroad, San Francisco, Cal. — It is reported 
that this company has surveyed and secured right-of-way 
for a 10-mile extension from Tunitas to the center of the 



92 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



timber belt. To defray the expenses of the construction of 
the line the company will apply to the State Railroad Com- 
mission for permission to issue $400,000 of bonds. 

Virginia Terminal Company, Washington, D. C. — This 
company will build a double-track electric railway in Wash- 
ington from a point on Canal Street, near Chadwick Ave- 
nue, in Rosslyn, Va., and the Aqueduct Bridge to the 
Union Station. Among those interested are A. A. Thomas 
and H. Wardman, Washington, D. C. [E. R. J., Dec. 
28, '12.] 

Jacksonville and St. Augustine Public Service Corpora- 
tion, St. Augustine, Fla. — This company has been organized 
to build an electric railway from South Jacksonville in a 
southeasterly direction to a point to be known as Beach 
Junction, and then, taking a more southerly course, to run 
into St. Augustine. From Beach Junction there will be a 
direct line eastward to the beach and then a line 11 miles 
along the beach northward to Pablo Beach. Capital stock, 
$2,000,000. Officers: A. W. Corbett, president; John D. 
Andrea, vice-president, and Alexander E. Baya, secretary 
and treasurer. 

Georgia Railway & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga. — The 

Georgia Railway & Power Company is grading for an ex- 
tension of its Decatur line to Stone Mountain, a distance 
of 16 miles. 

Elberton & Eastern Railway, Augusta, Ga. — This com- 
pany has completed 5 miles of its line from Elberton south- 
ward on its 21-mile railway to Tignall. Alexander Wilson, 
chief engineer. [E. R. J., Dec. 30, '12.] 

Chicago (111.) Railways. — This company has placed in 
operation its new North Forty-eighth Avenue extension in 
Chicago, from Chicago Avenue to Milwaukee Avenue, a 
distance of 4 miles. 

Southern Interurban Construction Company, Terre 
Haute, Ind. — This company was referred to in last week's 
issue as the Southern Interurban Company, Terre Haute. 

Davenport-Muscatine Railway, Davenport, la. — This com- 
pany has placed in operation its line into the downtown 
section of Muscatine. 

Louisiana Traction & Power Company, Lafayette, La. — 

Surveys have been completed by this company on its 
Anneville line. Surveys are now being made near Scott 
on the way to Lake Charles. J. A. Landry, Lake Charles, 
president. [E. R. J., Dec. 21, '12.] 

New Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, 

La. — This company has been asked to consider plans to 
extend its Claiborne line in New Orleans from Kentucky 
Street down St. Claude Avenue to Delery Street, a distance 
of 1^2 miles. 

*Baltimore, Md. — Plans are being considered to form a 
company to build a 10-mile electric railway from Overlea 
to the Harford county line. No names have yet been given 
of those interested. 

*Washington & Great Falls Railway & Power Company, 
Rockville, Md. — Right-of-way for the proposed electric rail- 
way from the intersection of Bradley Lane and the George- 
town and Rockville Turnpike, near Bethesda, to Great Falls, 
has been secured, and a deed conveying the right-of-way 
from the Chevy Chase & Great Falls Land Corporation to 
the Washington & Great Falls Railway & Power Company 
has been filed. A deed of trust to secure a $500,000 bond is- 
sue from the railway company to the Fidelity Trust Com- 
pany, Baltimore, has also been filed. It is stated that the 
construction of the line from Bethesda to Great Falls is now 
assured. 

B,oston & Providence Interurban Electric Railroad, Bos- 
ton, Mass. — The certificate of necessity and the other privi- 
leges granted to the Boston & Providence Interurban Elec- 
tric Railroad by the State of Massachusetts expired on 
Dec. 31, 1912, but the directors of the company, acting 
through E. J. B. Huntoon, Russell Robb, Frederick S. Pratt 
and Richard M. Saltonstall, have petitioned the Legislature 
for the revival of the certificate and the restoration of the 
rights. 

Bristol & Norfolk Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — This 

company plans to build an extension from Post Office 
Square, Holbrook, to the railroad station. 



Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street Railway, Sharon, 
Mass. — M. A. Cavanaugh, Boston; Joseph B. Murphy, 
Thomas F. Cavanaugh, James T. Dunn and Col, Peter Corr, 
Taunton, the new owners of this railway, plan to develop 
and improve the property at once. The lines will be ex- 
tended on both ends, and it is proposed to extend the Sharon 
Heights tracks through to connect with Taunton and Mans- 
field. 

Fergus Falls, Minn. — S. O. Bridston and N. A. Huss and 
associates plan to construct an electric railway in Fergus 
Falls. Power will be obtained from Hoot Lake. [E. R. J., 
March 16, '12.] 

St. Louis-Kansas City Electric Railway, St. Louis, Mo. — 

Work has been begun by this company at Independence. 
The contract for building and equipping the line has been 
awarded to the National Contracting Corporation, Norfolk, 
Va. The contract for grading has been awarded to Griffith 
& McMurray, Kansas City, Mo. This 245-mile line will 
connect St. Louis and Kansas City, via Jackson, Lafayette, 
Saline, Howard, Boone, Callaway, Montgomery, Warren, 
St. Charles and St. Louis Counties. W. L. Allen, general 
manager. [E. R. J., Nov. 30, '12.] 

United Railways, St. Louis, Mo. — This company has re- 
ceived the approval of the Board of Public Improvements 
to lay T-rails on eight residence streets and avenues in 
St. Louis. 

Monmouth County Electric Company, Red Bank, N. J. — 

A i-mile extension will be built by this company from 
Rumson to Seabright provided the residents of Seabright 
will obtain the necessary right-of-way. 

International Railway Company, Buffalo, N. Y. — It is re- 
ported that this company placed in operation on Jan. 4 
its new Hoyt-Seneca crosstown line in Buffalo. The ex- 
tension of the Clinton and William Street lines across Main 
Street through Swan Street and returning via Erie and 
South Division Streets will be built at once. 

Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Company, Elmira, N. Y. 

— Plans are being considered by this company for an ex- 
tension to the Morrow plant and the residential section 
in that part of Elmira. 

Charlotte (N. C.) Electric Railway. — This company plans 
to build a double-track line on Central Avenue in Charlotte. 

Tulsa (Okla.) Street Railway. — An announcement has 
been made by this company that extensions and improve- 
ments of equipment which will be made during 1913 will 
cost $100,000. A line to Bellview, 2 miles long, double- 
tracking of a large section of the fair ground line, additional 
double-tracking of other lines and extensions of the Owens 
Park and North Cheyenne lines are some of the proposed 
improvements. 

Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Railway, St. Catha- 
rines, Ont. — Grading is being done by this company on its 
12-mile extension from St. Catharines to Niagara-on-the 
Lake. The entire work, including the grading, trestles, 
track laying, etc., is being carried out by the company's 
force under E. F. Seixas, general manager. 

Toronto (Ont.) Railway. — This company has been asked 
to consider plans to extend its Church Street line in To- 
ronto across Glen Bridge, up Glen Road, thence west and 
south to the bridge again, completing the loop. 

Toronto & Suburban Railway, Toronto Junction, Ont. — 
This company has been asked to build two extensions in 
West Toronto, now known as Ward 7. The total length of 
the two lines is slightly over 2 miles. The order calls for 
a single track laid a little to one side of the center line, so 
as to allow of double-tracking when the traffic warrants it. 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — Plans 
are being considered by this company for an extension from 
Slatington to Palmerton and thence to Lehighton. 

Quebec (Que.) Rapid Transit Company. — This v 
states that it will begin construction in the spring o* 
60-mile to 75-mile line to connect Quebec, Beauport, Charles- 
bourg, Lorette, St. Ambroise, Cap Rouge, St. Gregoire and 
the Isle of Orleans. Capital stock authorized, $1,000,000. A. 
Tachereau, Quebec, is solicitor for the applicants. [E. R. 
J., Dec. 14, '12.] 

*Moose Jaw, Sask. — Plans are being considered to build 
an electric railway between Moose Jaw and Regina. A 



January ii, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



93 



syndicate supposed to have the matter in charge has been 
represented in Regina by a Mr. Friedman, of Seattle, who 
has had conferences with the Board of Trade and the Gity 
Council. 

Murfreesboro (Tenn.) Electric Railway. — This company 
has done a small amount of grading and will begin the 
construction about April 1 on its 55-mile line to connect 
Murfreesboro, Readyville, Woodbury, Nashville, La Vergne 
and Smyrna. The company will obtain power from the Mur- 
freesboro station of the Tennessee Railway & Light Com- 
pany. J. L. Parkes, Murfreesboro, local representative. [E. 
R. J., Dec. 28, '12.] 

Bryan & College Interurban Railway, Bryan, Tex. — Ar- 
rangements have been made and contracts signed for the 
extension of this company's line into the Brazos section. 

Eastern Texas Traction Company, Dallas, Tex. — This 
company has completed details and has closed contracts for 
right-of-way franchises for the extension of the Dallas- 
Greenville Interurban line north from Greenville through 
Wolfe City to Bonham. The Greenville-Bonham end of 
the line will be operated for traffic at the same time that 
the Dallas end is opened, probably not later than Sept. 1. 
1913. Three preliminary surveys between Greenville and 
Bonham will be made soon. J. W. Crotty, general man- 
ager. [E. R. J., Nov. 23, '12.] 

Denison, Tex. — It is reported that J. R. Cullinan, St. 
Louis, and associates will begin surveys this month for an 
electric line between Denison. Tex., and Durant, Okla., via 
Colbert and Calera. The Field Engineering Company, 
Denison, will make the survey. [E. R. J., Nov. 30, '12.] 

Utah Light & Railway Company, Salt Lake City, Utah.— 
This company is ready to make track connections with 
the Oregon Short Line and to extend its Capitol Hill line 
into the Capitol grounds in Salt Lake City. 

Walla Walla Valley Railway, Walla Walla, Wash.— The 
improvements planned by this company during 1913 will 
include the construction of new track in Walla Walla 
and Milton, paving of the right-of-way over Clinton and 
Whitman Streets and College Avenue, Walla Walla, ana 
a mile extension of the Prospect Heights line as the first 
step to construct a loop through Russell Creek district, 
to connect with the East Walla Walla line. An extension 
to Vincent, a distance of 10 miles, is also being considered 
by the company. 

Tyler Traction Company, Clarksburg, W. Va. — Work is 
progressing rapidly by this company on its line between 
Sistersville and Middlebourne. The bridge across Point 
Pleasant Creek has been completed. H. W. McCoy, presi- 
dent. [E. R. J., Sept. 2, '11.] 

Fairmont & Mannington Traction Company, Fairmont, 
W. Va. — Surveys are being made by this company for a 5- 
mile electric railway from Annabelle to Mannington. J. O. 
Watson, general manager of the Monongahela Valley Trac- 
tion Company, Fairmont, is interested. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. Va. 
— Announcement has been made by this company that it 
will build at once its 2-mile line from Gypsy to Lumber- 
port, and that 2 additional miles on the Weston line will 
soon be placed in operation. 

South Morgantown Traction Company, Morgantown, W. 
Va. — Plans are being made by this company to build an 
extension of the South Park loop to the Sabraton mills, via 
Greemont and Marilia. 

City & Elm Grove Railway, Wheeling, W. Va. — Plans are 
being considered by this company to build the View Park 
loop in Wheeling. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

^Hti^h Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver, B. C. — 

.re being made by this company to build a new sta- 
tion in Eburne. 

Central California Traction Company, San Francisco, 
Cal. — The general offices of this company, which are now 
located in San Francisco, will be moved to Stockton during 
this month and Stockton will become the center of all the 
activities of the company. 

Washington Railway & Electric Company, Washington, 
D. C. — This company has opened its new carhouse at Four 



and One-half Street and P Street, Southwest, Washington. 
This carhouse and repair shop has been erected to take the 
place of the former carhouse at Thirteenth Street and D 
Street, Northeast, which was destroyed by fire last March. 

Pensacola (Fla.) Electric Company. — This company plans 
to build soon new carhouses on the site of the present car- 
house between Reus Street and De Villiers Street in 
Pensacola. 

Louisiana Traction & Power Company, Lafayette, La.— 

This company has purchased property near Lafayette, 
where it will build its carhouse and repair shops in the 
near future. 

Springfield & Eastern Street Railway, Palmer, Mass. — 

The offices of this company have been removed to the 
new quarters in the Holbrook Building in Springfield. 

Vicksburg (Miss.) Traction Company. — This company 
will move its office from the First National Bank Building 
to the Wilkerson Building at Washington Street and South 
Street in Vicksburg. 

Oregon Electric Railway, Portland, Ore. — This company 
has opened its new depot in Albany. The structure is no 
ft. x 32 ft. and of brick construction. 

Southern Traction Company, Dallas, Tex. — This com- 
pany has recently purchased property on the north side 
of the court house square in Dallas to be used for a depot 
and terminal conveniences for the Dallas-Waco interurban 
railway. The purchase includes the building on the north- 
west corner of East Franklin Street and North Waco 
Street, and this building will be used for a depot for the 
interurban line. 

Walla Walla Valley Railway, Walla Walla, Wash.— This 
company plans to build new carhouses and a new passenger 
station at Freewater. 

Ohio Valley Electric Railway, Huntington, W. Va. — This 
company has leased a building on Fifteenth Street in Ash- 
land which is to be remodeled as new offices for the com- 
pany. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

Alabama Traction, Light & Power Company, Montgom- 
ery, Ala. — Contracts for power-station equipment amounting 
to approximately $300,000 have been placed with the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company by this com- 
pany, which controls important water-power rights in Ala- 
bama capable of developing several hundred thousand horse- 
power. The order just placed is for the initial equipment 
of the company's plant at Lock 12 on the Coosa River. It 
calls for four 13,500-kva, 6600-volt, 60-cycle, three-phase, 
vertical-type generators for operation at 100 r.p.m. With 
each is a direct-connected exciter. In addition to this equip- 
ment the contract includes twenty 4500-kva, single-phase, 
6600-volt to 110,000-volt transformers. 

Louisiana Traction & Power Company, Lafayette, La. — 
This company has purchased 10 acres of land adjoining 
Lafayette upon which it plans to build its new power 
houses. J. A. Landry, Lake Charles, president. 

Shreveport (La.) Traction Company. — This company has 
awarded contracts for a 1000-kw generator outfit for its 
power house in Shreveport. 

Tri-State Railway & Electric Company, East Liverpool, 
Ohio. — This company will soon begin the erection of a 
$2,000,000 power house on a plot of ground near Midland, 
Pa. The company has secured control of several mines in 
the district, which will insure a supply of coal. The J. G. 
White Engineering Company, New York, will supervise 
the work. 

London (Ont.) Street Railway. — This company is install- 
ing an Allis cross-compound 20-in. x 38-in. x 48-in. Corliss 
engine and 500-kw generator and is building an extension 
to its engine room sufficiently large to accommodate this 
additional unit. 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Railway, Windsor, 
Ont. — This company has awarded a contract to the Allis- 
Chalmers Company for a horizontal, cross-compound 
Corliss engine, which will be direct-connected to a contin- 
uous-current generator of 850-kw capacity. 

Walla Walla Valley Railway, Walla Walla, Wash.— This 
company plans to reconstruct its substation at Freewater. 



94 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 2. 



Manufactures and Supplies 



ROLLING STOCK 

North Carolina Public Service Company, Greensboro, N. C, 

expects to purchase four closed 21-ft. city cars during 1913. 

Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway has ordered five 40-ft. 
express car bodies from the Wason Manufacturing Com- 
pany. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway has ordered from the G. C. 
Kuhlman Company fifty motor cars mounted on Brill 27- 
FE-i trucks. 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad, Boone, 
la., is reported to have ordered 200 box cars from the 
Haskell-Barker Car Company. 

Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Street Railway has ordered 
twelve car bodies from the Cincinnati Car Company. The 
trucks will be supplied by the Standard Motor Truck 
Company. 

Illinois Traction System lias ordered from the St. Louis 
Car Company four closed interurban trail cars, ten closed 
interurban motor cars, one sleeper and one observation car, 
all mounted on St. Louis trucks. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal., announces 
that it will place orders within the next thirty days for 
thirty stepless cars and twenty interurban cars. Within 
ninety days the company expects to place a further order 
for twenty-five additional interurban cars. 

TRADE NOTES 

International Steam Pump Company, New York. N. Y., 

has elected H. E. Moller a director of the company to fill 
a vacancy. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has become ex- 
clusive sales agent for the National railroad trolley guard, 
effective Jan. 9, 1913. 

Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111., announces that 
S. W. Midgley, formerly Western representative, has been 
appointed Western sales manager, effective Jan. 1. 

C. W. Rhoades, salesman for Valentine & Company in the 
Western territory, has been appointed assistant manager of 
the railroad sales department which covers all the territory 
west of Chicago. 

Crane Valve Company, Bridgeport, Conn., has elected 
A. F. Bennett its vice-president and general manager, to 
succeed F. J. Mulcahy, deceased. Mr. Bennett was formerly 
secretary of the Crane company. 

Henry Hess, Philadelphia, Pa., has disposed of his in- 
terests in the Hess-Bright Manufacturing Company to the 
Deutsche Waffen und Munitions Fabriken, Berlin, Ger- 
many, the manufacturers of DWF ball bearings. 

Canadian General Electric Company, Ltd., Toronto, Ont., 
has elected W. R. Brock, for twenty-five years president of 
the company, its' honorary president and chairman of the 
board of directors. Frederic Nicholls, vice-president of the 
company for the same period, has been elected president 
to succeed Mr. Brock. 

Bay State Car Wheel Company, Boston, Mass., has been 
incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts with a cap- 
italization of $21,000,000, consisting of 90,000 shares of 6 
per cent cumulative preferred stock and 120,000 shares of 
common at $100 a share. The incorporators are James E. 
Carroll, John B. Pierce and Edward M. Pickman. 

International Pay-as-You-Enter Tramcar Company, Ltd., 
London, England, announces that the Gateshead & District 
Tramways, Gateshead, England, has decided to equip its 
entire service with pay-as-you-enter cars as early as pos- 
sible. The Gateshead & District Tramways has issued 
official figures showing an increase in receipts amounting 
to 7 per cent, attributable to the introduction of pay-as- 
you-enter cars. 

Ford & Johnson Company, Michigan City, Ind., which 
went into bankruptcy last April with assets nominally 
$1,000,000, has had its property sold for $496,000 at receiv- 
er's sale to Harry Wehmer, of Cincinnati. Mr. Wehmer 
was a trustee for the Second National Bank and Cincinnati 
Trust Company, bondholders of the Ford & Johnson Com- 



pany. Its liabilities were $3,000,000. It is stated that the 
property will be operated by the new owners. 

Carnegie Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has appointed 
James C. O'Neil credit manager to succeed H. P. Howell, 
resigned. Mr. O'Neil was assistant to Mr. Howell. John 
P. Collins, who has been appointed to succeed James Scott 
as superintendent of the Lucy and Isabella furnaces of 
the company, has received the title of general manager 
of the city furnaces of the company, with supervision over 
the Lucy, Isabella, Edith and Neville blast furnaces. 

Wheler Condenser & Engineering Company, Carteret, 
N. J., has acquired the American license to build turbo- 
air pumps of the A. E. G. type, as manufactured in Eu- 
rope by the Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschaft. This 
air pump is of the rotary water-jet type, for motor or steam 
turbine drive, air being removed from the condenser by 
ejector action of a series of small water jets and also by 
positive entrapment of air between successive small slugs 
of water. A number of these pumps are now being built. 

Western Automatic Fender Company, Seattle, Wash., which 
manufactures the Nelson automatic fender, will furnish the 
fenders for the cars for the Seattle municipal railway. The 
decision to use the Nelson fender was made by the Board 
of Public Works of Seattle upon the recommendation of 
A. L. Valentine, superintendent of public utilities. In his 
report recommending the adoption of the Nelson fender, 
.Mr. V^lentme savs: "The Public Service Commission for 
the First District of New York on Oct. 21 and Nov. 5, 
1908, test No. 38, gave this fender a rating of 80.3 per cent 
against all competitors. The qualities required to secure 
this rating were efficiency and life-saving qualities, cost of 
maintenance, weight of device, number of parts and mate- 
rials used in construction. From this and investigations 
which I have made I feel satisfied that this is the best type 
of projecting fender on the market, and feeling that the 
cars of the municipal line should be equipped with the best- 
known devices for the saving of human life, I recommend 
that the proposition be accepted." 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has issued 
Bulletin No. A4069, which is devoted to the subject of 
portable and stationary air compressor sets. Bulletin No. 
A4063 describes the various types of General Electric poly- 
phase induction motors, and Bulletin No. 4994 describes 
and illustrates the company's subway transformers. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has issued Leaflet No. 351 1, which fully de- 
scribes and illustrates Westinghouse box-frame commutat- 
ing-pole railway motors Nos. 317, 317-A and 317-A2. These 
motors are adapted for high-speed interurban service, and 
A2 motor is for use with field control. Folder No. 4245, 
issued by the company, covers the Westinghouse univer- 
sal blowtorch, which is adapted to all conditions of service. 

Babcock & Wilcox Company, New York, N. Y., has just 
issued a sixty-four-page book describing the well-known 
Stirling type of steam boiler. Commencing with a brief 
discussion of the requirements for satisfactory boiler oper- 
ation, together with a short history of the Stirling boiler, 
the book then presents a very complete description of its 
construction, design and methods of operation. Several 
pages are devoted to a discussion of the care and manage- 
ment of the boiler, both in service and out of service, and 
the book concludes with the results of a number of tests 
of Stirling boilers with various fuels, together with photo- 
graphs of several installations. 

John A. Roebling's Sons Company, Newark, N. J., has 
reprinted in booklet form an article entitled "The Sea 
Voyage of a Drydock," by William J. Aylward, which origi- 
nally appeared in Scribner's Magazine. This article describes 
and illustrates the trip of the drydock Dewey, which was 
towed from Sparrow's Point, Md., to the Philippine Islands. 
Both wire and hemp hawsers were used for the tow. 
Among these were a number of Roebling wire hawsers, 
composed of six strands of thirty-seven wires each and a 
hemp center. These hawsers, which were 2 in. in diameter, 
1760 ft. long and heavily galvanized to withstand the action 
of salt water, were used on automatic towing machines 
made by the American Ship Windlass Company (now the 
American Engineering Works). 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. XLI 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 1913 



No. :$ 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

James H. McGraw, President. C. E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treas. 
239 West 39th Street, New York. 

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Terms of Subscription 
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Refluests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
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Copyright, 1913, by McGraw Publishing Company < _Ihc 

Entered as second-class matter at the post office at ^Nffw •YJftk.f N. Y.~"- 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal, 2000 copies are printed. 
I 



many other railway men, so that a large attendance is prac- 
tically assured. The subjects selected for discussion will 
make the midyear convention practically a meeting of the 
association as "a committee of the whole," to consider ways 
and means for improving the financial status of the com- 
panies by an increase in the unit rate of fare. The speakers 
scheduled to address the meeting are authorities on the 
topics on which they will treat, and the results of a thorough 
and free discussion should be beneficial to all. The coming 
year will be marked with legislative activity in a great 
many states as well as by a change of federal administration, 
and the electric railway companies ought to be able at least 
to suggest some definite program for legislative considera- 
tion as a means to make the investment in railway properties 
Inpre attractive than it is at present. If the meeting shall 
hefto to crystallize the ideas of the association as to the 
fornh which the increase in fare should take, the result will 



LOCOMOTIVE TYPE In connection with,, the descrip- ], e pi great benefit to the industry 



DESI 



GNATIONS tions of foreign eleHr^loc9in,o4:ives v >l 

published from time to time iiiJthese INFECTION 



columns, it may be of interest to explain the method of 
type designation used by foreign builders. In this coun- 
try it is customary to employ a series of small and large 
circles or a succession of numerals to express the arrange- 
ment of the pony and driving wheels. On the Continent 
the pictorial method is dispensed with, while the purely 
numerical arrangement, showing the number of each kind 
of wheel, is replaced by a combination in which a numeral 
represents the number of pony axles and an initial capital 
letter the number of driving axles. Thus a locomotive with 
four driving axles only is merely designated as type D, in- 
stead of 0-4-0. Similarly, type 1-C-1 means one leading 
axle, three driving axles and one trailer axle — a combina- 
tion which Americans would designate as a type 2-6-2 ma- 
chine. The plus (+) sign is used to show the division 
of driving axles on separate trucks. Consequently a C+C 
locomotive is one with three driving axles in each of two 
trucks. This method of combining numerals and capital 
letters is as convenient to express or write as plain num- 
bers, with the additional advantage that the typographical 
contrast between the numbers and letters emphasizes the 
difference between the two types of axles almost as effec- 
tively as the circles. 



FROM 

TRANSFERS 



MIDYEAR 
MEETING 



With the approach of the time for 
the midyear meeting of the American 
Electric Railway Association, it is 
possible to say that the attendance promises to be larger than 
at any other previous January convention. One reason for this 
is the growing practice of association committees to hold 
meetings at this time. This year the meetings of forty-two 
committees are scheduled in New York during the last four 
days of the week ending Feb. 1, and the program of the 
meeting itself will undoubtedly bring to New York a great 



In its issue of Dec. 21 the Medical 
Record, of New York, referred to 
the hygienic aspect of the practice 
sometimes followed by conductors of moistening their fin- 
gers to separate transfers before the transfers are issued 
to passengers. The discussion was not of an alarmist char- 
acter, and it was admitted both that there was, perhaps, 
small likelihood of a street car transfer becoming a means 
of carrying contagion and that street car conductors, as a 
whole, were a healthy group of men. But the article said 
that the fact that millions of the little slips of paper daily 
pass from hand to hand in the larger cities is sufficient 
basis for the elimination of all danger, however slight it 
may be, because a passenger might bring his fingers in 
actual contact with the moistened area on the paper. It 
held that railway companies should prohibit this practice 
and suggested that if the pad of transfers was constructed 
with a beveled edge a single slip could be easily detached 
from the others. We heartily agree with the writer that 
the practice is one which ought to be abandoned for 
hygienic reasons as well as for those of public decency, 
whether the slips of paper to be separated are transfers, 
paper currency, playing cards or the pages of books and 
magazines. If a person has no regard for his own health, 
he should have some respect at least for the feelings of 
others. Hygienically, however, the practice should be less 
objectionable when applied to a transfer than to a great 
deal of other paper which passes current in business or in 
homes, because of the reasons stated and because it is used 
but once, whereas paper currency and the books and maga- 
zines of a circulating library pass through hundreds and 
perhaps thousands of hands and are carried into many 
houses where there may be disease. It was undoubtedly 
a very wise provision of nature that microbes are so small 
as not to be visible except under the microscope. Other- 



96 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



wise most people would acquire nervous prostration in 
trying to avoid them ; but there is no difficulty in separating 
padded transfers without placing moisture on the fingers 
from the mouth, and the practice should be abandoned. 



DECORATIVE TREATMENT OF RAILWAY BUILDINGS 

A pleasing feature of much of the building construction 
which has been carried out in recent years by American 
electric railways is the attention paid to making their utility 
structures architecturally attractive. This policy would have 
been very costly in the earlier days of the industry, when 
so many buildings were remodeled to meet the change from 
animal to electric traction. In these times, however, such 
substantial construction is employed for entirely new prop- 
erties that the elements of attractive appearance can be 
included at little or no additional cost. In fact, the differ- 
ence between beauty and ugliness often lies only in the 
disposition of the available material. 

Germany may be regarded as a leader in the practice 
of treating as civic ornaments railway buildings, in fact, 
utility structures of all kinds when they occupy a con- 
spicuous position. In that country, for instance, one will 
find many handsome power plants, substations, carhouses, 
waiting rooms, shelters and even signal towers. Neverthe- 
less, it would be as unwise directly to copy German models 
in this country as it is to place an American porch or 
piazza upon a Queen Anne cottage. Imitation should be 
chiefly along the line of making the architectural treatment 
of the railway buildings harmonize with that of the neigh- 
boring structures. A switch tower in the Nuremberg mode 
adds beauty to a Bavarian landscape, but it would be sadly 
out of place in an American suburb with brick or wooden 
houses. 

Among American combinations which combine grace- 
ful appearance and utility may be named the bridges, 
switch towers and passenger stations of the New York, 
Westchester & Boston Railway, several substations and 
the way department headquarters of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit System and the splendid carhouses of the United 
Railways & Electric Company of Baltimore. In some in- 
stances these buildings are even superior to their surround- 
ings. Installations like switch towers and substations offer 
the least difficulties to artistic treatment because of the ab- 
sence of smoke and manufacturing rubbish. Generating 
plants have been beautified by treating the stacks as tow- 
ers, while the monotony of a long carhouse roof can be 
concealed by a castellated parapet or other decorative crest- 
ing. The dark background of a parapet will also make the 
overhead work less obtrusive. In some old foreign car- 
houses their rather inartistic outlines have been skilfully 
concealed by a foreground of shrubbery between the tracks. 
In connection with this subject, it may be pointed out that, 
where conditions permit, an effective advertisement for 
the company is possible if some characteristic style of archi- 
tecture is used for all of its buildings. This policy would 
make the several railway properties as distinctive as are 
the public schools built by a municipality during a given 
period. 

Wainscoting or paneling of various kinds is quite com- 
mon for the interior decoration of power buildings, but 



one would hardly expect to find the walls of shops and car- 
houses treated with ornamental striping or dado. This has 
actually been done in the new buildings of the Cologne- 
Bonn and Hamburg systems. At Hamburg this decora- 
tion consists of, say, a 12-in. black or brown border next 
to the floor line, some lighter shade for a width of 6 ft. to 
7 ft. and then a decorative border. The rest of the wall, 
which is beyond the reach of dirty hands, is plain white. 
The cost of applying this ornamentation is very little, be- 
cause the patterns can be transferred by means of stencils. 
Decorative effects of this kind in a well-lighted building 
are certainly most pleasing, and they offer the further 
advantage of reminding the workmen to be neat and orderly 
in their work and to keep the shop floor clear of debris. 



THE MYRIAWATT AS A UNIT OF POWER 



The recommendations of a joint committee, composed of 
members of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, to the 
effect that the myriawatt, or 10,000 watts, be adopted as a 
universal unit for expressing power inputs are recorded 
elsewhere in this issue. It is intended to apply to measure- 
ments of the different forms of power delivered from any 
source of energy to prime movers of all types. It includes 
not only a rating for the power of steam delivered by a 
boiler to its engine or turbine but also for that of water 
delivered by a penstock to a waterwheel and for that of 
potential heat in the nineties, supplied by a gas producer to 
a gas engine. 

The adoption of a single standard unit for this purpose 
has appeared to be inevitable for some time past, although 
the action of the joint committee is considerably in advance 
of the expectations of engineers in general. The use of the 
myriawatt in place of the boiler horse-power is, of course, 
absolutely logical, and the change from one term to another 
can be made without the slightest degree of confusion for 
the reason that the myriawatt is only 2 per cent larger than 
the older term. At best, the boiler horse-power is a 
peculiarly arbitrary unit developed at a time when the needs 
of the present day could not have been foreseen and for 
a purpose which is to-day practically outgrown. Based as 
it was upon the steam required to produce 1 hp from an 
engine of a type which entered into a decline in the early 
nineties, its actual value expressed something which never 
was definite and always was difficult of conversion into any 
other unit. Its adoption was in fact at such an early date 
in the art of steam engineering that the figure upon which 
its value was based, namely, 30 lb. of steam evaporated 
from feed water at 70 deg. and at 70 lb. pressure, was not 
even reducible to a round number when expressed on the 
basis of pounds of water evaporated from and at 212 deg. 
As this later became the universal method of expressing 
steam boiler capacities, the unsatisfactory figure of 34^2 lb. 
had to be used. Under all ordinary conditions the change 
from the boiler horse-power to the myriawatt sim- 
ply means a substituticn of words, and the 2 per cent 
difference is negligible aside from the necessities of the 
most accurate tests or the largest types of power plants. 

For the other uses recommended for the new unit, such as 
measuring inputs on hydraulic turbines, the desirability of 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



97 



a change may not perhaps be so readily discernible. It is, 
however, an undoubted fact that the familiarity with one 
unit and its various factors of conversion is a distinct 
step in the right direction. The term "water horse-power" 
is at best a gross misnomer, and the time is certainly ripe 
for discarding it. 

For a satisfactory means of expression to replace it 
the myriawatt will do as well as any other, and since 
practically all water power is now converted into elec- 
tricity it has all the advantages which apply to the opportu- 
nity for expressing output and input in terms which are 
easily converted to each other. In addition, there is the 
convenient fact in calculations that, roughly, 26,500,000 
ft.-lb. equals 1 mw, which applies, of course, in the case of 
water measurements as well as in any other case. 

For gas-engine work the convenience of the myriawatt 
is again obvious because its conversion factor on the 
thermal basis is 34,150 b.t.u., a number which can readily 
be memorized and forms a definite standard method of 
expression for rating gas producers, a thing which has 
hitherto been badly needed. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the new unit has not 
been officially adopted as yet by the two societies, there 
is no doubt that the recommendations of the joint com- 
mittee will be followed to the letter, in view of the fact 
that the new unit will afford such great assistance to the 
engineering profession. When it is once established only 
a few conversion factors need be remembered by the busy 
engineer and it is to be hoped that official action will be 
prompt and thorough. 

TURBO-ALTERNATOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

The paper delivered before the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers last week by B. G. Lamme, chief 
engineer of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, contained much suggestive information. The 
author explained in simple language the reasons for the 
use of certain forms and proportions of the parts of the 
high-speed alternator. He showed that ventilation, limita- 
tion of temperature rise and improvement in quality of 
insulating material are the features in which design prog- 
ress has been made. Mr. Lamme has been connected with 
the development of the turbo-alternator from its beginning 
and has successfully solved difficult problems as they have 
arisen. Hence his summary of the obstacles overcome and 
still to be overcome is worthy of careful study. 

The problems met in the early designing of turbo-alter- 
nators were different from those of the present time. Then 
the limitations were not those of the materials employed 
but, rather, were due to lack of experience and skill on the 
part of the designers. Bearings gave difficulty and genera- 
tors were noisy, but these troubles were easily eliminated, 
leaving the designers to struggle with the real problems 
involving the introduction of new materials and construc- 
tion methods. 

The experience which was gained from low-speed gen- 
erator practice was of little assistance because these ma- 
chines were open and naturally well ventilated. The 
mechanical problems, also, were quite definite. In the high- 
speed generators heat is generated at a rapid rate in a 
confined space, and even if the efficiency of the transforma- 



tion from mechanical to electrical power is high, in large 
units there is great heat congestion. At the same time the 
peripheral velocities are so great that only the very best 
materials, skilfully disposed, can stand the stresses to which 
they are subjected. 

At the present time there is an urgent demand for low- 
priced, and therefore high-speed, turbines. This condition 
exists, of course, in connection with all rotating machinery, 
because a high-speed machine is not only cheap but it is 
compact, and a reduction in necessary floor space is usually 
highly desirable. Accompanying the demand for high speed 
is another for high capacity. It is the combination of these 
which has brought about the situation existing at the present 
time. 

The problem of ventilation involves several elements, 
namely, the rate at which heat is developed, the extent of 
the radiating surfaces from which this heat can be removed 
and the rate of flow and temperature of the air available 
for cooling. The losses may not be great in percentage of 
the total capacity of a machine, say 3.5 per cent out of 
15,000 kw, but they are large in relation to the available 
radiating surfaces, particularly in large units. In the above 
example the loss is 565 kw, requiring, according to Mr. 
Lamme's calculation, 50,000 cu. ft. of -cooling air per minute 
to prevent excessive temperature rise. Not only must air 
pass through the cores and windings at a rapid rate, but 
it must come in contact with the hot surfaces. Various 
plans for insuring this contact are in commercial use. 
Radial and axial ducts are employed, and air is forced in 
through the air-gap and the ducts by fans on the rotor 
shaft or by separate blowers. 

The rate at which cooling air must be supplied is settled 
largely by the allowable rise in temperature of coils and 
cores. There is a limit to the temperature to which in- 
sulating material can be safely subjected. The modern 
mica covering can stand possibly 125 deg. C, but lower 
values are advisable. The limiting temperature is not that 
at the radiating surface but that in the buried parts of 
coils. These are warmer than the exposed parts by the 
amount of temperature head necessary to maintain the 
heat flow, which is retarded by many obstructions. As the 
methods ordinarily used for measuring internal tempera- 
tures are unsatisfactory, conservative practice in tempera- 
ture rise is necessary. It is probable that temperature rises 
much greater than have been supposed to exist have been 
common in past practice. Some progress in designing in- 
sulating coverings to withstand high temperature has been 
made, but even with mica, as ordinarily used with com- 
bustible binding material, only moderate temperature rises 
are allowable. 

As was pointed out by W. L. R. Emmet in the discussion 
of Mr. Lamme's paper, the user of a generator should have 
some conception of the problems which the designer has 
to meet and should be reasonable in his requirements. 
Specifications should call for only such standards as are 
necessary, especially in view of the difficulties which have 
been described. The study of a paper of this sort should 
tend to produce a spirit of co-operation, not only because 
it states the designer's problems clearly but also for the 
reason that it calls attention to the fundamental laws 
underlying the solution of these problems. 



9 8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



Brooklyn Motor, Truck and Brakeshoe 

Improvements 

Description of Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company's Practice in Reboring Motor Shells — Types of Bearings and Brasses 

Used — Truck Changes, Brakeshoe Economies, Etc. 



The present article, which is the third in this series on 
.some recent interesting work of the mechanical depart- 
ment of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, is devoted 
to a description of miscellaneous improvements in motor, 
truck, brakeshoe and other running gear practices. 

REBORING OF MOTOR SHELLS AND EFFECT ON OVERHAUL 
MILEAGE 

One of the most important tasks in the rehabilitation and 
general improvement of electrical apparatus has been the 
reboring of the older types of motor shells in order to take 
up the wear in the axle and armature bearing housings and 
thus prolong the life of the motors. The economy of this 
practice is apparent from the fact that with the machine in 



"The special inspection and cleaning to be given the 
motors is to consist of a thorough cleaning of all parts of 
motors by the use of compressed air in blowing out the dirt 
accumulated after the top and bottom covers and hand-hole 
plates have been removed. Then the interior of the motor is 
to be wiped out with cheese-cloth and special attention is 
to be given to wiping off the commutators and brush holders 
and the brush-holder insulation. The brush holder is then 
to receive a coat of shellac and allowed to become thor- 
oughly dry before the car is placed in service again. The 
motor covers and hand-hole plates are then to be replaced. 
Special attention should be given to the armature and axle 
cap covers, gear castings, etc., to make certain that all 




B. R. T. Running Gear — Two-Spindie Machine for Reboring Motor Housings 



use at East New York four Westinghouse No. 81 shells 
a day are bored at a labor cost (one man at $2.75 and one 
man at $1.75 a day) of $1.12 each, whereas a new shell 
would cost about $100. The Brooklyn company completed 
the boring of its 1 5 1 7 Westinghouse No. 68 shells in April 
of this year, and of the 1820 Westinghouse No. 81 motors 
approximately 50 per cent had been rebored by Jan. 1, 1913. 
About two and one-half years more will be required to 
complete this work, which is carried out in step with the 
standardization of axle diameters from 4 in. to 4^ in. as 
described elsewhere in these articles. 

As the result of the reboring and other modernization 
of the Westinghouse No. 81 shells, the overhauling mileage 
of this motor has been lengthened from a 7000-mile to a 
10,000-mile basis, except that for every intermediate run of 
5000 miles the rebored motor receives what the company 
terms a "heavy inspection." This treatment is defined 
exactly as follows: 



are in good condition. This work is to be done on the pits 
and without removing trucks from under the car body." 

The practice of "heavy inspection" was inaugurated on 
Nov. 17, 191 1. Should it prove generally successful, it is 
expected that the overhauling period of the Westinghouse 
No. 81 motor, for instance, will be lengthened to 12,000 
miles. 

PROCEDURE IN REBORING SHELLS AUXILIARY IMPROVEMENTS 

Reboring of motor shells and the auxiliary changes in 
connection therewith are conducted at both the East New 
York and the Fifty-second Street shops. In preparing a 
shell for reboring, the fields and pole pieces are removed, 
the motor shell is thoroughly cleaned and then the shell is 
brought to the boring machine. The next step is to insert 
a cored drum casting illustrated on page 101. This is used 
to center the armature bearings accurately for the action of 
the boring bar. Then the two halves of the shell are bolted 
together. 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELEGTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



99 



An engine lathe is used at Fifty-second Street, but at 
East New York the boring is done on a Betts machine 
which was changed from a one-spindle to a two-spindle 
unit during 191 1 so that the four housings are bored out 
at the same time. The cutting tools on the boring bars are 
adjustable for any variations in the diameter of the bear- 
ings. When the boring is finished the drum is removed to 
permit the facing off of the housing collars. The completed 
shell is placed in position for ready removal merely by 
sliding the armature boring bar through the tailstock and 
removing the axle cap. The new bearings are fitted with 
the standard tin-base babbitt which has been described else- 
where. The illustration on this page is an assembly of the 
Westinghouse 81 motor which shows the rebored bear- 
ing fits. 

The same drawing also shows the positions of the 5/16-in. 



C.L. of Susp. Lug 



of leads at the commutator in accordance with the com- 
pany's standard instruction prints. The application of the 
integral type of babbitted oil cup to this motor has been 
described in the article on lubrication. 

The overhauled Westinghouse 68 and 81 motors, and a so 
GE-57's and CF-68's, are finished with a new form of axle 
cap, which lias an extension over the end of the bearing to 
protect the bearing from wheel wash. The article on 
the lubrication practice of the company in the issue of Dec. 
7, 1912, described this feature in greater detail. Further- 
more, all mild steel axle cap bolls throughout the system 
have been replaced by high-grade bolts of % in. larger 
diameter, which have the high tensile strength of 80,000 lb. 
per square inch-. 

Metal shims for armature bearings have been superseded 
by canvas shims on the Westinghouse 81 and other surface 



'1% O.D. Vn Wall 
C.R.S. Tubing 




Key way to be cut : /o deep. 
Key, See Detail 




Drill for H Dowels, 
Dowels for Axle Bearings^ 
? 4 "x 1H" 



Section B-B 



Note:- 

When Reboring use No. 30 Gage 
Shim between Upper & Lower 
Halves of Magnet Frame. Also 
between Caps & Lower Frame 
of Axle Bearings. 



No. 8571 



Key, 



1% Drill 



W-IH" 
Required per Motor> 



Section D-D showing 
Dia. of Magnet Seats 
for Setting Up of Job. 



Magnet Frame, 
Lower Half. 
Section C-C 





BILL OF MATERIAL 


No. per 
.Mo (or 


DESCRIPTION 


Pattern 
Number 


Material 




4%"Axle Hearing. Top Half 


:.M1 


Cast Sleel 




4^" Axle Hearing, Lower Half 


8512 


Cast Steel 


1 


Armature Bearing, Comm. End 


8570 


Cast Steel 


1 


Armature Bearing. Pinion End 


S571 


Cast Steel 


4 


3 -,j s lVg Dowel for Aile Hearings 




Steel 


1 


Bushing l^"O.D-, 7 /^"'WaU ) XI^Long 




C.R.S. 

Tuhhf 




Armature Bearing Ki \ 




Steel 



Electric Ry. Journal 



B. R. T. Running Gear — Assembly of Westinghouse 81 Motor, Showing Rebored Bearing Fits, Keyways, etc. 



x 3-in. flat bearing keys, which have replaced the original 
round dowel pins. This change eliminates the breaking 
through of the casting at the edge of worn-out dowel pin 
holes. In order to install the keys it is necessary to plane 
out the motor shells as indicated in an accompanying half- 
tone and to provide a slot in the armature bearings. The 
keys can be readily removed while the motor is being over- 
hauled, and they can also be easi'y replaced if worn to any 
extent. In fact, they must be taken out by the shopman 
before he can remove the armature, whereas the dowel pins 
were often allowed to wear too long because the men would 
not take the trouble to examine them. 

As each rebored shell is returned to the electrical shops, 
it is fitted with impregnated fields in accordance with the 
company's latest practice. Incidentally, the arrangement 
of bringing out the leads is changed to reduce the number 



motors whose shells have not been rebored as yet. The 
canvas shims are filled with white lead and are made in 
several specified thicknesses according to the amount of 
wear in the motor shells. The canvas shims were adopted 
because they make a tighter fit than metal and because they 
are noiseless even if there is a little lost motion between the 
motor shell and the armature bearing. Canvas shims are 
also used occasionally in elevated service. 

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL CLEARANCES 

Careful attention is given to secure uniform and most 
efficient practice in the matter of electrical clearances. 
This is shown in Table I, which gives for each type 
of motor the total air gap, standard distance between 
armature and pole piece top and bottom and minimum 
allowable clearance. 

When it is necessary to shim housings of surface arma- 



IOO 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



ture bearings use is made of the canvas liners which have 
been previously described. All inspectors and overhaulers 
are furnished with fiber clearance gages of the thicknesses 
specified in the foregoing table. Any motor in which the 
gage cannot be entered between the armature and the pole 
piece is taken into the overhauling shop for new bearings. 




h- 

B. 



-3*7 3! --4A 



I A = 1^32 For New Axles with 3% Journals. 
J A - l 2 'C For Old Axles with Sj/journals. 

I Electric By. Journal 

R. T. Running Gear — Journal Bearing for Elevated 
Trailer Trucks 



have built for the surface overhauling shops eight hori- 
zontal boring mills of universally adjustable type, which 
are to be used for the accurate boring of motor journal 

bearings. 




—f r 



~/~ Electric Ry. Joun 

Bearing Tinned before Babbitting. 



B. R. T. Running Gear — tfA-m. x 8-in. Journal Bearing for 
Surface and Elevated Trucks 



Following the inauguration of the reboring of the West- 
inghouse 68 and 81 motors, special instructions were issued 
that, as it would be impossible to rebore the shells again, 
more care should be given to the wear of the outside 
diameter of the armature and axle bearings in order to 

Table I. — Showing Total Air Gap and Other Clearances. 

Standard Distance 

Between Armature Minimum 

Type of Total and Pole Piece. Allowable 

Motor. Air Gap, In. , * , Clearance, In. 

Top, In. Bottom, In. 

GE-64 9/32 1/8 5/32 5/64 

GE-80 11/32 5/32 3/16 5/64 

GE-800 5/16 1/8 3/16 3/32 

GE-212 15/32 13/64 17/64 1/8 

W-68 3/8 3/16 3/16 3/32 

W-81 5/16 5/32 5/32 5/64 

W-93 3/8 3/16 3/16 3/32 

W-101 3/8 3/16 3/16 3/32 

W-50-B 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/8 

W-50-E 7/16 7/32 7/32 7/64 

W-50-L 7/16 7/32 7/32 7/64 

W-300 3/8 3/16 3/16 3/32 

prevent loose-fitting bearings and consequent wear of the 
motor shell at the bearing fits. The foremen were therefore 
provided with snap gages for use on all Westinghouse 68 
and 81 armature and axle bearings sent into the shops for 
rebabbitting. These snap gages must be 1/64 in. less than 
the full diameter of the bearings mentioned, and any 
bearings over which these snap gages can be passed must 
be condemned and scrapped in accordance with the dimen- 
sions shown in Table II. 



"Mi 




B. R. T. Running Gear — Elevated Motor and Trailer Bear- 
ings 

Bearings which are found to have any play in the motor 
shells must be returned to the Fifty-second Street shops for 
scrapping. 

In accordance with the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany's design, H. B. Underwood & Company, Philadelphia. 



Illustrations on the opposite page show the new form 
of press which has been devised to take out and install 
armature bearings. It will be observed that the press is 
operated by a screw instead of air, as is sometimes done. 



Ta 


ble II. — Showing Full and 


Scrapping Diameter 


of Bearings. 






Full 


Scrapping 




Type of Bearing. 


Diameter, ] 


n. Diameter, In. 


W-68 




5 


4 63/64 


W-68 


armature-commutator end... 


5 


4 63/64 


W-68 




6 


5 63/64 


W-81 




5V 4 


5 15/64 


W-81 




5 


4 63/64 


W-81 




6'A 


6 15/64 


The 


screw was adopted to avoid reliance on 


outside power 



as well as to obtain better graduation in application and 




R. R. T. Running Gear— One-Half of No. 81 Motor Shell, 
Showing Keyways in Place of Dowels 

control of pressure. It thus prevents bearings from leaving 
housings too suddenly when high pressure has been reached. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN MOTOR LEADS 

Since November, 191 1, Westinghouse 101 and GE-80 
motors have been furnished with improved terminals de- 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



101 



signed and made as shown in two accompanying drawings. 
Thimbles of No. 21 seamless hard-drawn copper tubing of 
5/16-in. outside diameter are furnished with each terminal. 
The thimbles are soldered to the leads, and then both are 
installed in the terminals. This change has eliminated 
trouble due to rough and ready splicing methods. Further- 
more, all leads are lettered so that outside men in calling 
for supplies ask definitely for A-80, B-101, etc. 

TRUCK CHANGES 

The company has not found it necessary to make any 
radical changes in truck practice, except that it has decided 
to discontinue the purchase of side-bearing type maximum 
traction trucks in favor of center-bearing trucks with cast- 
steel body bolsters. As there were about 2200 side-bearing 
trucks on hand, the cost of immediate replacement of all 
would have been prohibitive. The present practice of the 
company, therefore, is gradually to introduce the new 
designs, like the Brill 39-E and Standard 
0-45, under the all-year (semi-convert- 
ible) cars and to dismantle the displaced 
trucks as a source of supply for those re- 
tained in service. During the first year 
of this policy eighty-two side-bearing 
trucks have been displaced, and as this 
displacement must continue in an even 
faster ratio, it is likely that at the end of 
five years every high-mileage car will be 
equipped with center-bearing trucks on 
this economical basis. 

JOURNAL BRASSES 

The great reduction in the number of 
hot journals in elevated service, to which 
reference was made in the article on 



wedges not to gage are machined to the standard dimen- 
sions. Brasses are kept with their journals, the number of 
the corresponding axle being stamped on each brass. In 
the case of motor axles the letter "G" indicates that the 
brass belongs at the gear end of the journal, while the 
figures "1" and "2" are used in stamping trailer axle journal 
brasses. 

In the 4/4-' n - x 8-in. motor journal bearings, shown in an 
accompanying drawing and halftone, it will be seen that the 
babbitt is held in place by means of six holes which are 
drilled through the sides of the brass and counterbored 
on both sides. These anchor holes give the necessary 
adherence for the tin-base metal. In the case of the journal 
bearings for the Pullman, Wason and Gilbert elevated trail- 
ing trucks, however, the illustrations show only four holes 
instead of six. Furthermore, the brass is so light that the 
holes are not allowed to pierce it, but a good grip for the 






B. R. T. Running Gear — Drum Casting for Alignment of Bearings in Rebored Motor Shell — Press Used to Take Out and 

Install Armature Bearings 



lubrication, was due in large part to a radical change in 
the bearing metal of the brasses and to various alterations 
in the style of the brasses. The original bearing metal was 
a soft-lead-base babbitt which frequently squashed out of 
the brasses. Since February, 1910, this source of trouble 
has been eliminated, however, by a new composition which 
consists of 83^3 per cent tin, 8}i per cent antimony and 
8^5 per cent copper. In ordering this alloy the company 
permits a variation of 10 per cent in the amounts specified 
for antimony and copper, but it will not accept the babbitt 
if the impurities exceed 0.75 per cent of the whole. 

It was not found necessary to change the patterns of the 
two sizes of elevated motor journal brasses, but the journal 
brasses for elevated trailing axles were lengthened 7/16 in. 
at the sides to take the brakeshoe thrust, and the three 
patterns were reduced to one. All new wedges are now 
being crowned, and even old wedges when taken out are 
crowned in a milling machine. Gages are provided to 
check the inside measurements of the wedges so that they 
will not bind in the side of the brasses. All brasses and 



babbitt is secured by boring each hole to a smaller diameter 
at the bottom than at the top. 

After the brasses have been drilled they are taken to the 
blacksmith shop for tinning and babbitting. One of the il- 
lustrations on page 103 shows how two brasses are babbitted 
simultaneously. First the operator dips the brasses in the 
babbitt crucible to heat them for tinning, after which he 
sets them up on the mandrel and clamps them into position 
by means of the pedal-actuated tongs. He then pours the 
babbitt rapidly before it can cool. Owing to the sluggish 
flow of tin-base metal, believed to be due to the cooling 
influence of the copper, it is necessary to pour the babbitt 
to a thickness of l /2 in. at the center, although the actual 
service thickness is \'\ in. This characteristic of tin-base 
metal also makes it necessary for the operator to shift his 
ladle from one brass to the other instead of pouring the 
babbitt through a common funnel. As soon as the babbitted 
brasses have cooled off they are sounded for looseness. If 
the proper ring or sonority is obtained, the bearing is ready 
to be bored out to the standard journal diameter. As shown 



102 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



in an illustration, on page 103, a special jig is used 
whereby two bearings are bored out at one time to an abso- 
lutely smooth finish. The edges are beveled to avoid inter- 
ference with the lubrication of the journal. Old journal 
brasses are not rebabbitted, but are scrapped as soon as they 
have worn to a thickness of }i in. 

MANGANESE BRONZE AXLE CHECK PLATES 

An example of increased reliability as applied to the 



under the elevated and two, namely, for driving and pony 
wheels, under the surface cars. The designs of the company 
and some of the earlier economies effected were described 
in the Electric Railway Journal for Oct. 24, 1908, and 
July 10, 1909. Since these articles were published the cost 
of brakeshoes, which are bought on a mileage basis, has 
continued to decrease. The early reduction in cost was 




1-24 x ?| Rd.Hd.- „ , 

Mach. Screw | , ^ I 



File F 




1 1 'Slot to be 

Milled Electric By. Jcurnat 

8-P"r IVWnv 

B. R. T. Running Gear — Details of Field Terminal for 
Westinghouse No. 101 Motor 

smaller things is offered by the change in axle check plates. 
The original bronze composition used for these plates gave 
much trouble from breakage. After the matter had been 
discussed by all interested parties during the winter of 191 1- 
1912 it was decided to install Johns-Manville manganese 
bronze forked check plates for all surface equipments, 
except on the maximum traction pony axles, where a solid 
check plate is used. More than 1000 of the new plates are 
now in service with Westinghouse 68 and 81 equipments, 
and so far not one has broken. These plates cost 4 cents 
per pound more than the old type, but the manufacturers 
agree to replace any that break within one year after 
installation. In order to check this guarantee, the foremen 




Letter I to be 
Stamped on Casting 
for Inside Coil, and 
Letter"0"for outsi de~j~ 
Coil when Assem 
bling. 



No.34 Drill 



Rd.Hd. Mach. Screw 

Note: Grind finish all over 



Electri Hi/- Journal 



8-Per Motor 

B. R. T. Running Gear— Details of Field Terminal for 
GE-80 Motor 

largely due, of course, to standardization itself, so that the 
continuance of the decrease can to some extent be laid to 
the use of steel wheels and to the means adopted to secure 
the maximum wear consistent with safety. This end has 
been obtained by transferring partly worn shoes from driv- 
ing to trailing wheels in accordance with a specified standard 
practice. The success of this scheme is reflected in per- 
centages of wear, which are believed to be unequaled by any 
other large city railway operated under like conditions. Fot 
example, the average wear of brakeshoes throughout the 
entire system was 80.25 per cent for June, 1912. The 
highest surface record during that month was 84.05 per cent 
and the lowest was 75.54 per cent ; the corresponding records 



$1.20 
us 
1,10 

1.05 
1.00 
.95 
.90 
.85 
.SO 
.75 
.70 
.65 
.60 
.55 
.50 
.45 
AO 
.35 
.30 
.25 
.20 
.15 





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Jle 


va 


;ed 


































































































































































































































































































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--- 


































._. 












... 












































































































1 — 1 
























p 
























































































































1 ! 






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































J. F. M. A. M. J. J. A. S. 0. N. D. J. F. M. A. M. J. J. A. S. 0. N. 0. J. F. It. A. M. J. J. A. S. 0. N. D. J. F. M. A. M. J. J. A. S. 0. N. D. J. F. U. A. M. J. J. A. S. 0. N. D. 



1908 1909 1910 1911 

B. R. T. Running Gear — Graphical Record of Brakeshoe Costs from January, 1908, to October, 1912 



1912 

Electric Ry.Jcv.nal 



are instructed to stamp the top of each plate with the date, 
month and year of installation. Thus "3-8-12" means 
March 8, 1912. 

BRAKESHOE COSTS 

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit system was a pioneer in the 
movement to standardize brakeshoes, its work in that field 
having been undertaken as early as 1903, when there were 
twenty-seven surface and thirteen elevated patterns in use. 
To-day there are just three styles of brakeshoe patterns, one 



for the elevated lines, which include surface running over 
suburban extensions, ranged from 78.91 per cent to 83.27 
per cent. The accompanying curve sheet shows that the 
costs per 1000 car mi.es have gone down as follows for 
like-named months of 1908 and 1912: Surface — January, 
1908, 80 cents, and January, 1912, 61 cents; June, 1908, 61 
cents, and June, 1912, 35^-2 cents; elevated — January, 1908, 
$1.07, and January, 1912, 56 cents; June, 1908, 88^ cents, 
and June, 1912, 49 cents. 



January 18, 19 13. 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



'03 



In this chart the cost of the shoes from Jan. 1, 1908, to 
Nov. 1, 1909, is figured at the actual price paid, which varied 
with different types of shoes. From Nov. 1, 1909, to Nov. 1. 
1910, the cost was figured at a fixed invoice price per net 
ton for all shoes. From Nov. 1, 1910, to date, the cost was 
figured in the same way, except that the contract price was 
$5 less per net ton than during the previous period. 

The costs shown upon the chart illustrated in this article, 
which are figured upon a mileage basis, and the net ton 




B. R. T. Running Gear — Babbitting Two Bearings at One 

Time 



costs are also in direct relation to the set guaranteed car- 
mile costs. The contracts as carried along for the past 
three or four years upon the system, being of a somewhat 
co-operative nature, have resulted in bringing actual costs 
and guaranteed costs closer and in a further attainment of 
the benefit of savings thus made to the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit system in succeeding contracts. 



RULES ON CLEARANCES IN CALIFORNIA 

The Railroad Commission of California has issued rules 
specifying the character of construction required for cross- 
ings of railroads, street railroads, telegraph, telephone and 
other lines with each other and on the highways. 

When railroads, street railways or streets cross above 
railroads which transport standard freight cars, the mini- 
mum overhead clearance above the top of rails must be 
22 ft. ; when the crossings are above street railways which 
do not transport standard freight cars, the minimum clear- 
ance is 19 ft., except when the street railways are on 
streets or highways, when it is to be 14 ft. Telegraph, 
telephone or signal lines, or all lines not exceeding 600 
volts, except trolley wires and feeders, which cross above 
railroads or electric railways must allow a minimum clear- 
ance of 25 ft. When power lines other than trolley wires 
and trolley feeders transmitting power at from 600 volts 
tc 15,000 volts cross above railroads or street railways, the 
clearance must be 28 ft. When the power is transmitted 
at a higher voltage than 15,000 the clearance must be 34 ft. 
Trolley wires and trolley feeders may cross railroads and 
street railways at 22 ft. 

The minimum side clearance on each side of the center 
line of railroads and street railways for tunnels and bridges 
is y l /-2 ft. and for pole lines and other side structures it is 
8 ft., except that double-track electric roads with center- 
pole construction may have a clearance of ft., and on 



roads with narrow gage the side clearance may be 30 in. 

The following are rules for power lines other than trolley 
wires and trolley feeders: 

"(a) Power lines, other than trolley wires and trolley 
feeders, of not exceeding 600 volts shall have a minimum 
clearance above rails at crossings with railroads and street 
railroads of 25 ft.; above streets and public highways, 
20 ft. ; above telegraph, telephone and signal lines, 2 ft. ; 
above or below other power lines of not exceeding 600 volts, 




B. R. T. Running Gear — Boring Out Two Bearings at One 

Time 

unless suitably supported to prevent contact, 2 ft. ; above 
all trolley wires and trolley feeders, 4 ft. ; above or below 
power lines of from 600 volts to 6600 volts, 4 ft.; below 
other power lines of from 6600 volts to 15,000 volts, 4 ft.; 
below other power lines of exceeding 15,000 volts, 8 ft., 
and above all buildings and structures, 4 ft. 

"(b) Power lines, other than trolley wires and trolley 
feeders, of from 600 to 15,000 volts shall have a minimum 
clearance above rails at crossings with railroads and street 
railroads of 28 ft. ; above streets and public highways, 
24 ft. ; above telegraph, telephone and signal lines, for 
power lines of from 600 to 6600 volts, 4 ft., and for power 
lines of from 6600 to 15,000 volts, 6 ft.; above or below 
other power lines of not exceeding 600 volts, 4 ft. ; above 
or below other power lines of from 600 to 15,000 volts, 
6 ft.; below other power lines of exceeding 15,000 volts, 
8 ft, and above all buildings and structures, 6 ft. 

"(c) Power lines of exceeding 15.000 volts shall have a 
minimum clearance above rails at crossings with railroads 
and street railroads of 34 ft. ; above streets and public high- 
ways, 30 ft. ; above telegraph, telephone and signal lines, 
8 ft.; above other power lines of not exceeding 15,000 volts, 
8 ft. ; above or below other power lines of exceeding 15,000 
volts, 8 ft., and above all buildings and structures, 8 ft." 

All of the provisions of these paragraphs are subject to 
the condition that no line carrying 15,000 volts, should 
breakage occur, shall come in contact with lines carrying 
less than 15,000 volts or within 10 ft. of the ground. 

The rules also contain a clause on the construction of 
wire lines, referring to the length of span permitted with 
lines carrying less than 15,000 volts when they cross rail- 
roads and street railways. The report also refers to the 
specifications for overhead crossings adopted by the joint 
committee of the American Electric Railway Association 
and other bodies. These specifications are adopted as at 
present issued. 



104 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



TRACK CONSTRUCTION IN CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
DURING 1912 



The maintenance of way department of the Cleveland 
Railway Company has just closed up its quota of track 
rehabilitation for 1912. The work completed during the 
■year comprised about 6 miles of track laid with a 7-in., 95- 
lb., Sec. 400, Lorain Steel T-rail and 10 miles of 103-lb. 
Cleveland section. The T-rail construction is the first to 
be used in Cleveland in recent years, and the construction 
details embody a number of original features which have 
been planned in detail by Charles H. Clark, engineer main- 
tenance of way. The immediate results obtained from the 

Gage Lipe*^^ 




In a general way the construction methods consisted first 
in abandoning a section of track to traffic, removing the old 
track and excavating a sub-grade to the level of the base of 
the ties. After this had been completed the new track was 
laid in the trench with the steel ties connected and the joints 
riveted in place. It was then surfaced on wooden blocks 
and wedges, and trenches were dug under the ties and rail 
for the concrete. Each tie was incased in a 12-in. square 
block of concrete and the rail between the ties was carried 
on a concrete stringer 12 in. wide on top, 18 in. on the 
bottom and 12 in. deep. The remaining section of sub- 
grade formed a base for the paving foundation, which was 
between 5 in. and 6 in. thick. The concrete quantities ran 
about 0.16 cu. yd. per running foot of track, the proportions 
of the aggregate being one part of cement to six of clean 
gravel. 

In a number of instances it was found impossible to 
detour traffic long enough to complete the work. At these 
places the same method of procedure was followed up to 
the point where the track was ready for surfacing and 
concrete. Instead of putting the concrete in place crushed 
stone ballast was employed. The track was raised and 
tamped to its permanent elevation and a 1 to 3 sand and: 
cement grout poured over the finished ballasting until all 



5.38 



bi id Lii.iUiyy .,.- ... , , - £- 



•3 



Section E-F 



Every 50 ft. Place open Drain between the Tracks, and 
Fill with Crushed Stone, same to connect with (5"Drain Tile 



MS 



X 



if 



X X 

y tf- ': ■ .*'.•."•: *.: V. ••'i'. •..•i • - w.:'.;* Concrete ■'^■•[■'..•:,:vi'-f ■■:••/■ 



rfe 



Section C-D 

Longitudinal and Cross-Sections of Track in Cleveland, S howing Standard Riveted-Welded Joint 



Elee'.ric Ry. Journal 



new track have been so satisfactory that it has become a 
standard on this property. 

Essentially these details include a 6-ft. 6-in. x 4 J /^-in. 
Carnegie steel tie, spaced on 4- ft. centers with an Inter- 
national steel tie at the rail joint. The two 4-in. channels 
forming the joint tie are riveted together by a 36-in x 14-in. 
x 5/16-in. steel plate, and the base of the T-rail is welded 
by the Goldschmidt Thermit process. A Clark joint 30 in. 
long, requiring eight 1 1/16-in. x ^}i-in. rivets spaced at 
3-in. intervals and giving a grip of from 2% in. to 21/4 in., 
is employed. Compressed air is supplied through a 100-cu. 
ft. National electric air compressor to a Pittsburgh riveting 
machine for riveting the rail joints. 

In purchasing the rails Mr. Clark, who is a member of the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Association com- 
mittee on way matters, used the specifications requiring 0.75 
to 0.90 per cent carbon adopted as recommended practice by 
the association, and went one step further by adding to the 
composition 0.10 per cent titanium. In order to insure a 
joint which would conform to the rail, the same composition 
was required for the joint plates. Specifications were also 
drawn up for rivets. These were of Mayari steel purchased 
from the Pennsylvania Steel Company at a price above that 
of ordinary rivets. Besides the special requirements in the 
specifications for composition of the rail, joints and rivets, 
it was very rigidly specified that the rivet holes should be 
drilled so that a driving fit could be obtained. By adhesion 
to this type of connection all the advantages of both the 
Thermit and the Continuous rail joints were obtained. 
After the track was surfaced the ball of the rail at all joints 
was ground to a true surface with a Kerwin head rail 
grinder, of which the company has two. 



voids were filled. This method had been employed before 
and found to result in a first quality concrete foundation. 
The same procedure was followed around all special work, 
and wooden ties were used at these points exclusively. In 
order to make it possible to remove the wooden ties easily 
in case repairs are necessary, they were coated with coal tar 
before they were installed in the track. This prevents 
the concrete from adhering to the wood and also fills 
in depressions in the surface of the tie which might offer 
a hold for the concrete. 

Granite blocks laid on a sand cushion form the surface 
of the pavement, the blocks which form the flangeway being 
nosed. The space between the ball, web and base of the 
rail was filled with a sand and cement mixture which was 
also used for a filler between the blocks in the pavement. 
In all cases where the T-rail was used a course of granite 
block headers has been laid along the rail forming the 
flangeway and the space between them filled with 1 in. to- 
2 in. of crushed granite and pure silica gravel mixed to- 
1 :2 -.4 proportions. This makes a pavement of a solid and 
substantial kind which has been found very satisfactory 
by the company. 

Although the pavement surface is apparently impervious, 
to water, seepage was anticipated from the lawns and park- 
ways along the edges of the pavement. This water is. 
drained to the city sewer system by means of a 6-in. 
vitrified tile. The bells of this drain are not sealed, but to- 
prevent silt from collecting in the pipe, each bell is sur- 
rounded with cinders to serve as a filter. The top of the 
drain is 24 in. below the surface, and it is between the two- 
tracks. Outlets are provided at all manholes arid catch- 
basins. 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



105 



CHRISTMAS TRAFFIC ADVERTISING IN LONDON 



Several illustrated articles have appeared in these -col- 
umns from time to time with reference to the great variety 
of striking posters and other advertising matter which is 
issued by the Underground Electric Railways of London 
to exploit timely excursions to places of public interest, 
amusement resorts, quaint country villages near London, 
etc. For Christmas, 1912, the company issued a poster which 
is probably the most elaborate ever printed for any electric 
railway. 

Although the accompanying reproduction shows the gen- 
eral design of this poster, it cannot convey the rich appear- 
ance of the original. The lettering and principal decora- 
tive effects, for instance, were printed in gold. The views 
on the poster are those usually associated with the great 
festival, but particular attention may be directed to the 
Christmas "waits" or aubades, as these are a traditional 
feature of an English Vuletide. It will be observed also 



power only 2 per cent larger than the most recently deter- 
mined value of the boiler-horse-power, and a paper setting 
forth its advantages in dealing with the performance of 
steam boilers and various prime movers was read by Messrs. 
Stott and Haylett O'Neill before the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers in June, 1912. 

The joint committees at this meeting unanimously adopted 
the following resolutions and have submitted them to the 
governing bodies of the two societies : 

"(1) That the two committees in joint session recom- 
mend to their respective societies the use of the 'myriawatt' 
as the unit of thermal or mechanical power, as indicated 
in the above-mentioned paper. 

"(2) That the two committees also jointly recommend 
to their respective societies the exclusive use of the 'myria- 
watt' in connection with boilers, producers, turbines and 
engines and to discontinue the use of the term 'boiler- 
horsepower.' 

"(3) That C. O. Mailloux, as representing H. G. Stott 




comas but once a 
„_ vear 

%e Underground 

is akvavs' here ; 
Tor play or work, to 

nst? it pavs : 
It midtiptics your* 
' Holidays: 
To parties, shops or 
pantomime 
carries you in 
record tunc. 
And -best of all to 
tfiosv? vi'ho nwm - 
It brinqs tW . fur 
tlicir i£u btuu\s.hUw. 




Three Recent Posters of the London Underground System, Appealing Respectively to Lovers of Music, of Places of 

Historical Interest and of the Christmas Spirit 



that the official poet of the company has contributed a few 
lines to emphasize the part which the Underground system 
plays in adding to the joys of the holiday season. 

Two other recent posters are reproduced. One shows 
some historic places at Hampstead Heath and includes the 
portraits of artists, poets and others who have been asso- 
ciated with them; the second calls attention effectively to 
the desirability of traveling to concerts via the "Under- 
ground." On account of their attractiveness, many of 
these posters have found the same place in homes and of- 
fices as pictures of other kinds. 



THE MYRIAWATT RECOMMENDED AS A POWER UNIT 



At a joint meeting of the standards committee of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers and of a com- 
mittee specially appointed for the conference by the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers, on Dec. 13, 1912, at 
the Engineering Societies Building, New York, the use of 
the "myriawatt" as a standard in place of the boiler-horse- 
power was taken under consideration. The "myriawatt" was 
originally suggested by H. G. Stott as a convenient unit of 



on the special committee on prime movers recently ap- 
pointed by the International Electrotechnical Commission, 
which committee is scheduled to meet at Zurich, Switzer- 
land, on Tan. 18, 1913, shall be requested to bring these 
joint resolutions formally to the notice of that body in 
Zurich. 

"(4) That the two committees jointly recommend that 
in writings and publications the 'myriawatt' and 'myriawatt- 
hour' be abbreviated to 'mw' and 'mw-hr.' in conformity 
with the existing abbreviations 'kw' and 'kw-hr.' for 'kilo- 
watt' and 'kilowatt-hour' respectively." 

The adoption of the myriawatt provides a simple and 
satisfactory method of rating the input and output of turbo- 
generators in terms of the same unit — the international 
watt. Instead of rating the output of a turbo-generator in 
kilowatts and the input in boiler-horse-power or other heat 
units as at present, it becomes very convenient to rate the 
electro output in kilowatts and the steam input in myria- 
watts, because the myriawatt is approximately the same as 
the boiler-horse-power, while it is also exactly 10 kw. By 
this means the long existing incongruity of stating the input 
and output in different and disconnected units of power 
will be eliminated. 



io6 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [Vol. XLI, No. 3. 

The Annual Meeting of the Wisconsin Electrical 

Association 

An Account of the Proceedings of the Milwaukee Meeting — Abstracts of the Papers Relating to Electric Railways 

Which Were Presented Before the Association Are Included 



The annual meeting of the Wisconsin Electrical Associa- 
tion was called to order at the Hotel Pfister, Milwaukee, 
Wis., on Jan. 15 at 9:35 a. m. by the president, Irving P. 
Lord, president and general manager of the Waupaca Elec- 
tric Light & Railway Company. 

The secretary and treasurer, George Allison, of Milwau- 
kee, comptroller of the Clement C. Smith properties, read 
his annual report, showing that the membership had been 
increased during the year by four active and fourteen asso- 
ciate members. The membership committee had been active 
during the year. The report was adopted and placed on 
file. At the request of Mr. Allison the chair announced 
that he would appoint an auditing committee to go over 
the books. This committee was appointed later. It con- 
sisted of E. H. Hoaglin, Wild Rose, Wis. ; W. E. Haseltine, 
Ripon, Wis., and P. H. Jorst, Janesville, Wis. 

president's address 

President Lord did not make a formal address, but spoke 
informally about the work of the association during the last 
year. He said that the year 1912 was a fairly prosperous 
one for all of the companies and that the trend was for- 
ward if not upward. The central stations were improving 
their service and business and getting a little better balance 
sheets. Very much had been done by the Railroad Com- 
mission of Wisconsin toward raising standards of service 
and owners were beginning to appreciate what had been 
accomplished. Even municipal plants were beginning to 
concede that the Railroad Commission knew something. 
The association was well represented in its membership of 
public utilities. It had the largest as well as the smallest 
plants. 

reports 

M. A. Gurnee, a member of the committee on member- 
ship, spoke about the work done to bring additional mem- 
bers to the association. The chairman of this committee 
was Roger N. Kimball, of Kenosha, W r is., who had re- 
signed as second vice-president of the association. 

T. A. Pamperin, chairman of the committee on taxation, 
in reporting for that committee said that a meeting did not 
take place until just before the annual convention was called 
to order. He felt that either the old committee should be 
continued or a new committee should be appointed, in order 
that the members might be kept in close touch with any 
action that might be taken affecting taxation matters. 

The following nominating committee was appointed : 
Clement C. Smith, Milwaukee, Wis.; George D. Wheeler, 
Eau Claire, Wis., and J. S. Allen, Lake Geneva, Wis. 

L. H. Lathrop, general superintendent Menominee & 
Marinette Light & Traction Company, then read a paper 
on the "Proper Operation and Maintenance of Arc Lamps." 
He said that more light was used and more was demanded 
constantly by business men who realized the advantage of 
it. An extended discussion took place on the paper. 

STANDARDS OF ELECTRICAL SERVICE 

J. N. Cadby, member of the engineering staff of the 
Railroad Commission of Wisconsin, then read a paper on 
the proposed revision of standards of electric service, 
which is now under consideration by the Railroad Commis- 
sion. He said in his introductory remarks that improve- 
ments in service of every kind were being seen continually. 
Not only was service being measured more accurately, but 
safety precautions were taken more than ever before. In 
the factorv. the public building, the street and upon the 
street cars and railway trains, life, limb and health were 



receiving more consideration than heretofore. The slogan 
of "safety first," which the railway men had advocated, 
should be adopted by the public utility men. 

The Wisconsin public utilities law required, Mr. Cadby 
said, that all public utilities report fatal accidents to the 
Railroad Commission whenever these accidents occurred 
through the construction or operation of the utilities or 
upon the premises used by them. Thus far there had been 
a few cases where high-tension transmission line construc- 
tion had been passed upon by the commission and cases 
where the Railroad Commission and Industrial Commission 
investigated jointly matters of this kind. The fact that 
three fatal accidents in different parts of the State were 
caused by contact with live guy wires may lead to the 
adoption of further standards by the State commission. 

Mr. Cadby said that adequate electric lighting and power 
service necessitated a practically uninterrupted supply of 
energy at a constant voltage, safety, ability to secure con- 
venient and efficient utilizing devices and an accurate meter- 
ing of the energy supplied. He presented the proposed 
standards, which will be considered at a meeting to be held 
in the near future and to which the commission will invite 
interested persons. 

The association then adjourned for lunch. 



WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON SESSION 

The first order of business in the afternoon was a dis- 
cussion on the decision in the Milwaukee fare case by 
Edwin S. Mack, of Miller, Mack & Fairchild, Milwaukee. 
This paper appears in abstract on another page. 

The report of the insurance committee was then presented 
by Ernest Gonzenbach, of Sheboygan, chairman. This re- 
port appears elsewhere in this issue. Supplementing the 
report, Mr. Gonzenbach said that since it was prepared 
the committee had received a proposition from the concern 
at Wausau providing that the companies go in as a separate 
class. As representatives of various insurance interests 
were present and desired to discuss the matter with the 
committee, action on the report was delayed until later in 
order to give the committee an opportunity to confer with 
representatives of the companies. 

George W. Kalweit, auditor of the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company, then read a paper on "A Work 
Order System Adaptable to Public Utilities; Its Purposes 
and Method of Application." An abstract of this paper 
is published elsewhere in this issue. 

Edward Hammett, superintendent railway department 
Sheboygan Railway & Electric Company, then read a paper 
on "Dispatching and Handling Street Cars and Train 
Crews." An abstract is published on another page. 

HANDLING OF TRAIN MEN 

In answer to a question raised in the discussion Mr. 
Hammett said that so far the relief fund had been large 
enough to meet requirements. He said the company fol- 
lowed the practice of promoting trackmen to the position 
of trainmen. 

J. C. Justesen, superintendent of transportation Wausau 
Street Railroad, said that the most difficult thing that a 
transportation official had to do was to select men for car 
service. In Wausau an electric club had been formed, and 
the trainmen were encouraged to attend the meetings and 
to suggest any subject the)' wanted to bring up. 

George Allison, Milwaukee, suggested the appointment of 
a committee to consider the subject of dispatching trains 



January 18, 19 13.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



and to report at the next meeting. The appointment of a 
committee was deferred until the following session. The 
association then adjourned to meet on the following day. 



THURSDAY MORNING'S SESSION. 
The session on Thursday of the Wisconsin Electrical 
Association was called to order by President Lord, who 
announced that the first paper would be one on the Stand- 
ardizing Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin by 
F. A. Kartak, electrical engineer of the university. Mr. 
Kartak explained that the laboratory is to be reorgan- 
ized on a commercial basis and that any public utility can 
have its instruments taken there for calibration and in- 
spection. The schedule of fees for this work and a de- 
scription of the laboratory will be mailed to all public utility 
companies in the state. Mr. Kartak added that the labo- 
ratory will be open at all times to visitors, who will be wel- 
come. 

President Lord said that the change in method of con- 
ducting the laboratory would be especially welcome to the 
small companies in the State which have not had the facili- 
ties for doing this work themselves possessed by the large 
companies. 

In answer to a question, Mr. Kartak said that the uni- 
versity would probably issue regular certificates of the 
accuracy of instruments. He thought that the instruments 
would probably not be sealed, but that the certificate would 
be an indication of the test which the laboratory had con- 
ducted. 

Mr. Hoaglin, reporting for the auditing committee of the 
association, said that the books of the secretary and treas- 
urer had been inspected and had been found correct. 

President Lord said that many requests had been received 
by the secretary in relation to the subject of an electrical 
show. He said that he would take the responsibility of 
appointing a special committee to consider all matters 
relating to this topic. The committee, as appointed by the 
president, consists of O. M. Rau, C. N. Duffy and H. P. 
Andre. 

W. M. Bradshaw, Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, suggested that central stations prepare a 
packing box for shipping meters to the university labo- 
ratory. 

DAY LOAD FOR SMALL CENTRAL STATIONS 

W. E. Hazeltine, secretary Ripon (Wis.) Light & Water 
Company, then presented a paper entitled "Building Up a 
Day Load for a Small Central Station." He described 
the methods used in Ripon, a city of approximately 3800 
inhabitants. The first step was to change the electrical 
system used, which was a 133-cycle single-phase system for 
commercial use and a direct-current series arc system for 
street lighting, to a sixty-cycle system. The company then 
established a rate of 10 cents gross or 9 cents net per 
kw-hr for the first sixty hours per month of active con- 
nected load and half of this amount per kw-hr for the ex- 
cess. The management then approached the power users in 
the district and after some difficulty succeeded in securing 
their adoption of electric power instead of steam or gaso- 
line engines. The speaker described a number of the uses 
to which the motors were put, and the methods of develop- 
ing the fan, electric iron and other small appliance business. 
The effect of one year's active work was that the day-peak 
had become considerably higher. Although the peak-load 
had increased but 4 per cent the station output in kilowatt- 
hours had increased 57 per cent. There had also been an 
increase in the lighting load. 

REPORT ON LIABILITY INSURANCE 

The report of the committee on liability insurance pre- 
sented on Wednesday was then taken up for discussion. 
Chairman Gozenbach also presented a supplementary re- 
port. It recommended that the members of the association, 
including those engaged in electric lighting, the operation 



of street and interurban railways and in the gas and water 
supply business, should form a separate class of employers, 
as explained in a proposition which he submitted, and should 
carry their liability insurance both to the public and to their 
employees in the Employers' Mutual Liability Insurance 
Company of Wausau, Wis. He added that the committee 
had investigated a number of propositions and had given a 
great deal of time to a consideration of the matter and it 
was the unanimous belief of its members that better results 
and better protection at lower rates could be secured by 
accepting the proposition of this company than by any other 
methods suggested. 

In considering this subject the committee heard from 
W. A. Fricke, president Employers' Mutual Liability In- 
surance Company, and from Lynton T. Block, president 
Utilities Service Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

In discussing further the supplementary report, Mr. 
Gonzenbach said he understood that the old line casualty 
companies intended to increase their rates still further and 
that these rates would go into effect soon after Feb. 1. 
An extended discussion of the committee's report then took 
place. It was finally decided that the report with the dis- 
cussion would be printed for distribution to the members 
for their further consideration. The report of the com- 
mittee was then adopted. This discussion concluded the 
morning session. 



THURSDAY AFTERNOON SESSION 

RESUSCITATION FROM ELECTRIC SHOCK 

At the beginning of the afternoon session about twenty- 
five applications for membership were accepted. Dr. 
Charles H. Lemon, chief surgeon Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
way & Light Company, then discussed the subject of 
resuscitation from electric shock and first aid to the in- 
jured. He began by complimenting the National Electric 
Light Association upon the work which it had done in 
initiating an investigation by medical authorities into the 
causes of death following electric shock and to suggest 
means for resuscitation after the shock. He then described 
the method of producing artificial respiration as recom- 
mended by the National Electric Light Association com- 
mittee and, with the aid of an assistant, illustrated the 
method recommended. He also exhibited a Draeger pul- 
motor, and illustrated its use in case of shock. He gave 
details of a case in which a man had received a shock of 
13,200 volts. Apparently the man was dead, but his fellow 
workers maintained respiration artificially for five minutes 
until the pulmotor could be used. In this case consciousness 
was restored, and the only result of the shock was the 
severe burns left by the current. Dr. Lemon said that it 
was very important that everyone in electrical companies 
should be familiar with the simple movements recommended 
by the committee. In every case where resuscitation had 
been begun within ten minutes of shock, it was necessary 
to persist, however, not less than one hour and in some 
cases over an hour. The committee's method was simple, 
practical of application and efficient. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS 

George B. Wheeler, Eau Claire, chairman of the nomi- 
nating committee, then presented the report of that com- 
mittee and the secretary was instructed to cast one ballot. 
The names of the elected officers follow: President, William 
H. Winslow, Superior; first vice-president, William Wallen, 
Oshkosh ; second vice-president, P. H. Korst, Janesville ; 
third vice-president, M. C. Ewing, Wausau; secretary- 
treasurer, George Allison, comptroller Clement C. Smith 
properties, Milwaukee. 

It was decided, on motion of M. C. Ewing, to hold a 
three-day session in 1914 if in judgment of the executive 
committee it could be made successful. 

The association then voted to have an advisory com- 
mittee consisting of five members, including the presi- 



io8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



dent to have charge of any legislative matters which 
might be required by the association. 

C. R. Phenicie, general superintendent Wisconsin Pub- 
lic Service Company, then read a paper on construction and 
maintenance problems of overhead distribution systems of 
electric utilities. In accordance with Mr. Phenicie's recom- 
mendation, a committee of three will be appointed to draft 
standards of inspection. It was decided on motion of Mr. 
Pamperin to discharge the committee and to refer its duties 
to the new advisory committee. 

President Lord, in conclusion, thanked the members for 
the assistance and co-operation he had received in the last 
year. The association then adjourned. 

EXIBITORS' ASSOCIATION 

At the annual meeting of the Wisconsin Electrical Ex- 
hibitors' Association the following officers were elected: 
President, Clarence E. Searles, Allis-Chalmers Company; 
vice-president, H. E. Andrae, of Julius Andrae & Son's 
Company; secretary and treasurer, H. F. Bogus, of C. J. 
Litscher Electric Company. 



DISPATCHING AND HANDLING STREET CARS 
AND TRAIN CREWS 



BY EDWARD HAMMETT, SUPERINTENDENT SHEBOYGAN (WIS.) 
RAILWAY & ELECTRIC COMPANY 



In connection with inspection and maintenance of your 
cars, the failure of cars in service is most annoying, and 
our company is making a vigorous campaign to reduce these 
failures to a minimum. We are working along the lines of 
bonuses to inspectors and carhouse employees, and while 
we are not able to make definite reports at this time, we 
are well pleased and feel satisfied that we are encouraging 
the men to do more efficient work with consequent results 
in the service. 

The next problem in connection with the cars is to dis- 
pose of them in such a manner that they are convenient to 
the greatest possible number of people. This involves a 
complete study and analysis of the traffic which is being 
handled and then further study and search for improvement 
which will make the cars convenient for a greater number 
of people without increased cost of service to the company. 

ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC 

Taking up first the study of city traffic, we find that the 
usual fare is 5 cents with transfers and possibly strip tickets 
of six for 25 cents. This fare system will permit one to 
arrive at a very accurate average cash value per passenger 
carried, so that a curve may be drawn showing the number 
of passengers carried each hour on each division, which 
represents also the revenue in cash. Against this curve a 
line is drawn which represents the operating cost trans- 
posed into number of passengers at the average cash value. 
We now have a diagram showing expenses and revenue 
during each hour of the day on each division. At a glance 
one may learn the hours of each day when the cars earn a 
profit on operation for the company, and naturally one may 
also learn that there are periods during each day when the 
cars show a most distressing loss. With these facts deter- 
mined, we are ready to take up all possible suggestions for 
improving the figures shown in the analysis of traffic. Our 
greatest difficulty lies in knowing exactly where the trouble 
is located; when that is determined, the solution is half 
accomplished. 

The analysis of traffic on interurban lines is more com- 
plicated than it is on city lines, but the general scheme is 
the same. To learn the cash revenue of different divisions, 
we divided the line into three sections and instructed con- 
ductors to issue cash fare receipts to all passengers who 
paid cash on the cars. Ordinarily a large number of these 
cash fares would have been registered on the Ohmer fare 
register, and accurate tabulation would be impossible. How- 
ever, with cash fare receipts and mileage and usual card 



tickets, we were able to determine exactly how many 
passengers we carried and between which stations. 

For purposes of tabulation, we divided the line into three 
sections, each section ending at a point where there is a 
natural terminal. Each section received full credit for all 
traffic which was wholly within its own limits and propor- 
tionate credit for all traffic which originated or ended only 
within its limits. 

The interurban schedules, at that time, consisted of one 
car every hour throughout the operating period so that 
the cost of operation was uniform in each division. 
Analysis of receipts and number of passengers carried in 
each division showed that the first section of road furnished 
more than 60 per cent of the entire interurban revenue; 
the second section furnished a little less than 30 per cent, 
while the third section was contributing only about 10 
per cent. The schedule was immediately revised so that 
one car was used exclusively in the first section, which gave 
more frequent service and better accommodations in every 
way. This change made it necessary to cut down the serv- 
ice a little in the second section and very materially in the 
third section. 

EMPLOYMENT AND HANDLING OF TRAINMEN 

The train crews represent possibly the most important 
link in the handling of traffic, and no operating official can 
afford to overlook any one little thing which has to do with 
the improvement of the service in this respect. The origi- 
nal selection of men, of course, is very important, but many 
of the most promising men — men who seem to be promising 
when they were employed — have turned out worthless. 
On the other hand, a great many motormen and conductors 
who do not appeal to one particularly at the time of em- 
ployment develop, through hard work and faithfulness, into 
what we may easily call the ideal trainman. The employ- 
ment of trainmen is a phase of the business which depends 
entirely upon the superintendent of transportation or other 
official who has to do with the hiring of men, and his 
success as a superintendent of operation will depend in a 
large measure upon his ability to select or reject without 
hesitation such men as make application for positions. 
When a man is once hired and is on the company pay-roll, 
he must be taken care of properly. The most approved 
method for initial training seems to be a regularly equipped 
school of instruction, where the candidate is obliged to put 
in a specific number of hours and accomplish specific re- 
sults. At the expiration of this period, he must be ready 
to pass a certain examination as to his fitness for the posi- 
tion which he expects to take. Small roads, however, do- 
not find themselves in a position to maintain schools of this 
sort, and many times trainmen are allowed to act as motor- 
men or conductors without having specific training of any 
continued duration. On roads such as these, it is customary 
to have the applicant work without compensation, either as 
motorman or conductor, under the direction of some em- 
ployee in a similar position who can be thoroughly trusted. 

One of the most important things to impress upon a new 
man seems to be the fact that he is subject to the rules and 
discipline which will be enforced by the officers of the 
company, and this particular phase of the business seems 
to cause considerable disturbance among the new men. A 
man, for instance, who receives 16 or 17 or 18 cents per 
hour for his servies as a motorman or conductor finds 
himself in a position which he can duplicate almost any 
place any time. In other words, day labor is worth as much 
money these days as we can afford to pay for the earliest 
service of a new man, and so considerable difficulty is ex- 
perienced in successfully disciplining men during the first 
year of service. The older men in the service are always 
more amenable to discipline and criticism than the new 
men, and this in many cases has the effect of steadying the 
new man. With all of us the real incentive for work lies 
in the hope of reward, and if a new trainman sees that the 
older trainmen are well taken care of and are prosperous,. 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



there will be a powerful incentive for sticking to the job 
and becoming, in the natural course of events, one of the 
old men. 

The problem of handling men is individual with each 
operating official. A man must feel right toward his em- 
ployers in any line of work if his services are to give the 
best results, and this is without a doubt the ultimate goal 
of the operating man, for the reason that the company's 
revenue passes through the hands of its conductors and the 
passengers' safety is in the hands of the motormen. Hence, 
the attitude of these men toward the company is reflected 
very accurately in the attitude of the patrons of the road 
toward the management. The problem is to keep all of 
our trainmen in a state of mind which is distinctly friendly 
toward the management of the company. This friendliness 
must be aggressive and will not produce the best results 
until every man believes firmly in the integrity and im- 
partiality and fair-mindedness of his superior officers. The 
question therefore is, how shall we bring about this state of 
affairs ? Possibly the first thing would be to study the pay- 
roll and determine whether the men are receiving enough 
money for their work to make them think rather well of 
their jobs as compared with other available jobs in the 
community. Then, when you are satisfied that your men 
have just as good a job with you as they would have in 
any other place, all things considered, it seems to me 
advisable to go still further and offer some additional re- 
muneration. In one case this additional remuneration was 
offered in the form of a bonus to be paid under a merit 
system which was based largely on the experience of other 
roads and was also re-designed to cover local conditions. 
The distribution of bonuses under this merit system was as 
follows : 

BONUSES AND MERIT MARKS 

Every man in the regular service on Jan. 1 was listed to 
receive a bonus on the following Jan. 1 : $30 for one-year 
men, $45 for two-year men, $60 for five-year men and $75 
for men who had been in the service ten years or more. 

Each man received 100 merits on Jan. 1. For a perfect 
record during any one calendar month, each man received 
ten merits. For other meritorious service, a trainman might 
earn additional merits and in the same way demerits were 
assessed for all infractions of the rules and for any care- 
lessness or other defect in the actions or performance of 
duty of the men. At the end of the year, each man's ac- 
count was balanced and awards made to all men who had 
100 merits or more. This merit system was freely criticised 
by the men throughout the first year, but when Jan. 1 came 
around and they lined up one after another and received 
from $30 to $75 each, the attitude changed considerably, 
and now, in the third year that this system has been in 
operation, we find the men unusually interested. 

The next step in the welfare of the men was in the form 
of a sick benefit relief association. This was organized on 
a basis that included all employees of the company, and 
membership in the association is compulsory. An assess- 
ment of 25 cents per month is levied against every employee, 
and the governing board and officers are elected from the 
rank and file of employees. Sick benefits amount to $7 
per week for total disability, with the usual conditions and 
by-laws which are included in relief associations. Death 
benefits consist of $75, which has been found in several 
cases to pay actual funeral expenses and at least furnish 
a little ready money for the emergency of death, when 
expenses are necessarily urgent. This relief association has 
made a fair number of settlements, both in regard to sick- 
ness and death, and the present status of the association 
among all employees is unusually satisfactory. In addition 
to this assessment of 25 cents for each employee, the com- 
pany donates an amount equal to 50 per cent of the assess- 
ment collections each month. 

It has also been found beneficial and pleasant to have 
some social functions during the year for the exclusive 



benefit and enjoyment of employees and their families. A 
number of very successful picnics have been given, and 
recently a very successful dance was held. The experience 
along these lines leads me to say without hesitation that 
the general welfare of your men should receive a great deal 
of attention, because it brings the men close to you and 
makes them feel friendly toward you and your efforts to 
give the best possible service. The best service is not 
possible without their active interest and co-operation. 

DISPATCHING 

We now come to the discussion of dispatching, which was 
formerly a very crude affair on electric roads. The first 
step in introducing a modern system of dispatching is to 
establish rigid discipline among the men. The basis of 
this discipline should be the rule book adopted by our na- 
tional association. The committee which compiled this 
book of rules had many conferences with steam railroad 
officials ; therefore, we find a distinct tendency to follow 
steam railroad practice, which means the best there is. 
After the rule book and general discipline are in full force, 
you must issue a regular working timetable for the use of 
employees only. This timetable will show only sidings, 
switches and terminals, and will show plainly trains of all 
classes on the regular schedule, also where and what each 
train meets. Each train has a number and is known only 
by this number. Each siding has a name or a number and 
is known only by such designation. 

Great care is required in making up this working time- 
table to avoid confusion and error, but the chances of error 
may be entirely eliminated by the use of a board and threads 
to lay out the complete schedules. Across the top of the 
board the hours of the entire operating period are placed 
consecutively. On the left edge of the board all switches 
and sidings are entered consecutively and spaced with re- 
gard to the actual mileage. When this board is prepared 
it is a simple matter to lay in the trains, and, of course, 
wherever the threads cross, a meet must show on the time- 
table. 

Modern dispatching permits no verbal orders affecting the 
movement of trains. We use, therefore, a written order 
designated in the rule book as Form No. 31. This form of 
order is issued by the dispatcher directly to the conductor 
of each train. The issuing of written train orders undoubt- 
edly consumes more time than verbal orders, but there is no 
comparison in the matter of safety. Hence written orders 
are used. Supplementing written train orders we have 
Stromberg selective semaphores, which are controlled in the 
dispatcher's office and may be dropped at will against any 
siding. 

Working timetables, written train orders and discipline 
constitute the three outstanding requirements for modern 
dispatching, but there are, of course, many auxiliary aids 
in dispatching which each man works out for his own 
department when he gets to studying the particular proposi- 
tion. One such aid has been adopted on our line which we 
find very helpful. It is a printed sheet which provides 
space for entering all the meets of any train. Space is 
also provided for making notes of train orders issued. This 
trip record is filled out and signed by the conductor and the 
dispatcher and is then placed in plain view of the motor- 
man so that he can learn at a glance whether his train is 
supposed to meet some opposing train at each siding which 
he reaches. The advantage of this sheet is that it leaves 
nothing to the memory of the motorman. 

One other device we employ for additional safety is re- 
quiring motormen to blow four short blasts of the whistle 
when approaching any siding. This constitutes a call for 
signals from the conductor and must be answered by one 
bell from the conductor if a meet is to be made and by two 
bells if no meet is to be made. This device serves to insure 
that both motorman and conductor put their mind on the 
question of meets at each siding and has proved entirely 
satisfactory. 



110 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



A DISCUSSION ON THE MILWAUKEE FARE DE- 
CISION 

Edwin S. Mack, of Miller, Mark & Fairchild, who pre- 
sented a paper on this subject, spoke, in his introduction, of 
the exhaustive character of the decision and said that 
while it was impossible to discuss all the details he would 
take up the leading principles which were of practical 
importance to operators of public utility companies in Wis- 
consin. In taking up the question of intrinsic reasonable- 
ness of the rates, the commission found that commutation 
rates were in force in a number of cities and it was there- 
fore proper to require them. The same principles enun- 
ciated in this respect were carried out also in the Superior 
case, where the commission ordered the sale of six tickets 
for 25 cents. 

Until 1900, Mr. Mack said, the rate of fare in Mil- 
waukee had been 5 cents. Then an extension ordinance 
was passed, providing that for five years the company 
should sell six tickets for 25 cents or twenty-five tickets 
for $1, good during certain hours. After Jan. 1, 1905, these 
tickets were good throughout the day. The decision of 
the commission providing for the sale of thirteen tickets 
for 50 cents also involved suburbs and extended the fare 
limits in some cases. 

The commission reached its determination from a con- 
sideration of the investment or the value of the property, 
discussion of the operating expenses and allowance for 
depreciation, a calculation of probable future items of ex- 
pense not yet realized and, finally, the rate of return to 
be earned by the company. 

Continuing, Mr. Mack said that the first point was the 
most important one. That was, on what basis of capital- 
ization or on what principle should the rate of return be 
computed? Originally the city of Milwaukee granted fran- 
chises to three horse railways, then to one so-called dummy 
railway and, finally, to a cable road which was really con- 
structed as an electric railway. About 1890 a movement 
was made to consolidate the properties. These railways 
controlled between them practically every down-town street 
and every bridge crossing the river near the down-town 
district. It was impossible to have a complete system of 
lines except by consolidation of the existing properties. 
The companies were brought together as the Milwaukee 
Street Railway. This was then consolidated with the light- 
ing companies in the city. The consolidation naturally in- 
volved considerable expense above the physical value, per- 
haps above even the "going" value. The owners of the 
properties held had franchises with a number of years to 
run and were making profits. Payment for the properties 
was made in bonds and stock, but reduced to a monetary 
basis for the bonds, excluding the stock and plus expendi- 
tures for electrification, the cost was $8,885,000. The com- 
mission allowed for this value only about $5,000,000. The 
facts regarding this consolidation were brought out in a 
suit in 1896. Judge Seaman found in his decision at that 
time that the appraisal of the property made by W. J. Clark 
was to be preferred above the city valuation. The court 
held that the reproduction cost new of $5,000,000 repre- 
sented fairly the physical property of an investment that 
might fairly be called $8,885,000, and that the company 
was entitled in a -rate case to a valuation of at least 
$7,000,000. Judge Seaman held that it was not necessary 
to decide in that case, and he did not decide, whether the 
company was entitled to earn a return on $8,885,000. 

In the case before the commission the company presented 
figures of value, taking the $8,885,000 as a basis and add- 
ing the various additions made to the capital account sub- 
sequently. 

The Railroad Commission, Mr. Mack said, took up the 
matter historically and then appraised the property. It 
first revised the Clark figures of 1896 and found that they 
were $600,000 too high in reproduction value. The next 
step was an examination of the propriety of the invest- 



ment. The commission held that excessive prices had been 
paid for this combination of street railways. The net 
result reached by the Railroad Commission was a figure 
of $5,000,000. That was determined by a revision of the 
costs and a revision of the Clark inventory. The changes 
in the inventory figures were in the overhead allowances 
and in certain unit prices. 

The commission also went into the question of going 
value. That was computed in two ways. 

Under the first plan the cost was based on the losses 
incurred in building up the plant. Under the second plan, 
it was assumed that a new company started in business to 
build up its property to a point of profit corresponding 
with the position which an existing profitably established 
company would occupy. The commission computed the 
going value at $450,000. As of Jan. 1, 1897, the commis- 
sion found the value of the property as $3,500,000 plus 
$400,000 for going value and $1,000,000 for loss in property 
during conversion to electricity. That was the basis taken 
by the commission as the initial point in its computation. 

Mr. Mack said that in making the subsequent additions 
to the capital investment, the commission made an analysis 
of division of charges between the railway and lighting 
departments. For years the company had used the bases 
of 80 per cent for the railway and 20 per cent for the 
lighting. As a result of its analysis the commission made 
a difference of approximately $1,200,000 from the results 
shown by the books of the company. The railway books 
showed an addition of $5,400,000 and the commission made 
the total addition $4,200,000. The net result was that in- 
stead of showing a value of $14,000,000 for the railway, 
as was indicated by the testimony for the company, the 
commission found the figure of $8,700,000 in 1907. Con- 
tinued to 191 1, this became $10,300,000. The main differ- 
ence in the figures was due to the fact that the commission 
allowed less for the original property than the actual ex- 
penditure and, second, made a different apportionment of 
the subsequent additions. In connection with the disallow- 
ance of items of cost, the commission seemed to doubt 
whether the cash costs were as large as were found by 
Judge Seaman. 

JUSTIFICATION FOR PURCHASE PRICE 

It was natural, Mr. Mack said, that counsel should dif- 
fer from a finding and therefore the question whether the 
decision was right or wrong was not one that he cared to 
discuss. The point which he wished to emphasize, how- 
ever, was that if operators of public utility properties were 
to make an investment of any size in order to buy or con- 
solidate plants, they must do so with their eyes open. They 
might be placed in the position in a rate case ten or fifteen 
years after the purchase or consolidation of being required 
to establish the reasonableness of the price paid and the 
value of the property. Transactions must be conducted 
with the understanding that they would have to be jus- 
tified afterward. 

In view of the fact that the commission made an analy- 
sis of cost and that most companies conducted two or more 
kinds of business with one organization, the officials must 
bear in mind the fact that the commission may review 
the division of capital expenditures. For instance, a power 
plant may generate current for commercial and railway 
purposes. The ordinary method of dividing the invest- 
ment in property used in common is to divide it according 
to the proportionate use. If a company finds that this 
proportionate use gives one result in one year, and at the 
end of two subsequent years the lighting business has been 
developed largely and is twice its former volume, the pro- 
portions of investment change. While this method of ap- 
portionment was perhaps the only practical one to adopt, 
operators must bear in mind the fact that as the volume of 
use for one purpose may change, the apportioned capital- 
ization, which changes also in accordance with this plan, 
may be subject to review for rate-making purposes. 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



111 



Taking the mass of cases as they had been decided be- 
fore the commission, it was found, Mr. Mack added, that 
the sum of all elements considered in making a decision 
as to value usually became the same as the reproduction 
value new, and this is about the result reached in the Mil- 
waukee fare case. Overhead charges had been allowed 
by the commission ranging from as low as 10 per cent in 
some cases to as high as 15 per cent in other cases. In 
the Milwaukee street railway case the allowance was 12 
per cent. 

In connection with the appraisal of the physical prop- 
erty, the commission also had to make an appraisal of 
suburban and interurban property. The outlying and city 
lines were operated in common and the same cars were 
used for much of the business. 

There was also a question regarding the value to be 
allowed for paving. The commission, followed the rule 
which it had used in a number of cases and allowed only 
the actual expenditures of the company. In some cases the 
railway had laid track at a time when the city was paving, 
and the commission did not allow anything for paving in 
these instances, although if the railway had to be repro- 
duced the company would have to pay for this element of 
cost. 

In taking up the question of earnings where a company 
conducted several kinds of business, it was necessary first 
to divide between the railway and light departments, and 
second to segregate the city, suburban and interurban ex- 
penses. The company had divided the railway and light on 
the basis of the actual current consumed. The commis- 
sion did not interfere with the division made by the com- 
pany. A more important question was that of the division 
between the city and the interurban branches. The analy- 
sis of the commission was exhaustive and each item was 
considered by itself. The result, Mr. Mack thought, was 
as logical as it could be made. It would be difficult, how- 
ever, for a smaller property to carry out so detailed a 
method of accounting as that described in the decision of 
the commission. The wise thing to do would be to make a 
study at a particular time on the basis used by the com- 
mission and to come as nearly as possible to that, or else 
to make a computation and use that until the management 
felt that it should be revised. It was not practicable for a 
small company to make an annual, a monthly or a day-to- 
day apportionment in as much detail as the commission 
used. 

Continuing, Mr. Mack said that the net result of the con- 
sideration of the subject of depreciation was an annual 
reservation of a little less than 4^ per cent. On the ques- 
tion of the rate of return the commission commented on 
the excellent credit of the company and therefore deter- 
mined on interest of 5 per cent to 6 per cent plus profit of 
i l /2 per cent to 2 per cent, making finally a return of jy'2 
per cent on the value. The value as of Jan. 1, 1911, $10,300,- 
000, to represent the reproduction value of the physical prop- 
erty, was determined to be the actual justifiable investment 
in the property on a cash basis. The commission also made 
allowances for probable future increases in expenditure, 
such as additional municipal burdens, extensions of fare 
limits, repaving of streets, improvements in service, etc. 
After making these allowances and computing a return of 
y]/2 per cent, the commission found that it could make a 
reduction in the rate of fare to provide for the sale of 
thirteen tickets for 50 cents. It was figured that this would 
cause a reduction of $170,000 a year. 

One other element that involved a new investigation was 
a careful consideration of what the commission called a 
maximum paying haul. It divided cost between movement 
and terminal cost. The company made an investigation of 
this subject at about the same time that the commission 
made its study, and the results were very close. The dif- 
ference was less than 0.2 mile, and showed an average haul 
of about 2.7 miles. Mr. Mack felt that this study of the 
commission was one of the most valuable features of the 



decision, and that it would be well worth the while of every 
man interested in electric railways to read this portion. 

Mr. Mack said that the results in his opinion would be 
that so low a rate of return as that indicated would prob- 
ably be a serious deterrent on extensions on interurban 
lines or any others. He thought the present cessation in 
construction of public utility properties was due largely to 
the fact that people felt that they could not have a sufficient 
return. It was the opinion of Prof. M. E. Cooley, expressed 
as a witness, that the reproduction value of public utility 
property ordinarily approximated two-thirds of the invest- 
ment. The commission felt that when properties were 
financed on a cash basis the method which it had followed 
in its regulation of the companies would provide for an 
ample return. The principal funds in its opinion could be 
provided by the sale of bonds. However, as John I. Beggs 
had testified in the Milwaukee case, it was necessary, in 
order to secure development, to provide for a speculative 
profit on the deal. No man went into an enterprise for the 
construction of a public utility plant without feeling that 
he had found an opportunity that someone else had not seen, 
and in order to make an investment, there had to be some 
chance of a profit with development. Mr. Mack believed 
that the northern part of the State of Wisconsin would 
have its settlement retarded until higher returns could be 
offered. He thought that the commission would allow larger 
returns in smaller cities than it provided in Milwaukee. 

Mr. Mack said that the commission did not say that the 
company could not earn over 7U> per cent, but it did say 
that it reduced the rate of fare because it figured that the 
company could establish a lower rate, provide for probable 
future increases in expenditure and still pay 7J/2 per cent. 



REPORT OF LIABILITY INSURANCE COMMITTEE 



BY ERNEST GONZENBACH, CHAIRMAN; M. C. EWING AND 
T. A. PAMPERIN. 



The subject of insurance is of the greatest importance to 
central station and public utility operators, and particularly 
so at this moment in the State of Wisconsin, where a 
workmen's compensation law became effective on Sept. 1, 
191 1. The provisions of this law have not as yet been 
fully tried and tested, nor are they universally understood. 

Prior to the introduction of the workmen's compensation 
law it was customary for companies in the electric lighting 
business to carry two forms of liability policies, namely : 

(1) Insuring the company against claims and verdicts 
for damages sustained by employees in the performance of 
their duties. 

(2) Insuring the company against claims and verdicts 
for damages sustained by the public through coming in con- 
tact with electric light wires and fixtures. 

In addition to these two forms of insurance, public-service 
companies engaged in the electric railway business were 
also in the habit of carrying employers' liability insurance: 

(3) Insuring the company against claims and verdicts for 
damages sustained by railway employees in the perform- 
ance of their duties. 

Up to about five years ago the limit of liability on this 
insurance was $5,000 for any one single individual claim 
and $10,000 limit for claims or verdicts resulting from any 
single accident, no matter how many were injured. About 
that time a change in the laws necessitated a higher insur- 
ance limit, and thereafter liability policies, as a rule, were 
written with $10,000 and $20,000 limitations. 

The carrying of liability insurance was considered a 
necessary part of the public utility business and was sup- 
posed to be a great protection to stockholders and bond- 
holders; in fact, it was often looked upon as affording as 
much protection to the company as fire insurance. This 
impression, however, was entirely erroneous, and the lia- 
bility insurance which was carried by practically every 



112 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



public service company in the State up to the passage of 
the workmen's compensation law was more or less a delu- 
sion and a snare. In the first place, it was impossible to 
insure up to the limit of accident liability, whereas in fire 
insurance one can insure to the limit of possible damage. 
Every small company was liable to have an accident result- 
ing in damages and verdicts against the company amount- 
ing to considerably more than its limit of liability insurance, 
and therefore the company was by no means insured against 
ruin from that source. It may, of course, be argued that 
the majority of accidents are not catastrophes and are 
covered by the limits of liability which are in force and 
generally accepted by policy holders. On the other hand, 
the absence of liability on the part of the companies and the 
shifting of the burden upon the insurance companies intro- 
duced a personal or moral hazard in the form of tempta- 
tion to the insured to get as much as possible for the in- 
jured employee and work together with him to get as big 
an adjustment as possible from the insurance company. 
In this way injured and insured were working together 
against the insurer. The natural result of this state of 
affairs was that the insurance companies in one form or 
another fought practically every claim that was brought 
against them, and they did not discriminate between legiti- 
mate injury claims and those which were strictly "strikes" 
or "hold-ups." Under the provision of the liability policies 
it was practically impossible for a company to settle an 
injury with an employee without losing his good will and 
services. It was a case of give and take, adjusting and 
haggling until a sum was finally agreed upon which was 
satisfactory to neither side and which may have made a 
permanent enemy of the man who up to that time had been 
a valuable and loyal employee. Not only did it make an 
enemy of him, but of all his relatives, friends and acquaint- 
ances — a consideration which increases in proportion as the 
size of the community in which one does business 
diminishes. 

The rates which were paid for this liability insurance 
were based entirely on the total amount of the payroll and 
consisted of a certain percentage of it. This again was a 
fruitful subject of disssension between the insured and the 
insurer. The policies as a rule stipulated certain exemp- 
tions from the payroll, such as the office force, and the 
policy did not cover construction, but stipulated "ordinary 
extensions and construction." The interpretation of this 
"ordinary extensions and construction" was one of the 
fruitful sources of dispute. Again, companies doing a com- 
bination electric light and street railway business had one 
rate insuring street railway employees, the premium for 
which usually amounted to less than 1 per cent of the 
payroll, whereas the premium payable for insuring em- 
ployees in the lighting department usually ranged from 
2 to 3 per cent. The division of the power station payroll 
in a combination power station also was pregnant with 
possible friction — all of which was aggravated by the fact 
that the various insurance companies were active com- 
petitors with each other and were in the habit of making 
private treaties apart from and outside of the stipulations 
provided in policies, which treaties were in force privately, 
although at variance with the provisions of the contract 
and in direct opposition to the statement on the face of the 
contract that all agreements other than those on the face 
of the policy were "null and void." As a matter of fact, 
numerous agreements were lived up to outside of those 
written on the face of the policy, and the only value that 
clause of the contract had was that it acted as a club for 
the insurer and prevented the insured from having any 
redress at law for private bargains made with company 
agents in the way of special discounts or rates. 

On the whole, the committee feels that it can consistently 
state that the old form of liability insurance was not satis- 
factory to the insured, that it gave a minimum of protec- 
tion at a maximum of expense, and it left the settlement of 



claims in the hands of a third party wholly regardless of 
the interests of the injured and insured. The situation even 
before the enforcement of the workmen's compensation law 
became intolerable and was ripe for remedy in some form 
or other. 

ADVANCES IN INSURANCE RATES 

About the time that the workmen's compensation law 
went into effect in the State of Wisconsin the various 
liability insurance companies seemed suddenly to have dis- 
covered the scientific principles underlying their business, 
and the rates of every one of them on the same day be- 
came exactly the same as the rates of every other company. 
We assume, of course, that the gentlemen of the insurance 
companies are not violating the Sherman anti-trust law 
and that they are not a trust, but the uniformity of rates 
and policies is a coincidence which is at least remarkable. 
The liability companies seemed to have a violent grudge 
against the workmen's compensation law and by means of 
pamphlets and other more or less legitimate means they 
sought to induce public service companies not to avail them- 
selves of the provisions of this law and at the same time 
keep in force the liability policies which had heretofore 
been used — at an advance in premiums as high as 570 per 
cent. To be insured against losses under the workmen's 
compensation law the rates in one case went up 1100 per 
cent, as may be seen in the table herewith submitted. This 
shows a list of premiums in force before and after the 
establishment of uniform liability rates and the enforce- 
ment of the workmen's compensation law. The figures 
marked "old rate" are the premiums actually paid by one 
of your member companies. A little study of these pre- 
miums is interesting, although somewhat expensive for the 
man behind the cash ledger. 



Rates of Liability Insurance 

Under 
Workmen's 
Per Cent Compensa- Per Cent 
Old Rate New Rate Increase tion Law Increase 
Emplovees of electric 

lighting companies ... 3.75 4.80 28 8.40 124 
Employees of street rail- 
ways, city service .... . 0.93^ 3.75 301 7.00 650 
Employees of street rail- 
ways, interurban serv- 
ice 0.93 1 /, 6.25 570 11.20 1100 



It, of course, goes without saying that no sensible public 
service company in the State was willing to pay the rates 
demanded by the liability companies when it could avail 
itself of the provisions of the workmen's compensation 
law, with its stipulated amounts to be paid for accidents 
and with a more or less open knowledge of what the risk 
would be, and in view of the further fact that by taking 
advantage of the workmen's compensation law all of the 
money which would be paid by the company would be given 
to the injured employee instead of having one-half or two- 
thirds of it absorbed by attorneys' fees, as was usually the 
case under the old insurance plan. Settlement with an 
injured employee under the workmen's compensation law 
was very apt to leave the employee a good friend of the 
company; hence his friends, acquaintances and relations 
also remained friends, and in some cases that means the 
whole of a small town. Naturally, almost every company 
in the State surrendered its employers' liability insurance 
and accepted the provisions of the workmen's compensation 
law. 

Thereupon the stock companies writing liability insur- 
ance in Wisconsin played their trump card. They demanded 
that any company surrendering its employers' liability in- 
surance should also surrender its public liability policy, 
and they refused absolutely to write any public liability 
policies in the case of companies that were not carrying 
employers' liability insurance. Through r.heer foifce of 
intimidation and the fear of serious accidents on' their 
lines, many of the smaller companies were "bluffed?' into 
continuing the carrying of employers' liability policies at 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



113 



the exorbitant new rates demanded. In the case of com- 
bined lighting and railway companies, the additional risk 
assumed by the company in carrying its own public liability 
risk in the lighting department was only a small fraction 
of the risk which is already carried for public liability from 
accidents in its railway department, a risk which no in- 
surance company in existence to-day will assume. There- 
fore the "bluff" was not successful in the case of com- 
panies operating both classes of service, but many a light- 
ing plant that can ill afford it is to-day carrying employers' 
liability simply on the strength of the threat that the public 
liability policy will be canceled. 

SUGGESTED PLANS OF ACTION 

Your committee was appointed for the purpose of finding 
some escape from the exactions of the liability insurance 
companies. Let it be stated here that this committee is in 
no way hostile to the insurance companies, whether stock 
or mutual ; the companies, per se, have rendered and in 
many cases are still rendering valuable services to the 
insured. We do not protest against companies of any kind 
or nature, but against the rates which it has been attempted 
to force upon us in a manner which could not possibly be 
used were insurance companies subject to the same restric- 
tions and regulations which apply by law and commissions 
to the companies engaged in the public service business in 
Wisconsin. In order to overcome the present situation, 
there would seem to be three possible methods. 

Plan 1 — To form a mutual insurance or co-operative in- 
surance corporation, constituting practically all of the mem- 
bership of the Wisconsin Electrical Association. 

Under this plan the membership of a mutual or co- 
operative insurance corporation would be carried by the 
Wisconsin Electrical Association itself, and the amount of 
premium which has heretofore been paid to the liability 
companies would be paid into the treasury of the associa- 
tion, and the association would write employers' and public 
liability insurance for its members only. The objection to 
this plan is that it would necessitate a complete organiza- 
tion for the purpose of carrying on the business. There 
would necessarily have to be an expert insurance man, an 
adjuster and an auditor, whether combined in one person 
or in several. 

Plan 2 — Joining of several members in some of the 
mutual or co-operative liability insurance concerns of good 
standing which make a business of writing liability in- 
surance of lighting and street railway companies, telephone 
and other public service companies. 

Your committee has listened to a proposition made by 
such a concern located in St. Louis, and in many ways the 
proposition is to be recommended. But there are a few 
objections to this plan also, the principal one being that the 
concern charges an initial premium equal to the premium 
to be paid to the stock companies under the "new rates," 
and charges 30 per cent of that premium to "administra- 
tion," paying losses and claims out of the remaining 70 
per cent. While 30 per cent of the premium is not a high 
amount to pay for administration, provided the premium is 
reasonable, at the same time this 30 per cent payable under 
the premium as now demanded would be in many cases 
several times the amount of insurance heretofore paid to 
the liability companies, and to this first 30 per cent must be 
added the actual losses incurred and paid. While this plan 
produces a lower net rate than that which can be obtained 
from stock companies, we do not believe that it is of 
sufficient advantage to be recommended for adoption by the 
association. 

Plan 3 — Insurance in a mutual company such as has been 
organized at Wausau for the purpose of carrying the 
liability insurance of Wisconsin manufacturers under the 
provisions of the workmen's compensation law. 

The company located at Wausau is still quite young and 
in some quarters, which are open to suspicion, however, 
it has been much criticised. However, this concern offers 
an opportunity which our association cannot afford to 



ignore and which may give us reliable liability insurance 
at reasonable rates. This company is ready to write our 
employers' liability insurance, but it is not prepared at this 
time to take up the writing of our public liability insurance. 
If this concern were prepared to accept public liability 
insurance risks, your committee would feel inclined to 
recommend unanimously that we insure with this concern. 
Until provision can be made, however, whereby both em- 
ployers' liability and public liability risks can be accepted 
we shall suspend recommendation. 

There is a fourth plan which possibly might be worked 
out, and that consists in having the member companies 
organize a mutual insurance association among themselves 
and pay the usual premiums and then make some arrange- 
ments with some old-line company or with an agent repre- 
senting several old-line companies to handle all of its busi- 
ness and to reinsure all risks above a certain amount, say 
above $500 or $1,000. In this way companies composing 
the mutual association would carry their own risks up to 
say $500 or $1,000, thereby eliminating a very large share 
of the fixed charges charged by stock companies against 
insurance premiums and reinsuring only the larger risks. 

Your committee feels that it would be inadvisable at this 
time and in view of the importance of the subject to formu- 
late definite conclusions and submit them as recommenda- 
tions, especially since no really acceptable plan has been 
submitted so far. A much better plan, in our opinion, is to 
have this report thoroughly digested by the member com- 
panies and have ample time set aside for its discussion. 
After due consideration of the subject, we earnestly request 
that the association take some positive action having for 
its purpose the betterment of the liability insurance condi- 
tions of the members of this association. 



WORK ORDER SYSTEM ADAPTABLE TO PUBLIC 
UTILITIES 



BY GEORGE W. KALWEIT, AUDITOR THE MILWAUKEE ELECTRIC 
RAILWAY & LIGHT COMPANY 



The "work order system" of The Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company has proven practicable in its 
application and satisfactory in accomplishing the purposes 
previously outlined. The company has made it a practice 
to issue "specific work orders" for each piece of work 
undertaken covering charges to capital expenditure accounts 
or reserve fund expenditure accounts, or special charges in 
operating expense accounts (work order charges), unless 
such charges would be covered by "general work orders." 

The company's classification of accounts prescribes: 

Capital expenditure accounts (work order charges) 
should include charges constituting expenditures for con- 
struction and equipment, additions and betterments, includ- 
ing intangible capital expenditures properly chargeable to 
"property and plant." These charges are to be carried on 
work orders either through a "specific work order," or a 
"general work order," issued to cover charges properly 
chargeable to capital expenditure accounts. Charges and 
credits to capital expenditure accounts must be in accord- 
ance with the classification of capital expenditure accounts 
(work order charges). 

Reserve fund expenditure accounts (work order charges) 
should include charges constituting expenditures for recon- 
struction, re-equipment, betterments, or uncurrent and ex- 
traordinary expenditures, properly chargeable against 
"maintenance and depreciation reserve fund," as distinct 
from construction and equipment, additions and better- 
ments, or intangible capital expenditures, properly charge- 
able to "capital expenditure accounts" or current ordinary 
maintenance charges, properly chargeable to "operating 
expense accounts." These charges are to be carried on 
work orders either through a "specific work order" or a 
"general work order" issued to cover charges properly 



ii4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



chargeable against "maintenance and depreciation reserve 
funds." Charges and credits to reserve fund expenditure 
accounts must be in accordance with the classification of 
reserve fund expenditure accounts (work order charges). 
Operating expense accounts (work order charges) should 
include work order charges properly chargeable to operating 
expenses, separated from regular charges to operating ex- 
penses, for the purpose of ascertaining the cost of a 
specific job, the cost of the job to be transferred monthly 
to the appropriate operating expense accounts. 

CLASSIFICATION OF WORK ORDERS 

Work orders are divided into two classes: (1) Specific 
work orders. (2) General work orders. 

A "specific work order" should carry the charges for a 
specific job, for example: 

Construction of 1.00 mile of double track in Twenty- 
seventh Street from North Avenue to Burleigh Street, 
7-in. 95-lb. T-rail; 350 cast welded joints, 205 splice joints ; 
necessary special work ; brick and granite paving ; neces- 
sary electric line construction work. 

A "general work order" should carry the charges for 
certain general work during a current year, for example : 

Extensions in 1912 of the overhead electric light and 
power system in Milwaukee. 

WORK ORDER REQUISITIONS 

For the guidance of departmental heads, the accounting 
department issues the following instructions regarding work 
order requisitions covering capital expenditures or reserve 
fund expenditures : 

All work properly classified as a "capital expenditure," or 
a "reserve fund expenditure," as distinct from a "main- 
tenance charge" (properly chargeable in "operating ex- 
pense accounts"), must be authorized through "work order 
requisitions." 

"Work order requisitions" should describe the work to 
be done, the reason for doing it and the estimated cost of 
same in detail. "Work order requisitions" should be sent 
to the accounting department for the proper distribution 
and charge, to be in turn passed to the properly authorized 
official for approval, and then returned to the accounting 
department for the issuing of the "work order notification." 

"Distribution of estimated cost" must be drawn up to 
conform with the distribution prescribed by the classification 
of accounts. This distribution is carried by the accounting 
department for all "capital expenditure work orders" but 
not for other work orders, unless a request is embodied in 
the "work order requisition" to do so. 

"Details of estimated cost" must be drawn up in accord- 
ance with classification of capital expenditure accounts 
(work order charges) or reserve fund expenditure accounts 
(work order charges). 

WORK ORDER NOTIFICATION 

When the approved "work order requisition" reaches the 
accounting department it is carefully scrutinized and the 
calculations of "details of estimated cost" checked. If 
found to be properly drawn, the serial number is assigned, 
the "work order notification" issued, and a copy of same 
sent to all the departmental heads. 

The "work order notification," with proper identification 
number assigned, shows the department from which the 
"work order requisition" originated, the title of the work 
order, the description of the work and the estimated cost, 
as well as the distribution and charge. 

WORK ORDER INDEX 

The accounting department's copy of the "work order 
notification" is entered on the work order index, which 
shows the date issued, work order number, description, dis- 
tribution and charge, sub-index page and date completed. 

The work order index thus combines a ready reference 
and record. 

WORK ORDER DISTRIBUTION SHEET SHOWING COST OF EACH JOB 

The accounting department's copy of the "work order 
notification" is entered on a loose-leaf distribution sheet, to 



which charges are posted from day to day as the work is 
in progress, the charges being carried according to the 
distribution and charge prescribed, separated as between 
"labor" and "sundries." 

"Labor," according to the classification of accounts, is 
defined as: "'Pay roll charges,' covering manual labor, 
clerical work, engineering and superintendence." 

"Sundries," according to the classification of accounts, 
is defined as: "'Sundry charges," other than 'pay roll 
charges,' covering material and supplies, tools and ex- 
penses." 

The charges segregated as between vouchers or journal 
entries, the latter including charges for material and sup- 
plies disbursed from stores, charges from special account 
reports, such as horse and vehicle service, cast welding, 
gravel pits, etc., are carried in a controlling account on the 
general ledger called "work orders." 

RECAPITULATION OF WORK ORDER CHARGES FOR JOURNAL 
ENTRY 

A recapitulation is made at the end of the month sum- 
marizing the total charges to each work order and a journal 
entry is prepared transferring the work order charges to 
the proper general ledger accounts. 

All charges to the controlling account "work orders" on 
the general ledger are closed out monthly. 

CLASSIFICATION OF WORK ORDER CHARGES 

The charges to each work order are recapitulated in 
accordance with the classification of "capital expenditure 
accounts," "reserve fund expenditure accounts." or "other 
accounts," as previously described. The totals of these 
charges to the respective accounts affected are then tran- 
scribed on the "monthly financial report." 

MONTHLY WORK ORDER STATEMENT 

All work orders are scheduled monthly, showing the 
work order number, date issued, description, charges cur- 
rent month, year to date, total to date, separated as between 
"labor" and "sundries," estimate, company and account as 
between "capital expenditure account," "reserve fund ex- 
penditure accounts," etc. 

The monthly work order statement is forwarded to all 
departmental heads, thereby giving them an opportunity to 
follow the work as to charges and costs. 

CLOSING OF WORK ORDERS 

When the work covered by a given work order is com- 
pleted, the coupon attached to the "work order notification" 
is sent to the accounting department by the department in 
which the "work order requisition" originated, as a notifica- 
tion to close said work order. 

Upon receipt of the notification the accounting depart- 
ment makes an investigation of the work order charges on 
the books, compares same with the estimate, and if found 
to be in order, the work order is closed. Differences be- 
tween actual cost and estimated cost are sometimes ac- 
counted for by reason of balances to be paid on contracts 
or certain credits to be applied which have not been taken 
on the books and which the other departments may not 
know of. If the cost does not vary from the estimated 
more than 5 per cent, the work order is closed, otherwise 
the accounting department holds the work order open, 
notifying the department drawing the work order to in- 
vestigate the charges and furnish an explanation. The 
accounting department sends out a notice in the form of a 
letter to all departments, listing the work orders that have 
been closed. Work orders are always closed out as of the 
end of the month. 

OVERHEAD CHARGES 

Prior to Jan. 1, 191 1, it was not the practice of The 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company to include 
in its "work order system of accounts" anything for "over- 
head charges," other than a percentage charge added to 
"labor" for the use of tools. 

The practice since Jan. 1, 191 1, has been to add to the 
actual work order charges covering only "labor" and "sun- 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



dries," as prescribed by the classification of accounts pre- 
viously explained, an apportionment of certain charges in 
operating expense accounts, grouped under "general and 
"undistributed," respectively, as well as interest on "current 
capital expenditures," at the rate of 6 per cent per annum. 
These, items usually approximate about 6 per cent of the 
"capital expenditure charges" for physical property, or 
about one-half the amount of the percentage charges used 
by the Railroad Commission of Wisconsin in making valua- 
tions of physical property, including engineering and super- 
intendence 4 per cent, organization and legal expenses 2 
per cent, interest 3 per cent, contingencies 3 per cent. 

It is not the intention here, in explaining this "work 
order system of accounts," to deal with the question of 
overhead charges, further than to refer to it briefly and its 
relationship to a work order system of accounts, regardless 
of the question as to what schedule of percentages should 
be used. 

GENERAL 

In considering the various features of the work order 
system explained, it is apparent that the system can be 
adapted to tit any proposition. Such cost analysis should 
include comprehensive and practical unit costs. 

These unit costs will be found of great value in esti- 
mating costs of new work to be undertaken, and also in 
valuation work, both of which make the keeping of a "work 
order system" for any business not only desirable but 
absolutely necessary. 



ANNUAL BANQUET 



The annual banquet of the Wisconsin Association was 
held at the Hotel Pfister on the evening of Jan. 13 and was 
a very successful affair. The number of attendants was 
185. C. N. Duffy, vice-president The Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company, acted as toastmaster. An ad- 
dress of welcome was made by the Mayor. Irving P. Lord, 
president of the association, responded to the toast of "Pub- 
lic Utilities and the Public." He said that he preferred 
the term "public service companies" to "public utility com- 
panies," because these companies were formed primarily 
to serve the public. 

Humphrey J. Desmond, editor Catholic Citizen, of Mil- 
waukee, responded to the toast "Public Utilities and 
Sociability." His remarks were received with favor. 
Charles L. Benjamin, advertising manager Cutler-Hammer 
Company, in replying to the toast of "Public Utilities and 
Publicity," said that the reason why public utility corpora- 
tions should advertise was that they might overcome igno- 
rance. They ought to tell their stories to the public. 

Herbert N. Laflin, assistant counselor Northwestern 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, in discussing "Public Re- 
lations and the Citizen," showed the importance of a right 
attitude toward public questions. August E. Stadelbauer, 
of Julius Andrae & Son's Company, responded for the 
supplymen in a witty speech. Sam A. Hobson, Western 
manager Electrical Jl'orld, spoke on the subject of co- 
operation. 

CHICAGO ELEVATED RAILWAY NEW TRACK AND 
ROADWAY DERRICK CAR 



A new derrick car for service in the track and roadway 
department of the Northwestern Elevated Railroad, Chi- 
cago, has been placed in service. It was designed and built by 
the mechanical department of this company and embodies a 
number of novel features. In general the car is 46 ft. in 
over-all length and 8 ft. 6 in. wide, with a cab of the 
same width as the body and 9 ft. in length at one end. 
The underframe is of heavy timber construction, well 
trussed with six lY^-'m. truss rods, giving a maximum 
capacity of 60,000 lb. The motor equipment is exactly 



similar to that used on standard passenger cars, namely, 
two 75-hp CE type 55 motors with type L-2 controller. 
These large motors under the derrick car permit it to run 
at speeds in excess of the standard passenger train. The 
high speed was considered essential so that this equipment 
could operate between regular trains running on the North- 
western Elevated system, it being necessary to resort to the 
permanent cross-overs at passing sidings. Most of the 
track and roadway work on the elevated structures is done 
during the day, but there are times during heavy mainte- 
nance periods when it is necessary to handle this class of 
work during twenty-four hours of the day. 

The car is wired throughout in conduit and is equipped 
with automatic air brakes, headlights and markers. Third- 
rail shoes and overhead trolley pole are provided, so that 
the car may be used on the surface lines or on the elevated 
structure. The car is also provided with standard drawbar 
equipment, to permit its use in switching or handling cars 
of material. A full set of stakes and stake pockets is pro- 
vided in the car body, so that timber may be piled for 
transportation. 

Tlie derrick proper has been installed as near the cab as 
operating conditions will allow, leaving a maximum amount 




Chicago Derrick Car for Track and Roadway Department 

of car floor space for loading material. The boom is 20 ft. 
in length and of timber construction reinforced with steel. 
In order to reduce the space occupied by the cab to a mini- 
mum, a single-drum Lidgerwood hoist was installed with 
a capacity for lifting at a speed of 175 ft. per minute 
with 1 ton weight on the end of the boom. A 12-hp motor 
operates the hoist through a set of reduction gears. This 
arrangement makes it necessary to elevate the boom and 
swing the load manually, but usually it is kept at a perma- 
nent angle with the car floor and may be raised with a load 
if necessary by attaching a line to the niggerhead which 
extends beyond the sides of the cab. This niggerhead is 
also used for snaking loads to a point where they can be 
handled readily by the line connected to the boom. A hand- 
operated brake is also included in the hoisting equipment 
to control the drum in lowering a load. 

The motor-control equipment is arranged so that the mo- 
torman faces the derrick end of the car in moving it over 
the road. Windows are provided on all four sides of the 
cab, however, and permit operation in either direction. 
The regular derrick crew consists of a motorman and men 
enough to load and unload material. The motorman not 
only runs the car over the road, but operates the hoist. 
Two of these cars are now in service on the Chicago ele- 
vated lines. 



n6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



NOTES ON THE MIDYEAR MEETING 



The annual banquet extended by the American Electric 
Railway Manufacturers' Association to the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association will be held in the large ballroom 
of the Astor Hotel, Friday, Jan. 31, at 7 p. m. There will 
be addresses by General Harries, president American 
Electric Railway Association, on "The New Partnership;" 
by Hon. Charles A. Bookwalter, ex-Mayor of Indianapolis, 
who will consider the treatment which should be accorded 
to public-utility companies by municipalities, and by Colonel 
H. P. Bope, first vice-president Carnegie Steel Company, 
who will discuss the requirements of modern manufactur- 
ing. The association expects also to have present a promi- 
nent government official, who will speak on the political 
conditions confronting the new administration at Wash- 
ington. President Heulings of the Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation will preside as toastmaster, and will make a brief 
address regarding the outlook for the Manufacturers' As- 
sociation during the new year, commenting also on the 
events during 1912, the most successful year in the history 
of the association. 

The dinner committee has had so many requests to 
permit the wives and daughters of the representatives and 
guests attending the dinner to occupy boxes in the ball- 
room during the addresses that it has decided to grant this 
request. In consequence the Manufacturers' Association 
has extended an invitation to all representatives of the 
member companies, as well as their guests, to have their 
wives and daughters present at this time. The boxes will 
be open at 9 o'clock, and special tickets for ladies who 
wish to take advantage of this opportunity to hear the 
speeches will be furnished upon request by the secretary 
of the Manufacturers' Association. 

The advance sale of tickets for the banquet itself to 
members of the Manufacturers' Association has been un- 
usually heavy, and applications for dinner tickets as well 
as for box seats for ladies are still being received in large 
numbers. Thus far 300 dinner tickets have been pur- 
chased by companies and individuals. 

During the dinner special music is to be furnished, and 
this will no doubt add very materially to the many enjoy- 
able features of the banquet. The dinner will, of course, 
be up to the high standard which has been set at the pre- 
vious banquets of the association, and it goes without saying 
that all of those in attendance will have an unusually en- 
joyable evening. Several special features are to be intro- 
duced by the dinner committee, but as these are in the 
nature of surprises they will not be made public prior to 
the banquet. 

It is absolutely necessary that the Manufacturers' As- 
sociation shall have the names of all representatives and 
guests who will attend the dinner, as .well as requests for 
reservation space in the boxes for ladies, on or before 
Jan. 25, and applications for dinner tickets and box seats 
should be sent to the American Electric Railway Manu- 
facturers' Association at Suite 1002, 165 Broadway, New 
York, as soon as possible. 

COMMITTEE MEETINGS 

A large number of committees of the American Electric 
Railway Association and its affiliated associations will hold 
sessions at about the time of the midyear meeting. The 
sessions begin on Wednesday, when there will be a meeting 
of the classification committee of the Accountants' Associa- 
tion and the executive committee of the Claim Agents' As- 
sociation. The executive committee of the American As- 
sociation will meet Thursday afternoon, Jan. 30, and the 
executive committee of the Transportation & Traffic Asso- 
ciation on the same afternoon, but later in the day. The 
following is a list of ihe committees which will meet some 
time during the midyear period : 

American Association: Committees on subjects, insur- 
ance, education, welfare of employees, federal relations, 



compensation for carrying United States mail, public rela- 
tions, determining proper basis for rates and fares, relations 
with sectional associations, Aera advisory and company 
sections. 

Accountants' Association: Executive, classification, edu- 
cation and all joint committees. 

Engineering Association: Power generation, equipment, 
heavy electric traction, buildings and structures, and all 
joint committees. 

Transportation & Traffic Association : Rules, passenger 
traffic, express and freight traffic, construction of schedules 
and timetables, fares and transfers, training of transporta- 
tion employees, train operation, uniform definitions and 
all joint committees. 

Claims Association: Executive, subjects. 

C. L. Henry, chairman of the committee to consider rela- 
tions with sectional associations, has extended an invita- 
tion to the presidents of all of the sectional associations 
and other national associations on this continent to be pres- 
ent at the meeting of that committee or to send a repre- 
sentative to discuss matters within the scope of the work 
of the committee. 



HEARING ON HEATING ORDER IN NEW YORK 



A hearing was held on Jan. 13, 1913, before the Public 
Service Commission of the First District of New York on 
the application of the New York (N. Y.) Railways for an 
extension until April 1 of the time within which the order 
adopted by the commission on April 26, 1912, for the ade- 
quate heating and ventilation of vestibuled cars should 
become effective. J. S. Doyle, superintendent of car equip- 
ment of the company, testified that the pay-as-you-enter 
cars had furnished a most difficult problem, and that if an 
unlimited amount of fresh air were provided it was doubt- 
ful if the present power houses could supply enough power 
to maintain a minimum temperature of 40 deg. Fahr. Many 
devices had been tried. The devices which the manage- 
ment considers best have been installed on the stepless cars 
now in service and will be used in the 175 stepless cars that 
have been ordered. Clifton W. Wilder, electrical engineer 
to the commission, said that it would be physically impossi- 
ble to install the new apparatus on all of the cars of the 
company this winter without crippling the service. The 
commission took the matter under advisement. 



INSPECTION OF GOVERNMENT FUEL PURCHASES 



The inspection of coal purchased for the government is con- 
ducted from the headquarters of the Bureau of Mines in 
Washington, where the engineer in charge of inspection is 
stationed and the laboratory for analyzing samples of deliv- 
eries is situated. On coal contracts the bidders guarantee 
the quality of the coal they offer, and the quality guaranteed 
by the successful bidder becomes the standard of his con- 
tract. A large part of the coal used by the government 
for its power plants, public buildings and naval stations 
is purchased under contracts that specify the ash and mois- 
ture content, the heating value, the limits of the volatile 
matter, and the sulphur content. The analyses of samples 
of deliveries determine whether the quality of the coal is 
up to the standards guaranteed by the contractor. If it is 
not, the price to be paid is decreased in proportion to the 
lower value of the coal. If the coal is of higher quality 
the price is increased proportionately. 

In the fiscal year 1912 the purchases of coal by the gov- 
ernment, under specifications providing for payment accord- 
ing to the quality of the coal delivered, amounted to ap- 
proximately 1,500,000 tons, costing $4,750,000. The pur- 
chases of 1912 show an increase over those of 191 1 of 
approximately 408,600 tons, costing about $1,666,000, the 
increase in tonnage being 37 per cent. 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



117 



A SUGGESTED LIGHT SIGNAL SYSTEM 

A novel light signal system has suggested itself to Gay- 
lord Thompson, chief engineer of the Ohio Electric Rail- 
way. As Mr. Thompson has no idea of patenting this sys- 
tem, he is anxious to obtain criticisms and suggestions 
from different engineers interested in it, and a description 
is presented herewith. 

If two trolley wires were arranged as shown in the dia- 
gram and insulated by means of line section insulators, one 
wire being fed through a tap containing a solenoid and the 
other containing a broken circuit which is closed by the 
de-energized solenoid, it will be seen that when current is 
being taken from trolley A, shown in the diagram, the sol- 
enoid will open the feeder tap of trolley B, and consequently 
B will be dead. If a series of lights was "floated" between 
trolley A and trolley B, the instant that the two cars came 
into the block these lamps would light, thus warning each 
car of the approach of the other. 

APPLICATION 

While the system could be made continuous over any 
mileage, its special use would be in the prevention of head- 
on collisions at dangerous curves. With such protection, the 
device would, in effect, make the operating division where 
it will be employed the equivalent of a straight line from 
one end to the other. 

Cars overrunning their orders, or for any reason tres- 
passing on this section of track, would be advised of the ap- 
proach of other cars in time to stop. The circuit-breakers 
should be installed, each at a distance of about 2000 ft. from 
the curve to be protected. This would make 2000 ft. the 



GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION IN 
MONTANA 



BY EDWARD P. BURCH, MINNEAPOLIS 



The recent news item in Eastern papers that the Great 
Northern Railway is to electrify its proposed Montana 
Eastern Rail way, a prairie road between New Rockford, 
N. D., and Lewistown, Mont., a distance of 530 miles, is not 
based, so far as known, on any real decision of the railroad 
directors. The roadbed, tunnel and other construction con- 
tracts have been awarded, but it may be two years before 
the road is completed. The reasons why this new competi- 
tive road could be electrified to its financial advantage are 
not apparent, but it is surmised by those in touch with the 
general situation that some definite and controlling situa- 
tion or opportunity may be involved. 

In the case of the Denver, Rio Grande & Western Rail- 
road, which has recently decided to electrify two complete 
engine divisions, one 115 miles long and one 85 miles long, 
the reasons were clear. A mountain range had to be 
crossed, grades were severe, traffic was heavy, capacity 
was limited and fuel was expensive. The directors appro- 
priated funds for the electrification, and Vice-president 
Brown has stated: "Our plans are in the interest of econ- 
omy in operating expenses." It is evident that capacity 
would be increased, and the use of water power for electric 
traction would provide a cheaper motive power. 

These reasons do not seem to apply to the case of the 
proposed Great Northern electrification of the Montana 



Feeder 



Feeder 



Section 
Insulators 



-2000' 



Trolley 

-J , 



Quick-break Solenoid 
Switch 



"A" 



-2000- 



Seetion LeEt Htlnd 

Insulators /Switch Pan 



Trolley "A" 



i—i 



Switch Pan 
Left Hand 



Ungrounded 
Lamp Circuit 



Trolley B" 
Dangerous Curve 



y Trolley 



"D" 
L T ng rounded 
Lump Circuit 



Trolley "B" 



Electric li a .Journal 



Proposed Method of Protecting Dangerous Curve 



Double Switch Scheme 



minimum distance apart at which the approaching cars 
could see each other. Ordinarily C and D should be placed 
about 1 mile apart, or the system could be made to embrace 
a 3-mile section between passing points in which the view is 
obstructed. In either case the feeder tap should be located 
at about the middle of the protected section so as to reduce 
the drop in voltage to a minimum. 

It is obvious that to make the system effective, both cars 
must draw current or have their controllers on at the same 
time. To insure this result on a continuous block system 
the live wire should be placed for the car ascending the 
grade and for isolated installations. In addition special 
instructions should be issued to the motormen. In actual 
practice, however, with points C and D 1 mile or i}/> miles 
apart, the condition of the controllers that could give the 
warning flash of the lights would be certain to occur before 
a dangerous condition was reached by the two cars in their 
approach toward each other. 

As the light circuit is not a grounded circuit it would 
not be subject to derangement or the troubles of ordinary 
grounded light wires. The maintenance cost would be 
practically nothing, and the cost of installation for two 
No. 000 trolley wires and fixtures would be between $1,200 
and $1,500 per mile. 

One question which arises is whether the energy should 
be taken from one trolley wire only, or whether a double 
switch should be used. This would take the current away 
from the transgressing car at the entrance to a protected 
section. A sketch showing the arrangement of the feeder 
taps and solenoids with a double switch is also included. 



Eastern. There are, however, at least two economic rea- 
sons why the proposed electrification might prove advan- 
tageous : 

The fuel which is now used in Dakota and Montana has 
increased greatly in price during recent years. However, 
vast beds of brown lignite are found in Dakota and Mon- 
tana, and the development of this great natural resource 
now requires a greater demand for the fuel as well as the 
backing of a strong corporation. Brown lignite crops out 
at many points along the proposed right-of-way. This lig- 
nite cannot be burned in locomotive boilers, but it is easily 
handled in stationary boiler plants equipped with mechan- 
ical stokers. This lignite can be used also by gas producers 
and gas engines with great economy. The energy from lig- 
nite heat can be converted into electrical energy and sent 
100 miles east and west from many central power stations 
without great loss and in a most reliable manner. 

The railroads which operate the most extensive electric 
systems in America claim that in the electrical operation of 
main-line traffic 50 per cent of the fuel bill is saved, and 
in switching operations or for classification yards 60 per 
cent is saved. Based on the relative cost of the steam fuel 
now used and brown Dakota lignite, the use of electric 
power on the Great Northern might reduce the fuel ex- 
pense even more than 50 per cent. 

In Europe it was the matter of economy of fuel which 
stimulated the great interest in railroad electrification, espe- 
cially in Prussia, France, Switzerland and Italy. 

One of the heaviest railroad operating expenses in the 
Dakotas and in Montana is that incident to the high cost 



u8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



of boiler flue repairs. These repairs are occasioned by the 
water, which is detrimental. The alkali and also acid 
waters, and combinations of the two, found within a single 
engine stage cause a great amount of pitting and also in- 
crustation of fire boxes and flues. The efficiency of the 
boilers is lowered, and the cost of fuel is thus considerably 
increased. Then, in the boiler repair shops the maintenance 
and repair account is excessive because of the deterioration 
of the boiler from the bad water and also because of the 
high wages paid to locomotive repair men. 

With electric power water for boilers can be obtained at 
the best sites or can be treated at a single point and then 
used over and over again in the condensing operation of 
steam turbines or as cooling water for gas engines. 

The Great Northern Railway at the present time owns 
or controls many important electric railroads, including 
the Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad, which uses electric 
power on 248 miles of track; the Oregon Electric Railway, 
from Portland to Eugene, 121 miles; the United Railway 
system at Portland and other electric railways. The Cas- 
cade Tunnel track, which was electrified several years ago, 
handles heavy traffic under severe conditions. Electrifica- 
tion of main lines for heavy freight and passenger service 
is not a new matter with the directors. 

It is surmised that the proposed road from Lewistown, 
Mont., to Rockford, N. D., is but the beginning of electrical 
operations, and that when the traffic density has increased 
the road from Lewistown to Great Falls, Mont., may be 
electrified to utilize the water powers already developed 
along the Missouri River. 



COMPARATIVE EARNINGS OF PUBLIC UTILITIES 



NEW DENVER TRAIL CAR 

The Denver City Tramway, one of the pioneer operators 
of side-entrance cars, has placed in service a new type of 
one-way trailer which follows closely the design of the 
company's standard side-entrance car. As shown in the 
accompanying plan, a partition now incloses the forward 
section of the trailer, leaving the rear compartment open 
for the passengers who prefer fresh air, with the usual 
reservations for smokers. On former trailers the opening 







=Uj Ceo 




ocji 










JUL — «_ 






mi 





Seating Plan of Denver Side-Entrance Trailer 

was 100 in. wide. On the new type, however, the opening 
for entrance and exit has been reduced to 67 in., which 
distance has proved ample. The lower step is only 13^ in. 
above the rail without allowing a further l / 2 in. for settle- 
ment. The double sliding doors which open into the closed 
compartment afford a passage of 36 in. in the clear. 

The seating capacity has been increased from forty-six 
to fifty-one, partly by the addition of a circular seat at 
the rear. Greater riding comfort has been assured by 
using as many transverse seats as practicable and by fur- 
nishing the closed compartment with thermostat-controlled 
electric heaters. 



With the exception of Brazilian government roads, the 
principal railway enterprises in Brazil have been built 
with English money and are controlled and operated by 
English companies and managers. However, many rail- 
ways recently constructed and now under construction by 
companies controlled by American and Canadian syndi- 
cates are being financed in France, where $100,000,000 was 
invested during the past three years in Brazilian railways. 
Most of the equipment, rolling stock and rails for these 
roads has been purchased in Great Britain, Germany, the 
United States and Belgium. 



White, Weld & Company, New York, have recently com- 
piled and issued a chart comparing the increase of gross 
and net earnings during the past ten years of ten steam 
railroads, ten gas companies, ten electric light and power 
companies and ten electric railway companies which might 
be considered as fairly representative of the industry and, 
with the possible exception of the gas companies, fairly 
well distributed throughout the country. In the gas group 
of public utilities, owing to the lack of generally published 
statistics covering the ten-year term, a 'arger number of 
companies had to be selected from Massachusetts, where 
these figures are available, than would otherwise have been 
the case. The chart is reproduced herewith. The names 
of the companies selected for this comparison follow : 



340'/,; 



320% 



390'/, 



2C0', 



240% 



200' 



120% 



100% 































































































UKOSS ANl> NET EARNINGS OF 




4- 


/» 




10 Electric Light & Power Cos. 












10 Gas uompames 
10 Electric Railways 








—ff— 

Si I 


















10 Steam Railways 

Plotted on basis of percentage of 
earnings for l'JO'-. 




5/ /$\ 




< 


J /£ 


















7 


















y 
































-A? 
<>'— 






Net _ 


c — 








M 


















A* 








/ 










r* 






/ 


<?/ 














.ailways 


— Gross 


i- 
























7 »yV 

W s 








tailway 




l 


/ 




* /, 
















/ /• 


X / 




N 

\ 


$>/ 
/ 

/ 






b- 






■r s 
s 

s 






/ 
























_i 

















320% 



200% 



140% 



120% 



1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1S09 1910 1911 

Eleccric Rij.Juu.rnal 

Chart Showing Statistics of Forty Public Utility Companies 

Steam railroads: Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe; Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; Chicago & Northwestern; 
Erie; Northern Pacific; Pennsylvania; Union Pacific; 
Southern Pacific; Norfolk & Western; New York Central 
& Hudson River. 

Gas companies: Consumers' Gas, Toronto; Hartford 
City Gas, Hartford, Conn. ; Portland Gas & Coke, Port- 
land, Ore.; Laclede Gas, St. Louis, Mo.; Aberdeen (S. D.) 
Gas; Worcester (Mass.) Gas; Springfield (Mass.) Gas; 
Haverhill (Mass.) Gas; Cambridge (Mass.) Gas; Peek- 
skill Lighting & Railway (gas department). 

Electric light and power companies : Cleveland Electric 
Illuminating; Washington Water Power, Spokane, Wash.; 
Minneapolis General Electric; Lowell Electric Light; Edi- 
son Electric Illuminating, Brockton, Mass.; Kings County 
& Edison Companies, Brooklyn; United Electric Light, 
Springfield, Mass. ; Edison Electric, Los Angeles ; Duluth 
Edison Electric ; Edison Electric Illuminating, Boston. 

Electric railway companies: Brooklyn Rapid Transit; 
Twin City Rapid Transit; Denver City Tramway; Capital 
Traction, Washington, D. C. ; Indiana Union Traction; 
Louisville Railway; Detroit United Railway; Lake Shore 
Electric Railway; Memphis Street Railway; Boston Ele- 
vated Railway. 



January 18, 1913.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



It is interesting to note the relative direction of the 
lines for gross and net for the different classes of proper- 
ties, especially their direction during the past years as 
illustrative of general conditions. The steam railway group 
shows the least percentage of increase, both in gross and 
net, and during the past two years the line showing the 
net increase has been falling rapidly below the gross in- 
crease. 

In the electric railway division, which shows the next 
higher increase for both gross and net during the past ten 
years, the net earnings have grown more rapidly during 
the past five years than the gross earnings, but most of 
this gain was in 1908 and 1909, 
and since that time the lines have 
kept at about the same distance 
apart, showing that there has been 
no improvement in the operating 
ratio. 

The two lines representing the 
earnings of the gas companies 
come next and for the past six 
years show a fairly constant ratio 
between the two classes of earn- 
ings. 

The electric light and power 
figures are especially notable be- 
cause of the increase of the gross earnings shown of 294 
per cent since 1902, while the net earnings increase is 328 
per cent. The net earnings began to increase more rapidly 
than the gross earnings about 1907, and since that time have 
grown very much more rapidly, especially during the past 
two years, as the divergence between the two lines shows. 
Their position in relation to each other and to the other 
classes of public utilities is good evidence of the reason 
for the popularity which this class of securities possesses. 



SLEEPING CARS FOR OREGON ELECTRIC RAILWAY 



The Oregon Electric Railway Company, which is de- 
veloping an extensive electric railway system in the Willa- 
mette Valley in Oregon, has recently added to its passenger 
equipment two very handsome new trailer sleeping cars, 
which were built at the works of the Harney & Smith 
( ar Company, Dayton, Ohio. The new cars are 57 ft. 
long over buffers and 9 ft. 4)4 in. wide over side sills. 
They have composite wood and steel underframes, with 
wood superstructure, and are mounted on all-metal four- 
wheel trucks with rolled-steel wheels. The sleeping com- 




SOCIETY FOR ELECTRICAL DEVELOPMENT 



At a meeting held in New York, Jan. 14, the following 
officers were elected by the Society for Electrical Devel- 
opment : President, Henry L. Doherty ; vice-presidents, 
Ernest Freeman, A. W. Burchard, W. H. Johnson, J. R. 
Crouse and W. E., Robertson. The above, with L. A. 
Osborne, Gerard Swope and J. R. Strong, compose the 
executive committee. The complete board also includes 
the following: A. C. Einstein, W. W. Low, J. E. Montague, 
F. S. Price, J. F. Gilchrist, Roger Scudder, A. W. Burchard, 
E. McCleary, P. N. Thorpe, B. M. Downs, W. A. Lyman 
and G. M. Sanborn. J. M. Wakeman was appointed gen- 
eral manager and Philip S. Dodd, secretary and treasurer. 
Both Mr. Wakeman and Mr. Dodd are well known in the 
electrical industry and have a very intimate acquaintance 
with publicity problems of the kind involved in the present 
propaganda on behalf of electrical development. 

The work of the society will be devoted to various lines 
of effort for the greater development of the electrical in- 
dustry at large, and will be carried out along broad-gage 
lines aiming to increase in every way the uses of electricity, 
especially for lighting, heating and motor service. 

The membership of the society, as stated in the by-laws, 
is open to every interest in the electrical industry, and 
the subscriptions, based upon a small percentage of the 
gross business, are so small individually that it is believed 
that the full co-operation of every concern in the electrical 
industry can be secured. 

The society has the indorsement of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Electrical Contractors' Association, 
the National Electrical Supply Jobbers' Association, the 
executive and public-policy committees of the National 
Electric Light Association, together with the support of a 
large number of manufacturers, both large and small. With 
such indorsement there can be very little question of its 
practicability and value to the industry at large. 



Sleeping Car of Oregon Electric Railway 

partment contains ten standard sleeping-car sections. 

The general layout is similar to that of regular steam 
railway sleeping cars. Adjoining the sleeping compart- 
ment at one end of car is the men's lavatory and smoking 
room and at the other end of the car is the women's 
toilet, both having ample toilet facilities, including dental 
bowls. The floors of the lavatories are covered with in- 
laid rubber, and in the smoking room is a large sofa up- 
holstered in Spanish leather. The cars have a Smith hot- 
water heater and are electrically lighted by means of stor- 
age batteries, the lighting fixtures being of a very attrac- 
tive pattern. For ventilation they are supplied with ten 
automatic ventilators per car. They will be operated as 
trailers. 

The cars are finished inside in handsomely figured ma- 
hogany with inlaid lines and marquetry figures in neat 
design. The floor covering in the main compartment is 
Wilton carpet, the seats are upholstered in figured frieze 
plush and the trimmings throughout the car are statuary 
bronze. The ceilings are decorated in green and gold. 

These cars are equipped with Westinghouse schedule 
A.T.R. air brakes, Railway Company's type of radial draft 
rigging, steel trap doors — in short, they are well supplied 
with modern special equipment and possess every con- 
venience and comfort of a high-class steam railway sleeping 
car. i he accompanying photo-engraving serves to give 
a good general idea of the appearance of these cars. 

The pioneer electric railway to put sleeping cars in 
service was the Illinois Traction System, whose sleeping 
cars are of a special type with windows for the upper 
berths. The sleepers of the Oregon Electric Railway, as 
described, are not different in design from those used on 
steam roads but are of interest because of their use in 
electric service. 



The second annual report of the director of the Bureau 
of Mines states that the results of the bureau's investiga- 
tions show that peat, if properly prepared and well dried, 
has a greater heating value than wood, and that if its free- 
dom from ash, clinkers and sulphur is considered, as well 
as its giving off little smoke and burning' up completely, 
it compares favorably with anthracite. In addition, it is 
stated to be possible in many places to put peat on the mar- 
ket near the point of preparation at less than half the pres- 
ent prices of the better-known fuels. However, many at- 
tempts at peat utilization in this country during the past 
decade have proved impracticable. 



120 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[Vol. XLI, No. 3. 



CENTER-ENTRANCE INTERURBAN CARS FOR THE 
KANSAS CITY. CLAY COUNTY & ST, JOSEPH 
RAILWAY 



By March, 1913, the most important electric railway pro- 
ject in the Central West will be completed and in operation, 
namely, the Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Railway. 




Center-Entrance Interurban Car — View Shewing Open Doors and Interior Steps 

This line was designed and is being built for high-speed 
passenger and freight service between Kansas City and St. 
Joseph, Mo., a distance of 53.7 miles, and between Kansas 
City and Excelsior Springs by way of a branch 26.2 miles 
in length, leaving the main line just outside of Kansas 
City. By constructing along the bluffs bordering the Mis- 
souri River, instead of following the river valley, as did the 
steam roads, both the main and branch lines are more than 
10 miles shorter than the steam road routes. Excelsior 
Springs is a popular health resort of about 12,000 popula- 
tion. St. Joseph is a city of 100,000 people, and it is touched 
by a number of steam road trunk lines which do not have 
their own connections into Kansas City. The two cities 
are the objective points of the enterprise, together with the 
fact that the road taps a rich farming district not served 
by steam roads. When complete the line will be one of the 
best built and equipped electric railways in the Central 
West. 

The cars with which the new line will be equipped are of 
the center-entrance, drop-side type, similar in many respects 



the inside face of the couplers. The extreme width over 
the eaves is 9 ft. and over the sills it is 8 ft. 10 in. At the 
center portion of the car is a vestibule or well 7 ft. long 
which is used for an entrance space and is furnished with 
interior steps so that no obstruction at any time extends 
beyond the side of the car. 

In general the car is designed for single-end operation 
and a permanent motorman's compartment is located at tne 

front end. However, in case 
of an emergency it is planned 
to use the cars for double-end 
operation, and at the rear a re- 
movable section of the semicir- 
cular end seat is provided. 
Under this are located a con- 
troller and brake valve so that 
by removing the seat the car 
can be satisfactorily operated 
from the rear end. The car is 
also provided with two trolley 
poles in order to facilitate reg- 
ular double-end operation in 
case it should become neces- 
sary. 

The entrance space at the 
center of the car is separated 
from the two ends by bulk- 
heads with swinging doors. The 
front portion of the car is used 
as a standard coach compart- 
ment and in this section is a 
saloon about 3 ft. square, in one corner of which is a 
water cooler. The rear end of the car is used as a smoking 
compartment and includes a semicircular space at the ex- 
treme rear end surrounded by a seat and affording an un- 
usually desirable arrangement as an observation space. 
At one of the front corners of the smoking compartment 
a Peter Smith hot-water heater is installed during cold 
weather. It takes the place of one of the seats, which is 
replaced in the summer time when the heater is removed. 

The seating capacity of the car is sixty-six, all of the seats 
being transverse except the four longitudinal seats which 
are part of the semicircular seat at the rear end. Contrary 
to the arrangement originally developed by the builders for 
this type of car, no folding seats are provided in the 
entrance compartment for use on the side of the car oppo- 
site to the entrance door. In this case both of the entrance 
doors are always available. 

The car is built of steel practically throughout. The 
frame is of T-bar construction similar to that used with the 
car exhibited at Chicago. The new car has, however